Uncle Joe Cannon (Old Guard): Cannon was a Republican who served as Speaker of the House from 1903 to 1911. He strongly opposed many progressive reforms and was thus not very popular in the house. Progressives and Democrats joined to remove much of his power in 1910, allowing the Republican-Democratic coalition to run the Senate.
Senator George Norris:Norris was a reformist senator who favored federal regulation of public utilities. Through a change in House rules he ended the rule of the Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon. He also created the Tennessee Valley Authority, a dam building company. As he ignored the limitations of party politics he slowly lost support.
Rule of reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case: In 1911 a progressive interpretation of the Sherman Act was enacted by the Supreme Court. According to this "rule of reason" principle, only "unreasonable" combinations restraining trade were illegal. This interpretation emerged when the court broke these two companies into smaller firms.
"dollar diplomacy": In an effort to avoid Roosevelt’s "big stick" economic policy, President Taft sought to avoid military confrontation by using money to increase foreign interest in the US. He planned to donate large sums of money to generate economic, social, and political stability in Latin America rather than sending the military to force stability. His efforts were largely a failure as most of the money never reached the actual people of Latin America. Most of the money was stolen by corrupt government officials.