A. P. Government



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A.P. Government

Unit II Prep

Chapters 6,7,8,9,10&11 "Politics of Elections"

Name___________________________________


1)



The science of population changes is

1)


________

A)



popuology.

B)



polling.

C)



anthropology.

D)



the census.

E)



demography.




2)



The most valuable method for understanding demographic changes in America is the

2)


________

A)



census.

B)



public opinion poll.

C)



Internal Revenue Service statistical tax abstracts.

D)



turnout in presidential elections.

E)



Statistical Abstract of the United States.




3)



The first census in the United States was conducted in

3)


________

A)



1850.

B)


1900.

C)


1970.

D)


1800.

E)


1790.




4)



The largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States is

4)


________

A)



Hispanics.

B)



Native Americans.

C)



Asian Americans.

D)



African Americans.

E)



African Americans and Hispanics are tied in size.




5)



The term "minority majority" refers to the fact that

5)


________

A)



minority groups have been able to impose their will upon the majority.

B)



African Americans are the largest minority group in the United States.

C)



America will soon cease to have a white majority and together the minority groups will become a majority.

D)



the majority in America has always been a collection of minority ethnic groups.

E)



Hispanic Americans will soon become the largest minority group in the United States.




6)



Political culture refers to

6)


________

A)



how truly "American" someone is.

B)



political party affiliation.

C)



a high degree of homogeneity in political opinions.

D)



a set of beliefs about the role of government in society.

E)



an overall set of values widely shared within a society.




7)



Over the last fifty years much of America's population growth has occurred

7)


________

A)



in the Midwest.

B)



on the East Coast.

C)



east of the Mississippi River.

D)



in the West and South.

E)



north of the Mason-Dixon line.




8)



Reapportionment occurs after every census to reallocate seats in

8)


________

A)



the House of Representatives.

B)



the president's cabinet.

C)



both the House of Representatives and the Senate.

D)



the Senate.

E)



the Supreme Court.




9)



Nationwide, the fastest growing age group is composed of

9)


________

A)



one-year-olds.

B)



those between 21-30 years old.

C)



those between 13-21 years old.

D)



those over 65 years old.

E)



those under 13 years old.




10)



One can predict how the majority of young people will vote simply by

10)


_______

A)



knowing the political leaning of their friends.

B)



knowing their race.

C)



knowing the political leaning of their parents.

D)



knowing their age.

E)



knowing the political leaning of their teachers.




11)



Governments throughout the world use the schools to help with the ________ of young people.

11)


_______

A)



political socialization

B)



demography

C)



voter registration

D)



random sampling

E)



civil disobedience




12)



A political figure who was in favor of increased military spending, supported freedom of choice on abortion, opposed affirmative action programs, wanted to tax the rich more, and felt the courts should stop coddling criminals is a

12)


_______

A)



socialist.

B)



mixture of liberal and conservative.

C)



populist.

D)



conservative.

E)



liberal.




13)



Civil disobedience

13)


_______

A)



is intentionally violating a law believed to be unjust in order to bring about change.

B)



occurs whenever a person violates a law and seeks to avoid the consequences.

C)



was first used by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., to call attention to the injustice of segregation laws.

D)



usually involves the use of violence.

E)



all of the above




14)



A media event is

14)


_______

A)



a setup by the media to ambush or embarrass a prominent person.

B)



a gathering of people working in the media industry, often an awards ceremony.

C)



a news event deemed of such importance to break into regular programming on television and radio.

D)



some newsworthy occurrence covered by reporters of the various media.

E)



staged primarily for the purpose of being covered by the press.




15)



The cozy relationship between politicians and the press ended when

15)


_______

A)



the press discovered John F. Kennedy in a compromising situation with a woman other than his wife.

B)



the Vietnam War and Watergate soured the press on government.

C)



Franklin Roosevelt chastised the news reports he deemed inaccurate.

D)



Abraham Lincoln nationalized major Union newspapers during the Civil War.

