A. P. United States History Quiz #11-Postwar Politics and the Populists

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A.P. United States History

Quiz #11-Postwar Politics and the Populists

Multiple Choice

1. The Populist Party in the 1890’s had a great economic and political impact on the United States mainly due to

[A] the elimination of the income tax

[B] its platform that raised the issue of uncontrolled industrial capitalism

[C] James B. Weaver’s advocacy of complete government ownership of all railroads

[D] the free gold issue

[E] its fight against the presidential veto

2. Adam Smith condemned government regulation and intervention in the economy because:

[A] he believed that the lower classes should control the economy

[B] he was an anarchist

[C] he maintained that government intervention usually favored the laboring class

[D] he maintained that government tended to disrupt the competitive forces of the free market

[E] he believed that government always sided with the capitalist class

3. Under the crop lien system, a farmer

[A] borrowed money against his next harvest in order to buy more land

[B] borrowed money against the previous year’s harvest, which was stored in warehouses until the market was favorable for selling

[C] was likely to diversify the crops he planted

[D] mortgaged his next harvest to a merchant in order to buy seed and supplies and support his family

[E] could usually become completely debt-free within seven to ten years

4. The Specie Resumption Act of 1875

[A] led to a dramatic increase in the amount of silver in the economy

[B] was a compromise bill that allowed for an equal amount of gold and silver to be introduced into the economy each month

[C] established the ratio of gold to greenbacks at 16:1

[D] removed all of the greenbacks from circulation

[E] dramatically inflated currency, which led to a depression

5. Jacob Coxey’s 1894 march on Washington, D.C. called for

[A] tougher immigration policies

[B] a government takeover of the railroads

[C] recognition of the legitimacy of labor unions

[D] an increase in the supply of paper money

[E] generosity in granting pensions to Civil War veterans

6. Which of the following groups was NOT associated with the Populist Party?

[A] anarchists

[B] supporters of the gold standard

[C] Knights of Labor

[D] Grangers

[E] Greenback Party

7. The Populists committed political suicide in 1896 when they

[A] focused on the adoption of the gold standard as their main goal

[B] concentrated on the coinage of silver money as their way to solve their economic problems

[C] supported William McKinley for president

[D] supported Theodore Roosevelt as president

[E] focused on the restriction of immigration as another plank in their platform

8. Which industry, more than any other, became the symbol and source of agrarian discontent in the post-Civil War period?

[A] the insurance industry

[B] companies that developed harvesters and combines

[C] railway companies

[D] telephone and telegraph companies

[E] banks

9. Open-ranching came to an end due to

[A] overproduction of beef and declining prices

[B] federal support for irrigated agriculture

[C] the range wars between cattlemen and sheepherders

[D] fencing of the plains with barbed wire

[E] increase in cattle production in the Midwest and East

10. In which Supreme Court case did the Court rule that as long as property was “devoted to public use” states could place regulations on the railroads for the good of the public?

[A] Peik v. the Chicago and Northern Railway

[B] Munn v. Illinois

[C] Illinois v. Wabash

[D] Pollock v. Farmers Loan and Trust

[E] Dred Scott v. Sandford

11. Among the major political issues on which Congress passed legislation during the years 1877-1892 were all of the following EXCEPT

[A] civil service reform

[B] control of trusts

[C] the coinage of silver

[D] tariffs

[E] civil rights

12. Which of the following is MOST closely associated with the Populist Movement?

[A] Support of labor unions

[B] The “Front Porch” campaign of William McKinley

[C] Free coinage of silver

[D] Private ownership of railroads and utilities

[E] Protective tariffs

13. High tariffs are detrimental to all EXCEPT

[A] farmers producing for the export market

[B] labor unions due to competition of goods produced by low-paid workers

[C] “infant” industries

[D] manufacturers in protected industries

[E] None of the above

14. Which of the following did the nation’s farmers advocate in the 19th century?

[A] government should reduce farmers’ costs by providing farmers with seed and farm implements

[B] the government should privatize the railroads

[C] a sub-Treasury system should be established that would allow farmers to sell their crops on the market when prices rose

[D] the use of federal troops to ensure farmers’ safety against private security agents hired by the railroads

[E] a high protective tariff

15. In the 1880’s, the issue of tariffs on imported goods became a major controversy because

[A] high tariffs were resulting in unnecessarily high prices on manufactured goods, hurting both farmers and consumers while protecting several wealthy manufacturers

[B] the free trade policies in effect at the time were allowing underpriced foreign goods to destroy fledging American industries and virtually eliminate American crop exports to Europe

[C] individual states refused to give up their right to enact tariffs on goods brought across state lines from neighboring states

[D] Democrats forced the enactment of free trade legislation in the U.S. but European countries responded by raising their tariffs on U.S. manufactured goods, throwing the U.S. economy into a depression

[E] Democrats allowed tariffs to be enacted only on imported farm goods, which protected American farmers but left U.S. manufacturers vulnerable to European tariffs

16. Coxey’s Army

[A] reflected discontent with the government’s response to the depression in 1893

