A. P. World History Unit 1 Review



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A.P. World History

Unit 1 Review

Chapter 1 BEFORE HISTORY

Chapter 2 EARLY SOCIETIES IN SOUTHWEST ASIA AND THE INDO-EUROPEAN MIGRATIONS

Chapter 3 EARLY AFRICAN SOCIETIES AND THE BANTU MIGRATIONS

Chapter 4 EARLY SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA

Chapter 5 EARLY SOCIETIES IN EAST ASIA

Chapter 6 EARLY SOCIETIES IN THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA



Key concepts:

  1. Big geography and the peopling of the earth

  2. The Neolithic Rev. and early agricultural society

  3. The development and interactions of agriculture, Pastoral and Urban societies

Important topics:

  • Architecture/urban planning- Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets, roads, sewage

  • Arts and artisanship-sculpture, painting, wall decoration, elaborate weaving

  • Record keeping- cuneiform, hieroglyphs, pictographs, alphabets, quipu

  • Literature- The epic of Gilgamesh, Rig Veda, book of the Dead



Chapter 1

Evolution of humans:



  • Australopithecus-walk up right two hands

  • Homo erectus- large brains, sophisticated tools, control fire, language, coordinated hunts

  • Homo sapiens-brain, large frontal regions, conscious, reflective thought, knives, spears, bows and arrows

  • Cro magnon, homo sapiens sapiens-modern human, Venus figure, fertility, cave paintings/magic

Paleolithic society- Old Stone Age

  • Eco life-no private prop, egalitarian/equal

  • Lived in small groups/30-50

  • Big game hunt/some permanent settlements

  • Natufians-mediterranean, jomon-japan, Chinook America

Neolithic

  • Agriculture

  • Women lead way

  • Men develop animals

  • Developed independently around world

  • Merchants, migrants spread food knowledge

  • Slash and burn

  • Agri more work than hunt and gather

  • SURPLUS=population growth=village/town=specialized labor=social distinctions-private land

  • Development of pottery, metallurgy, textile production, calendar, cycle deities

  • Village /town =cities-Tigris and Euphrates river area


Chapter 2 Mesopotamia-valley, no rain, need irrigation, Tigris/Euphrates

Political

Kings


  • Sargon-took over trade routes and resources

  • Hammurabi-centralizes govt, tax, law code

  • Assyrians-powerful military

  • Nebuchadnezzar

Economic

  • Trade- bronze (copper+tin) weapons and agri tools, iron, wheel, ship building

  • Social class-king, nobles, priest, free commoner (peasant), slaves

  • Male dominated (patriarchy)

  • Written words (cuneiform) for commercial and tax purpose

  • Education for govt, lit, Aston, math

Social

  • Hebrew, Israel, Jew live in and around Mesopotamia

  • Moses

  • Phoenicians- middle men (traders)

  • Indo-Europeans-from central Asia, language similar, control horses/chariots


Chapter 3 Africa

  • Climate change forces people west, east and south (Sahara)

Political

  • Egypt lower 1/3/Nubian middle 1/3

  • Old kingdom-pyramid, war with Nubian

  • Middle kingdom- Hyksos, bronze weapons

  • New Kingdom-build temples, palaces, statues, driven out of Nubian

Economic/social

  • Society- cities for different purposes, Memphis, Thebes admin, Heliopolis religion

  • Classes-peasant/slaves agric, pharaoh, military and admin, women influence in society > than Mesopotamia

  • Transport-boat, cart, donkey

  • Network- Nubian south, north, east

  • Writing-hieroglyphics

  • Religion- sun amon re, mummification

Bantu

  • Like Phoenicians, lived by rivers and migrate and trade with other peoples south west and east

Chapter 4 India

Harappan


  • Near Indus river, floods like Nile

  • Main cities-harppa/Mohenjo-Daro

  • City with streets, temples etc bricks modern

  • Classes of people

  • Religion focus on fertility

  • Decline: flood, deforestation

Society

Aryans


  • Pastoral

  • No writing

  • Language ( Sanskrit) sacred, daily use (prakit)

