Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909: This tariff was initially intended to lower several other tariffs, but after numerous compromises in the Senate it became a protective measure. Many Progressive reformers considered this a sign that the companies and various special interests were preventing consumer prices from reaching reasonable levels.
Ballinger-Pinchot controversy:Pinchot charged that Ballinger was giving the nation's natural resources to private corporate interests. Under investigation it was found that Ballinger did nothing illegal though he did bend the government's environmental policies. Since Taft have given him support, Taft lost standing with the progressive Republicans.
Insurgents:Insurgents was a nickname for a small group of reformist Republicans. This group, including La Follette and Norris, turned against Taft after his passage of the 1909 tariff and completely separated after he supported the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. The separation between progressive and conservative republicans was caused by this group.