[B] was the military wing of the Populist party

[C] was the name given to supporters of Jacob Coxey’s candidacy for president in 1896

[D] were strong advocates of the gold standard

[E] were Democrats who switched their political allegiance to the Republicans in the 1896 election

17. In the nineteenth century the federal government helped to settle the Great Plains with the passage of this act:

[A] The Newlands Reclamation Act

[B] the Morrill Land Grant Act

[C] the Northwest Ordinance

[D] the Forest Reserve Act

[E] the Homestead Act

18. A major reason why McKinley was able to defeat Bryan in 1896 was

[A] the Populists ultimately withdrew their support for Bryan

[B] the Republicans were split between gold and silver advocates

[C] American farmers experienced an increase in farm prices during the campaign

[D] Bryan’s repudiation of the silver cause during the campaign

[E] most Democrats favored Cleveland over Bryan

19. Of the 19th Century inventions listed below, each is correctly paired with its inventor EXCEPT

[A] Reaper-McCormick

[B] Vulcanization of rubber-Goodyear

[C] power loom-Lowell and Moody

[D] Steamboat-Fulton

[E] Telegraph-Bell

20. The Farmers’ Alliance of the 1880’s appealed primarily to

[A] small farmers in the Northeast who found themselves unable to compete with large Western farms

[B] Southern and Great Plain farmers frustrated with low crop process and mired in the sharecrop and crop lien systems

[C] established and well-to-do farmers who desired limit production in order to sustain high prices

[D] owners of the giant “bonanza” farms of the northern plains states who sought special advantages from the government

[E] Chinese immigrants serving as agricultural workers with low pay and poor working conditions, primarily in the Eastern states

21. Which of the following did NOT lead to greater productivity by farmers in the late 19th century?

[A] iron and steel plows

[B] the use of new farm machinery, such as harvesters

[C] the rates charged by grain elevator owners

[D] greater specialization of agricultural production

[E] improved cotton gins

22. All of the following were political objectives of the Populists EXCEPT

[A] government ownership of major industries such as the railroads and telegraphs

[B] replacing the fixed income tax with a graduated income tax

[C] the free and unlimited coining of silver

[D] direct election of U.S. senators

[E] creating a national gold standard

23. Large numbers of Irish immigrants came to the United States in the 1840’s because of the

[A] persecution of Irish Catholics

[B] civil war between Northern Ireland and Ireland

[C] massive failure of the potato crop

[D] British military aggression in Ireland

[E] lure of gold in California

24. The Populist platform included all of the following EXCEPT

[A] land grants given to railroad companies not used by the railroads should be returned to the government

[B] a graduated income tax

[C] a gold- and silver-based currency

[D] the referendum

[E] government ownership of the railroads

25. The railroads practiced several kinds of rate discrimination EXCEPT

[A] giving rebates to large shippers

[B] favoring farmers and small businesses

[C] charging more where there was no competing railroad

[D] charging more on a short haul where there was no competition

[E] None of the above

26. Which of the following was NOT part of the coalition that comprised the Populists in the late 19th century?

[A] free-silver advocates

[B] socialists

[C] anarchists

[D] Farmers’ Alliance

[E] grain-elevator operators

27. Which of the following best illustrates government support for the construction of the first transcontinental railroad?

[A] Open immigration from China

[B] The exchange of Union Pacific for federal bonds

[C] The grant of thousands of acres of public lands to the railroads

[D] Preference in hiring to Union Army

[E] Closed immigration from Russia

28. Of the following, which was the most important cause of agrarian discontent in the United States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century?

[A] The end of free homesteads

[B] The end of Republican party efforts to woo the farm vote

[C] The exhaustion of the soil by poor farming methods

[D] The feeling that the railroads were exploiting the farmers

[E] The increase in the number of immigrants

29. The mechanical reaper dramatically affected American agriculture by

[A] creating more jobs for farmers

[B] mechanizing cotton production in the South

[C] encouraging farmers to grow more corn

[D] saving time and labor in wheat harvesting

[E] helping farmers plow prairie lands

30. Which of the following would have been most likely to support the presidential campaign of William Jennings Bryan in 1896?

[A] A Kansas farmer

[B] A Chicago industrial worker

[C] A Philadelphia merchant

[D] A university professor of economics

[E] A New York Republican party member

31. In the late nineteenth century, political machines such as Tammany Hall were successful primarily because

[A] federal legislation sanctioned their activities

[B] machine politicians provided needed jobs and services to naturalized citizens in return for their votes

[C] they focused on accomplishing only a narrow set of human rights objectives

[D] they championed the suffragettes and received their support in return

[E] they operated primarily in rural areas, where the government could not monitor their activities

32. The Wabash case

[A] granted rate-making powers to the federal government

[B] declared railroad mergers to be monopolistic

[C] denied the states the power to regulate interstate railroad traffic

[D] reduced railroad rates

[E] overturned Plessy v. Fergusson

33. The first suburbs developed in the late nineteenth century because of

[A] the fear of rising urban crime rate

[B] the rising cost of real estate in the central city

[C] the development of mass transit made longer commutes possible

[D] a housing shortage due to the influx of immigrants

[E] the desire of middle class residents to live in the “country’