  • Vedic age- infighting era Indra Aryan war god

  • Caste system- also known as varna (color)-unchangable social class

  • Four classes- Brahmin(priest), kshatriyas(warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artist, merchant) untouchables

  • Jati-union type caste

  • Patriarchial society

  • Lawbook- manu

Religion

Aryan


  • Indra god of war

  • Varuna ethical concern cosmic order

  • Chants-soma

  • Blending with Dravidian

  • Upanishads- works of religious teachings

  • God-brahman-universal soul

  • Goal to escape reincarnation be with Brahmin

  • Samsara soul born many times

  • Karma- incarnations based on behavior

  • Moksha-liberation from incarnation


Chapter 5 china

  • Society based on yellow river

  • Soil causes yellow appearance

  • Xia earliest dynasty

  • Shang dynasty

  • Zhou dynasty-mandate of heaven decentralized, weak govt strong regional

Society

  • Elites- large land

  • Military, free artisans craftsmen

  • Trade north south, korea

  • Honor ancestors

  • Male dominated patriarchial

  • Dealt with nomads from north, often invade and trade

Education

  • No official religion

  • Impersonal god-tian

  • Oracle bones(dragon bones)

  • Writing pictograph to ideograph

  • Books: change, history, rites, songs


Chapter 6 America

Meso America culture



  • Olmecs

  • Came from Asia

  • Ate : beans, squash, maize

  • No domesticated animals, no wheels

  • Rubber people?

  • Large stone head statues

Maya

  • King, priest, nobility, merchant, architects, artisans, peasants, slaves

  • Calendar, long and short

  • Popol vuh creation myth made out of water and maize

  • Blood=water for food

  • Teotihuacan major city, pyramid to sun and moon

  • Rulers and priest run city

Chavin

  • Move to peru Bolivia region

  • Ate beans, peanuts,sweet potatoes, cotton

  • Metallurgy

Oceania

  • Move down asia into islands

  • Outrigger canoes enabled the travel

  • Went from main land to islands

  • Chief were semi divine

Unit 2 Review

Chapters 7-12

Ch. 7 THE EMPIRES OF PERSIA

Ch. 8 THE UNIFICATION OF CHINA

Ch. 9 STATE, SOCIETY, AND THE QUEST FOR SALVATION IN INDIA

Ch. 10 MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETY: THE GREEK PHASE

Ch. 11 MEDITERRANEAN SOCIETY: THE ROMAN PHASE



Ch. 12 CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGE ON THE SILK ROADS
Key concepts:

  1. The development and codification( writing down) of religious and cultural traditions

  2. Development of States and Empires

  3. Emergence of trans regional networks of communication and exchange

Important topics:

  • Influence of Daoism on Chinese culture-medical theories poetry, metallurgy, architecture

  • Worship of ancestors-Africa, Mediterranean, east Asia, Andean region

  • Distinctive architecture took place- India, Greece, Rome, Mesoamerica

  • Persia influence- Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanid

  • Administrative institutions- china, Persia, rome, south asia

  • Importance of cities- trade, religion, politics- Persepolis, chang’an, pataliputra, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, Teotihuachan

  • Methods to maintain production of food and rewards for loyalty-corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities, family and household production

  • Environmental damage-deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, silted rivers

  • Threats from outside of empire- Han china vs. x-men( Xiongnu), Gupta vs. White huns, romans and Germanic peoples

  • New technologies- yokes, saddles, stirrups

  • Ability to domesticate large animals- horses, oxen, llamas, camels

  • Ability to sail farther- lateen sail, dhow ships

  • Irrigation in farming-qanat system

  • Disease and its effects- roman empire, chinese


Chapter 7 Persia
Empire/politics

  • From central Asia

  • Cyrus-founder known for taking Lydia

  • Cambyses-son second know for taking Egypt

  • Darius-Administrator new capital at Persepolis

  1. 23 satraps-govenors

  2. used locals to run government

  3. satraps checked by spies

  4. set up formal taxes

  5. standard coin ( from Lydian society)