E)



Ronald Reagan began to manipulate the press to his advantage.




16)



The first president to manipulate media politics with many press conferences and fireside chats successfully was

16)


_______

A)



Franklin Roosevelt.

B)



Ronald Reagan.

C)



Lyndon Johnson.

D)



John F. Kennedy.

E)



Abraham Lincoln.




17)



At the turn of the century, newspaper magnates Joseph and William Randolph Hearst ushered in the era of

17)


_______

A)



newspaper chains.

B)



yellow journalism.

C)



political advertising.

D)



nickel tabloids.

E)



penny press.




18)



The nation's most influential newspaper and its unofficial "newspaper of record" is

18)


_______

A)



USA Today.

B)



The New York Times.

C)



the Washington Post.

D)



Congressional Quarterly.

E)



the Wall Street Journal.




19)



Following the first Nixon-Kennedy presidential debate of 1960, opinion polls showed that

19)


_______

A)



those who watched on television and listened over the radio both thought Kennedy had won.

B)



those who listened over radio thought it was a draw, while those who watched television thought Kennedy did better.

C)



those who watched on television and listened over the radio both thought Nixon had won.

D)



those who watched on television thought Nixon had won, while those who listened over the radio thought Kennedy won.

E)



those who watched on television thought Kennedy had won, while those who listened over the radio thought Nixon won.




20)



Television coverage of the war in Vietnam had the effect of

20)


_______

A)



hiding the true horrors of the war and the number of casualties from the American people.

B)



exposing governmental naivet and lies about the progress of the war.

C)



simultaneously undermining support for the war in North Vietnam while boosting public morale in South Vietnam.

D)



duping the public into believing the war would soon end.

E)



generating popular support for the president and the war.




21)



Cable News Network (CNN)

21)


_______

A)



has had more effect on the mass public than it has had on political elites.

B)



has taken the place of the three major networks as Americans' primary source for news.

C)



has brought television into a new era of bringing the news to people and political leaders as it happens.

D)



is a government-owned news agency that specializes in international news.

E)



specializes in after-the-fact news summaries and in-depth analysis.




22)



In 2000, the average sound bite of a presidential candidate shown talking on the nightly news averaged

22)


_______

A)



less than ten seconds.

B)



about ninety seconds.

C)



about thirty seconds.

D)



about a minute.

E)



about two minutes.




23)



A talking head is a

23)


_______

A)



member of the seminal punk band of the 1980s that had a major political influence on youth.

B)



nickname for a political journalist.

C)



shot of a person speaking directly into the television camera.

D)



secret source for news leaks.

E)



public relations expert.




24)



The policy agenda is

24)


_______

A)



a linkage institution between people and government.

B)



a list of priorities to which government officials address their time and energies.

C)



a schedule of bills before Congress.

D)



a set of issues or problems that the public considers important.

E)



all of the above




25)



The watchdog orientation of the press helps to

25)


_______

A)



assist politicians in leading the mass public.

B)



restrict politicians.

C)



educate the mass public.

D)



increase confidence in government.

E)



de-emphasize individualism.




26)



A policy entrepreneur is

26)


_______

A)



someone who works to get ideas on the government's policy agenda.

B)



a candidate seeking a career in elective office.

C)



someone who uses politics for self-gain.

D)



a knowledge specialist in a policy area.

E)



an elected or appointed public official.




27)



Narrowcasting refers to

27)


_______

A)



political advertising being developed for homogeneous audiences.

B)



media programming aimed at a particular (narrow) audience.

C)



media programming delivered in brief program segments.

D)



the technical ability to block access to broadcast signals.

E)



media programming focused entirely on media events.




28)



The media inevitably encourage the growth of government when they

28)


_______

A)



reapply for their broadcast licenses.

B)



uncover government waste.

C)



act as a watchdog.

D)



focus on policy issues.

E)



focus on injustice in society.




29)



Which is a linkage institution?