34. Cotton production was made profitable by the

[A] invention of the Deere steel plow

[B] use of irrigation on plantations

[C] improved agricultural techniques

[D] success and simplicity of the cotton gin

[E] use of McCormick reaper

35. In the last quarter of the 19th century, American agriculture was characterized by

[A] a decline in the number of tenant farmers

[B] a decline in foreclosures on Midwestern farms

[C] a decline in the number of farm cooperatives

[D] an increase in wholesale prices for farm products

[E] an increase in acres under cultivation

36. Put the following Presidents in their correct order:

I. Garfield; II. Arthur; III. Hayes; IV.Grant; V. Harrison; VI. McKinley

[A] III, II, I, V, VI, IV

[B] IV, III, I, II, V, VI

[C] I, II, III, IV, V, VI

[D] I, II, III, IV, VI, V

[E] I, II, III, VI, IV, V
37. Which of the following was a consequence of the shift to sharecropping and the crop-lien system in the late 19th century South?

[A] A major redistribution of land ownership

[B] A diversification of crops

[C] A cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers

[D] A rise in cotton yields per acre from antebellum production levels

[E] The termination of the control exerted by White landowners over former slaves

38. The first nationality excluded from immigrating to the United States was the

[A] Japanese

[B] Mexicans

[C] Chinese

[D] Haitians

[E] Irish

39. Which of the planks from the 1892 Populist Party platform showed a concern with issues raised by organized labor?

[A] graduated income tax

[B] restrictions on immigration

[C] government ownership of railroads

[D] unlimited coinage of silver

[E] direct election of senators

40. The “Crime of 1873” was

[A] the blatant frauds exposed in the 1872 presidential election

[B] the Panic of 1893

[C] revelations of the Credit Mobilier railroad construction scandal

[D] the decision by Congress to stop the coinage of silver

[E] the Supreme Court decision of Plessy vs. Fergusson

41. The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) did which of the following?

[A] Denounced business combinations in restraint of trade.

[B] Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans

[C] Declared that the Fourteenth Amendment applied principally to the protection of corporations

[D] Defined the Constitution as color-blind

[E] Empowered Congress to cancel treaties with American tribes unilaterally

42. In the late 19th century United States, farmers sought federal relief from distress caused by

[A] low tariffs

[B] natural disasters

[C] inflationary monetary policies

[D] excise taxes on agricultural products

[E] discriminatory freight rates

43. “If the gold delegates dare to defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them to the uppermost.” William Jennings Bryan’s famous “cross of gold” speech called for

[A] the unlimited coinage of silver

[B] lower tariffs

[C] a revival of greenback paper currency

[D] renewed religious commitment to all Americans

[E] federal and social welfare programs to deal with the Panic of 1873

44. For the period from the end of Reconstruction to1900, the position of the Supreme Court toward civil rights is best characterized as

[A] supporting the integration of African Americans into society

[B] establishing the constitutionality of segregation

[C] vigorously enforcing the terms of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

[D] strictly interpreting the Constitution to broaden the rights of African Americans

[E] willing to end segregation in the South but not in the North

45. Which of the following was the main issue in Munn v. Illinois?

[A] suppression of a major strike by the federal government

[B] monopolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company

[C] state regulation of grain elevator operators and railroad rates

[D] state regulation of labor unions

[E] state prosecution of a federal official

46. In the cartoon below Thomas Nast presents Boss Tweed as

[A] a politician ruled by greed

[B] a benefactor to the public

[C] a political reformer

[D] a politician corruptly influenced by business

[E] a politician who rejected business influence

47. Jim Crow laws

[A] were ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court

[B] were designed to subordinate Blacks

[C] allowed for the integration of all public facilities

[D] were passed by the radical Republicans

[E] were designed to address the abuses of racist organizations such as the KKK and the Knights of the White Camellia.

48. “Under our system of railroad ownership, an excessive competition exists for the business of all competing points, while the local business of the various competing lines is absolute monopoly. This has naturally resulted in compelling the corporations to do thorough business at rates often ruinously…which again has compelled those companies to recoup themselves for their losses and secure their profits by excessive charges on the local traffic.”

This passage explains which problem that farmers faced in the late nineteenth century?

[A] prices charged by grain elevator operators

[B] unlimited coinage of silver

[C] high protective tariffs

[D] long vs. short hauls

[E] graduated income tax

49. The farmers’ protest movement lost momentum at the end of the 1890’s for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

[A] the failure of the People’s party in the 1896 election

[B] massive immigration into urban areas that led to higher prices for agricultural products

[C] crop failures in Europe that led to an increase in United States grain exports

[D] the 1898 Yukon gold strike that increased the United States government’s supply of gold and eased farmers’ access to credit

[E] the absorption of the populists by the AFL (American Federation of Labor)

50. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890

[A] required the federal government to purchase silver

[B] forbade the federal government to purchase silver

[C] made it illegal for private citizens to purchase silver

[D] made it illegal for private citizens to purchase federal lands with anything but silver

[E] allowed the federal government to buy silver at the discretion of the president

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