  6. set up roads

  • decline with xerxes

  • not tolerant of other cultures

  • Persian wars

  • Invaded by alexander the great

  • Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanid take over

Society/economy

  • Family important

  • Bureaucrats had to be educated

  • Free people made up bulk of population

  • Agriculture base of $

  • Trade from india to Egypt

  • Set up specialized production based on so much food

Religion

  • Zoroastrianism-founder Zarathustra-god Ahura Mazda (good), Angra Mainyu (evil)

  • Heaven and hell

  • Material world a blessing, moral formula- good words+good thoughts+ good deed

  • Influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, Manichaeism

  • Buddhism


Chapter 8 china
Philosophy

Confucius



  • Educator, wanted to be an advisor

  • Works collected in analects

  • Junzi- superior individuals

  • Ren-kindness

  • Li-respect for elders

  • Xiao-family obligation

  • Meniscus-disciple most followed ren

  • Xunzi- believed humans selfish, liked harsh punishment

Daoism

  • Internal reflection, balance with self and nature

  • Laozi-founder, wrote Daodejing, Zhuangzi

  • Dao- the way- elusive, passive, people should be passive, no ambition, wuwei- disengage from world

Legalism

  • No concern with moral and ethics

  • Shang yang chief minister of Qin, Han Feizi wrote essays

  • Doctrine-state strength agriculture and military

  • Discouraged commerce, education, and arts

  • People should be interested in advancing the state not self

  • Harsh punishments for all rule breakers

  • Put end to warring states period

Qin/han unify

  • Qin rolled with leagalism

  • Wanted agriculture=strong econ

  • Powerful army

  • Qin shihuangdi-centralized rule, connected great wall, killed scholars, burned books

  • Standardized laws, curriencies, weights, measure, writing

  • Big tomb, underground, terra cotta figures, life size

  • Collapse

  • Too many big building projects

  • Rebellion

Han

  • Liu bang

  • Wanted balance middle

  • Han wudi

  • Centralized and expanded

  • Built bureaucracy

  • Roads and canals

  • Taxes on agriculture, trade and crafts

  • Controlled salt and iron

  • Set up Confucian education system

  • Invade north and Vietnam/korea

  • Invaded xmen

Econ

  • Patriarchal-male dominated

  • Iron metallurgy used in farming, utensils and weapons

  • Silk

  • Paper

  • Population growth

Problems

  • Exploration drained $

  • Took land and raised tax

  • Class system caused problems

  • Wang mang- tried to give land back did not work

Later han

  • Yellow turban rebellion-land based

  • Collapse

  • Divided into regional kingdoms


Chapter 9 India
Lack of Empire

  • Mauryan

  • Chandragupta founder

  • Kautala manual Arthashastra- administrative method

  • Ashoka ruler during peak, bureaucracy, set capital at Pataliputra, policies written on rock

Gupta

  • Spoke greek

  • Decentralized

  • White huns took them out

Econ

  • Towns were set by trade routes

  • Trade with Persia, china, Mediterranean, southeast Asian

  • Family-castes system- female subordinate

  • Trade set up jati- subgroub for merchants

Religion

Buddhism


  • Siddhartha Gautama-became Buddha

  • Gave up comfortable life

  • Enlightenment under bo tree

  • Doctrine-dharma, four nobles truths, eightfold path

  • Suffering caused by desire

  • Goal-salvation or nirvana

  • Appeal did not recognize caste

  • Used regular language

Mahayana buddism

  • Let people keep their life and not suffer

  • Set up monasteries and gifts form wealthy

Hinduism

  • Written works, Mahabharata, poems

  • Vishnu god preserver

  • Ramayana

  • Hindu ethics-achieved salvation through caste responsibilies


Chapter 10 Greek
Greek society/govt

  • Ancestors are Minoan/Mycenaean of of crete

  • Used Linear A and B writing

  • Stone fortress in Peloponnesus

  • Trojan war

  • City states emerged

Sparta

  • Military society

  • No social distinction in $ but by fighting

  • Had slaves that were helots- not chattel

Athens

  • Sea traders

  • Landowners ran things

  • Class problems

  • Solon fixed problems

Greek influence

  • Colonies lack of farm land

  • Conflict with Persia

  • Beat Persia at salamis

  • Delian league- agreement to fight Persians

  • Peloponnesian war- city states did not want to be united anymore, leaders were athen and Sparta

