Frank Norris, The Octopus: The U.S. novelist Frank Norris was a noted pioneer of naturalism in literature. His novels portray the demoralizing effects of modern technology on human fate. His best-known works, The Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903), attacked the railroad and wheat industries in the United States.
David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate: Author of many popular problem novels of the early 20th century, Phillips was also a prominent journalist. His "Treason of the Senate" series of articles (1906) in Cosmopolitan magazine were an important contribution to the muckraking movement in American journalism.