29)


_______

A)



Supreme Court

B)



Congress

C)



Executive Office of the President

D)



all of the above

E)



none of the above




30)



Almost all definitions of political parties have which of the following in common?

30)


_______

A)



Parties have limited policy agendas.

B)



Parties try to win elections.

C)



Parties have a mass following.

D)



Parties are run by elites.

E)



Parties have formal organizations.




31)



A party's endorsement to officially run for office as the candidate of that party is called

31)


_______

A)



a ballot.

B)



an appointment.

C)



a nomination.

D)



a confirmation.

E)



a ticket.




32)



Linkage institutions

32)


_______

A)



help link the three branches of government together to achieve coherent policies.

B)



are used to implement public policies.

C)



link political parties to the government.

D)



link the president to members of his/her party in Congress, so they can coordinate their policies in government.

E)



translate inputs from the public into outputs from the policymakers.




33)



American political parties tend to take middle-of-the-road stands on major issues

33)


_______

A)



while the public tends to have stronger opinions

B)



in spite of evidence that more extreme positions generate more excitement and likelihood for electoral victory.

C)



because most of the American electorate is centrist.

D)



because most of the American electorate does not have political opinions.

E)



only because the party's candidates are so afraid of alienating those on different sides of issues.




34)



Most American voters are

34)


_______

A)



moderate-liberals.

B)



non-ideological.

C)



liberal.

D)



conservative.

E)



moderate.




35)



Ticket-splitting is best understood as

35)


_______

A)



voting for Republican candidates for president and Democratic candidates for Congress.

B)



voting for Democratic candidates for president and Republican candidates for Congress.

C)



staying with the same party in an election, voting down the party's line for every race.

D)



a tactic used to commit voter fraud, which enables a voter to cast multiple ballots.

E)



voting with one party for one office and another for other offices.




36)



The theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior is called the

36)


_______

A)



cognitive theory.

B)



goals theory.

C)



behaviorism.

D)



means-ends theory.

E)



rational-choice theory.




37)



In blanket primaries,

37)


_______

A)



voters may vote for multiple candidates.

B)



voters may choose on election day which party primary they want to participate in.

C)



only voters who have registered in advance with the party can vote.

D)



voters may vote for candidates from either party.

E)



none of the above




38)



In closed primaries,

38)


_______

A)



voters may choose on election day which party primary they want to participate in.

B)



only voters who have registered in advance with the party can vote.

C)



voters may vote for candidates from either party.

D)



voters may vote for multiple candidates.

E)



none of the above




39)



The day-to-day activities of the national party are the responsibility of the

39)


_______

A)



national chairperson.

B)



president.

C)



congressional party leaders.

D)



national committee.

E)



national convention.




40)



Party realignments in the United States

40)


_______

A)



are rare events in the United States, usually associated with a major national crisis or trauma, in which one party's majority domination is replaced with another's.

B)



involve the death of one party and the birth of a brand new one.

C)



occur when a party makes dramatic changes in its positions on issues.

D)



happen after most presidential elections, and occasionally in-between.

E)



are slight adjustments of political allegiance among voters in at least one region of the country.




41)



The first American political party evolved

41)


_______

A)



out of Alexander Hamilton's efforts to get Congress to establish a national bank.

B)



out of Thomas Jefferson's efforts to get the Declaration of Independence adopted.

C)



from the supporters of George Washington's first campaign for president.

D)



out of public disgust over the duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, leading to calls to solve conflicts through peaceful party competition.

E)



during the Constitutional Convention.




42)



Andrew Jackson was the first president identified as a(n)

42)


_______

A)



Democratic-Republican.

B)



Democrat.

C)



Independent.

D)



Republican.

E)



Whig.




43)



The Depression of the 1930s gave rise to what is called

43)


_______

A)



econo-politics.

B)



party competition.

C)



the New Deal coalition.

D)



the Republican resurgence.

E)



the Era of Divided Government.