  • Macedon comes in and conquers

  • Philip conquered Greece

  • Son Alexander invaded Persia died at 23

  • Empire divided into three parts-

  • Antigonid, Greece area focus was trade

  • Ptolemaic, Egypt wealthiest culture

  • Selecuid- bactria

Econ

  • Made olive oil and wine

  • Started Olympic games

  • Male dominated, but women had some rights, Sparta had the most

  • Sappho female poet

  • Slavery chattel Athens, regular Sparta

Culture

  • Rational thought

  • Socrates-focus was on examination of ones actions

  • Plato-ideal qualities

  • Aristole-rely on senses to understand world

  • Gods-zues and lesser gods

  • Cults-dionysus

  • Drama- tragedy and comic

  • Epicureans-pleasure greatest good

  • Skeptic-doubted knowledge

  • Stoics-duty to help others


Chapter 11 Rome
Kingdom to republic

  • Mythical founders Romulus and Remus raised by she wolf by tiber river

  • Rome nobility kicks out last Etruscan

  • Republican constitution-two leaders one civil and one military

  • Consuls were elected by partrician( land owner)

  • Patricians

  • Tribunes for plebeians poor people

  • Conflict with carthage over grain

Republic to empire

  • Gracchi brothers wanted land redistribution but were killed

  • Military commanders had own personal army

  • Julius Caesar

  • Dictator for life

  • Social reforms and centralized

  • Killed

  • Octavion stopped violence named Augustus

  • Pax romana-roman peace

  • Set up roads

  • Law twelve tablets

Econ

  • Latifundia-plantation

  • Trade over sea Mediterranean

  • No pirates

  • City of rome grew based on wealth

  • Statues, pools, fountains, arches, temples and stadium

  • Attracted immigrants

  • Baths, pools, gymnasia, circuses

  • Pater familias- male dominated

  • Women had influence on business

  • Wealthy build big houses

  • 1/3 slaves

culture

  • religion

  • stoicism-cicero orator

  • salvation of afterlife

  • Mithraism popular with soldiers

  • Cult of isis very popular

  • Jew/Christian

  • Jesus

  • Paul of tarsus

  • Rapid growth by roads romans built


Chapter 12 Silk Road


  • China connects with india through trade by Zhang Qian

  • Had to go through xmen

  • Build roads

  • Learn of culture and sea trade

  • China to rome

  • Sea lanes link asia, india and Africa, by mastering monsoons

  • Silk and spices go west

  • Horses from central asia

  • Glassware, jewelry, artwork, performes go east

  • Move stuff in stages

Cultural and biological trade

  • Buddhism and Hinduism along trade routes-merchants

  • Christianity-gregory the wonderworker

  • Nestorian Jesus was human

  • Manichaeism-dualism good vs. evil- elect vs. hearer

  • Disease

  • Small pox, measles, bubonic plague

  • Population dropped by ¼

Fall of empire
Rome

  • Barrack emperors-generals with personal army kept taking over no stability

  • Diocletian- divide into 2 districts east and west

  • Co emperors

  • Constantine moves to turkey

  • Germanic invasion for rome east

  • Huns attack

  • Empire becomes Christian

Han

  • Land and wealth unequal

  • Generals take over emperor figure head

  • Nomads invade blend with chinese culture( sinicization)

  • Buddhism grew

Unit 3 review Ch. 13-21

regional and trans regional interactions


Chapter 13 THE COMMONWEALTH OF BYZANTIUM

Chapter 14 A NEW SOCIETY: THE EXPANSIVE REALM OF ISLAM

Chapter 15 THE RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA

Chapter 16 INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN BASIN

Chapter 17 THE FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIAN SOCIETY IN WESTERN EUROPE

