A. P. U. S. History Notes

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Supreme Court

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Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Supreme Court: Holmes was a professor of law at Harvard who resigned to become a member of the Supreme Court. As a jurist he interpreted the Constitution in a very liberal manner, earning him the name "the Great Dissenter" among his colleagues.

Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts: The Boy and Girl Scouts, formed to educate the youth of America, heavily embody Dewey’s concept of "learn by doing." They focused on teaching children of their proper patriotic role in society and working to broaden the horizons of their members though a number of varied activities.

Edward Ross: Ross wrote one of the first books dealing with social psychology. He analyzed the transmission of social behavior through society by its transmission from one person to another. His ideas conflicted with McDougall’s, another psychologist who believed that the process of evolution created instinctive sociological behavior.

Richard Ely: Ely, a progressive economist, was an economics research professor at Northwestern University. He founded the American Economic Association in 1899 and was the first economist to suggest that government interference in regulation of the national economic was not harmful but even sometimes helpful.

Initiative, referendum, recall: These were three types of progressive electoral reforms passed by some western states. Initiative allowed voters to enact laws directly. The referendum allowed voters to express their opinions of specific issues. Through recall voters were able to directly remove public officials from office.

Direct primary: The direct primary was another progressive municipal reform. It originated in Wisconsin (1903) and rapidly spread throughout the rest of the United States. It provided that the members, not the leadership, of each party nominate the party’s nominees for public office.

Australian ballot (secret ballot): Many electoral reforms gave voters greater control over the government, especially at the ballot boxes where voters could be easily swayed. By 1910 all states had replaced the corrupt system of preprinted ballots with a new secret ballot, begun in Australia, which was much more difficult to rig.

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