Chapter 18 NOMADIC EMPIRES AND EURASION INTEGRATION

Chapter 19 STATES AND SOCIETIES OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Chapter 20 WESTERN EUROPE DURING THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES



Chapter 21 WORLDS APART: THE AMERICAS AND OCEANIA

Key concepts:

  1. Expansion and intensification of communication and exchange networks

  2. Continuity and Innovation of State forms and their Interactions

  3. Increased economic productive capacity and its consequences

Important topics

  • New trading cities, Novgorod, Timbuktu, Swahili city states, Hangzhou, Calicut, Baghdad, Melaka, venice, tenochitlan, Cahokia

  • Luxury goods: silk porcelain, precious metals, gems, slaves, exotic animals

  • Caravanserai, camel saddles, travel better

  • Credit, bills of exchange, credit, checks, banking houses

  • Minting coins, use of paper money

  • Hanseatic league?

  • Trade over long distance based on knowing envoirnment: Vikings sea, arabs camels desert, xmen horses steppe central asia

  • Spread of language, bantu-swahili and Turkic and Arabic

  • How cultures spread to outskirt areas, muslim in india, chinese in southeast asia, sogdian in central asia, jewish in Mediterranean, india, silk roads

  • Trade travelers: ibn Battuta, marco polo, xuanzang

  • Diffusion of literary, art and culture: neo Confucianism and Buddhism in asia, hindusim and Buddhism in asia, islam in Africa and asia, Toltec

  • Scientific knowledge diffusion: greek and indian math to muslim, greek science and philosophy to Europe through muslim, printing and gunpowder from Asia to islam

  • New foods: bananas in Africa, rice in asia, cotton, sugar, citrus in dar al islam and Mediterranean

  • Power pass down by: patriarchy, religion, land owning elites

  • Prominent Islamic city states: Abbasids, muslim Iberia, delhi sultanates

  • Prominent city states: Italy venice, east Africa Swahili, southeast asia, Americas

  • Synthesis of traditions: Persian on islam, china on japan

  • Agriculture increase because of technological advances: champa rice, waru waru techniques, terracing, horse collar

Chapter 13 Byzantine empire
Political

  • Roman empire split

  • West collapses east becomes byzantine

  • Challenges from sasanids and german

  • Highly centralized

  • Emperor blend of pol/relig called caesaropapism

  • Justinian rebuilt Constantinople, church hagia sphia

  • Codified roman law-corpus iuris civilis( the body of the civil law)

  • Tried to reconquer the west did not work

  • Ilamic groups tried to seize, able to win due to greek fire

  • Reorganized themes- under control of Generals all work on land had to fight when needed

Economy

  • Agriculture supports

  • Larges under theme system

  • Weakened when land owners took land and made poor dependent

  • Contantinople city was major trade hub, clearinghouse for goods

  • Bezant- standard currency

  • Banks operated

  • Hippodrome for entertainment

Religion

  • Language switched from latin to greek

  • State run school, read, write, grammar, classics, law medicine and philosophy

  • Emperor involved in church

  • Council of Nicaea-arianism was declared wrong, iconoclasm-started( not images of Christ)

  • Monasteries start- hermits, nuns

  • Tensions between east and west church

Influence

  • Attractive to outsiders due to $- Normans from north, crusaders, muslims, ottoman turks

  • Influence on Bulgarian politics

  • Mission to the Slavic peoples

  • Influence on Russians, copy religion and style

Chapter 14 Islam

Prophet’s story



  • From Arabian peninsula, nomadic Bedouin traders and merchant clan groups

  • Married wealthy widow, Khadija

  • Encounter with angel, new message, one god Allah

  • Quran, kuran holy book, hadith saying of muhammed

  • Expelled to Medina, religion got in way of local merchants $

  • Hijra- the move, start of muslim calendar

  • Umma-community of believers who work together

  • Seal of prophets- was last in the line of prophets of God

  • Conquer mecca, destroy shrines and other gods, left ka’ba

  • Set up 5 pillars, law was called sharia

Expansion

  • Caliphs-deputy under Muhammed

  • Split between shia-leader should be related to Muhammed, Sunni- best leader should lead

  • Umayyad empire- Damascus was capital- set up dar al islam- whole community

  • conquered people but had to pay tax ( jizya)

  • decline based on displeasure of conquered people and shia

  • abbasid empire

  • abu al-abas relative of Muhammed’s uncle

  • allied with shia and non muslim, beat Umayyad, no favor toward military

  • used Persian techniques to rule

  • set up Ulama-people with religious knowledge and Qadis- judges to rule

Economy

  • new crops,

  • paper

  • overland trade, revived silk roads

  • use of camels, caravanserai

  • maritime trade

  • banks

  • partnerships to reduce risk of losss

  • conquered spain

  • male dominated, veil came from Mesopotamia and Persian areas

cultural exchanges

  • Sufis- missionaries

  • Hajj-pilramage to ka’ba

  • Persian influence- political, literary works

  • Indian-math, algebra, trigonometry

  • Greek-plato, aristolte,

Chapter 15 china

Political changes



  • Sui dynasty-took over after 350yrs of regional leadership

  • Rebuilding projects-palace, granaries, great wall, grand canal connect north and south

  • High tax to pay for and labor to build

  • Fall-taxes, rebellion

  • Tang

  • Made networks for trade and communication

  • = field system gave land based on need

  • govt bureaucracy- merit system- civil service exam

  • believed they were the middle kingdom, all other should pay tribute

  • decline-careless leadership

  • xmen-Uighurs take over

  • = field system collapses

  • peasant rebellion

  • Song

  • Weakness-$ problems, large bureaucracy drained govt$, no military bureaucracy in charge of military

  • External pressures from outside, xmen( Khitan, Jurchen)

Economic

  • Fast rice

  • Population grows

  • City develop

  • Specialized production

  • Ancestory worship, women beneath, foot binding

  • Technical developments- porcelain, iron, gunpowder, printing, maritime, south pointing needle

  • Market economy- flying cash, paper money

Cultural changes

  • Buddhism-by silk roads

  • Set up monasteries, helped poor, owned large amounts of land

  • Monks explained Buddhism using daoist language

  • Chan Buddhism- blend of chinese and Buddhist teachings

  • Faced hostility form dao and Confucians

  • Neo Confucianism-blend of Buddhism and Confucian teachings

Outside influence

  • Korea-tribute but not culture

  • Elite in korea turn to neo Confucian, peasant chan buddism

  • Vietnam-adopt agriculture, schools and thought, tribute, retain religion,women had prominent role in Vietnam

  • Japan-nara, nomadic, chinese dominated education and thought

  • = field system fail, rich get land, clan wars, evolve into shogun

  • decentralized, samurai, professional warriors

chapte 16 India

political



  • north india

  • Muslim invade India

  • Hindu in South

  • Kingdom of Vijayanagar

Trade

  • Agriculture was dependent on water from monsoon, irrigation, store water, reservoir

  • Internal trade

  • Temples, owned large pieces of land, had employees to work for food, served as banks

  • Traded via sea

  • Dhow and junks, large ships

Hindu and Muslim traditions meet

  • Decline of Buddhism helped Hindu

  • Philosopher: shankara-logic, reason, Ramanuja-understanding most important

  • Islam and its appeal

  • Appeal to poor

  • Sufis- missionaries devotional approach

  • Bhakti-blend of both

  • Both take religion via trade to southeast asia

Ch 17 Europe

Political



  • Germanic kingdoms fight- arian christianity

  • Franks prevail, convert to Catholic religion

  • Charlemagne-brought order, used counts-deputies to keep order, called emperor of

  • Had to fight, Vikings to north, Muslims to south, Magyars from east

Society

  • Decentralized state-lords, knights, retainers, nobles owned land gave some to retainer as a fief but retainer owed loyalty in all ways to lord

  • Manor large estate- self sufficient communities

  • Heavy plows help with agriculture

  • Not enough surplus for cities

  • Italians and spainish trade with muslim

Religion

  • Franks convert to caltholic

  • Help spread to most of Europe

  • Pope Gregory fight against Lombard

  • Monks and nuns set up during this time

  • St. Benedict set rules for both

  • St.Scholastica sister of Benedict

Chapter 18 Mongols

Pastoral lifestyle



  • Nomadic herders

  • Had to move to feed animals grass

  • Wanted to trade for what they did not have

  • Two classes-nobles, commoners

  • Khan-ruler

  • Calvary force

Mongol empires

  • Chinggis Khan-universal ruler

  • New military units, broke up old tribal links

  • Mongol strategy-horsemanship-archers, mobility, psychological warfare

  • China-took over Jurchen and north china but south controlled by song

  • Persia-tried to open up diplomaticn relations but diplomat was killed

  • After chinggis khan died empire got divided up

  • Khubilai- took over china, promoted Buddhism, dao, muslim and Christian

  • Took over all of china, but not Vietnam Burma or java

  • Golden horde-took over Russia, Poland, hungrary

  • Persia- mongols wanted only taxes let Persian rule

  • China-outlawed marriage between mongols and chinese, brought foreign administators in to run country, dismissed Confucian and took down civil service exam

  • Decline- paper money lost value, bubonic plague

  • Tamelan and Osman fill void for mongols

Chapte 19 Africa

Migrations



  • Bantu movements based on agriculture knowledge, introduced bananas

  • Kin based societies, village council made up of male heads of family

  • Kongo, form by congo river, centralized gov’t, with royal currency

Islamic kingdom

  • Trans sahara trade-by camel

  • Ghana-important trade city

  • Sundiata leader of mali

  • Controlled all trade through west Africa

  • Mansa Musa-islamic, went to mecca, brought a lot of money

  • Songhay replaced mali

  • Indian ocean basin

  • Swahili means coasters

  • Trade with muslim traders

  • Ran east coast

  • City states used control of trade to gain power

  • Kilwa good city of trade

  • Zimbabwe powerful kingdom

  • Large stone complex and buildings

  • Many converted to lslam for trading purposes

Cultural development

  • Men heavy labor, political

  • Women-children home duties, honor as source of life, could influence public affairs, traders in market

  • Age grades- responsibilities base on age

  • Slavery-most by debt, or war, worked in field, trade increased after 11th century

Religion

  • Creator

  • Lesser gods and spirits

  • Ancestor souls and rituals

  • Diviners could talk to ancestors

  • Christianity and Islam fought for converts

  • Ethiopian-christian, most of Africa Islamic

Chapter 20 Western Europe


  • Holy roman empire( not)

  • Social changes: pray(clergy), fight(feudal, military), work(peasant)

  • Crusades

Chapter 21 America and Oceania

Meso America



  • Toltecs

  • Axtecs-warriors raiders

  • Mexica, warriors elite, women no role, honored as mothers of warriors

  • Priest, read omens, advisers

  • Artisans and merchants

  • Religion-bloodletting=water for crops

South America

  • Incas

  • Military and admistrative elite, quipu writing for record keeping, Cuzco, road system, trade limited

  • Peasants, work land give portion to state, labor for public works

  • Preist, worship sun god Inti

  • God Viracocha

Oceania

  • Nomadic, h&g did not take up agriculture

  • Trade between tongo, somoa, Fiji

  • Population grow due to agriculture

  • Spread to other islands

  • More comples social and political structures

  • Chiefs created centralized states

  • Priest intermediaries between god and human

Unit 4 1450-1750

Chapter 23 Transoceanic encounters and global connections

Chapter 24 The transformation of Europe

Chapter 25 New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania

Chapter 26 Africa and the Atlantic World

Chapter 27 Tradition and Change in East Asia

Chapter 28 The Islamic Empires





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