44)



The Republicans emerged as a powerful political party in the

44)


_______

A)



1850s.

B)


1790s.

C)


1890s.

D)


1820s.

E)


1930s.




45)



Party dealignment is symbolized by

45)


_______

A)



a renewed commitment to America's two major political parties.

B)



the Republican takeover of Congress in 1994.

C)



the 1992 election of a president and Congress of the same party.

D)



the recent pattern of one-party control.

E)



the recent pattern of divided government.




46)



Which of the following is TRUE about most third-party campaigns in American history?

46)


_______

A)



They have been most successful at promoting party dealignment.

B)



They occasionally succeed.

C)



They almost never win office.

D)



They usually become major political parties over time.

E)



They frequently are successful.




47)



Precinct-level presidential caucuses

47)


_______

A)



have absolutely nothing to do with choosing delegates to the major parties' national nominating conventions.

B)



determine how many votes that state will cast for each of the presidential candidates at the national convention.

C)



choose delegates to county caucuses/conventions where delegates to the state convention are selected, then the state convention chooses national convention delegates.

D)



directly choose national convention delegates.

E)



choose delegates to state conventions where delegates to the national convention are selected.




48)



The way in which candidates attempt to manipulate money, the media, and momentum to achieve the nomination is through

48)


_______

A)



primaries.

B)



propaganda.

C)



charisma.

D)



party support.

E)



campaign strategy.




49)



The Democratic National Convention in ________ led to serious reforms in the methods it used to choose its convention delegates.

49)


_______

A)



1936

B)


1952

C)


1992

D)


1984

E)


1968




50)



In states with caucuses,

50)


_______

A)



party leaders select delegates according to their own candidate preferences.

B)



supporters of candidates try to get elected as delegates through a pyramid of meetings.

C)



delegates are chosen through general election of a candidate.

D)



the state legislature selects the state's delegates to the national conventions.

E)



candidates appoint supporters to serve as delegates.




51)



Today, most delegates to each major party's national convention are chosen by

51)


_______

A)



state presidential caucuses.

B)



state party chairpersons prior to any caucus or presidential primary.

C)



the previous national convention.

D)



a lottery system.

E)



state presidential primaries.




52)



The McGovern-Fraser Commission was set up to reform

52)


_______

A)



the financing of federal election campaigns.

B)



party fund-raising.

C)



the rules for selecting delegates to the Republican National Convention.

D)



the rules for selecting delegates to the Democratic National Convention.

E)



the rules for selecting delegates to both the Democratic and Republican National Conventions.




53)



The addition of superdelegates to the Democratic national conventions was spearheaded by

53)


_______

A)



those who felt the Warren Commission had led to unrepresentative delegate selection.

B)



President Jimmy Carter.

C)



the McGovern-Fraser Commission.

D)



the Warren Commission.

E)



those who felt the McGovern-Fraser Commission had opened up the delegate selection process too much.




54)



Approximately ________ of eligible voters cast ballots in presidential primaries.

54)


_______

A)



65 percent

B)


50 percent

C)


20 percent

D)


35 percent

E)


75 percent




55)



In most caucus states, about ________ of the registered voters typically show up for party presidential caucuses.

55)


_______

A)



60 percent

B)


20 percent

C)


50 percent

D)


35 percent

E)


5 percent




56)



The rules determining the way in which the primaries are set up and the delegates are allocated are made by

56)


_______

A)



Congress.

B)



state legislatures and state parties.

C)



the Constitution.

D)



the electoral college.

E)



the Federal Election Commission.




57)



The party's platform is drafted

57)


_______

A)



after the convention, by a committee made up exclusively of supporters of the winning nominee.

B)



after the convention, by a committee of party members chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength.

C)



during the convention, usually in the morning hours when cameras are not rolling.

D)



before the convention, by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength.

E)



by the party's presidential nominee in the days after the convention is over.




58)



The Federal Election Commission

58)


_______

A)



administers all elections in the United States from school board to president with a staff of 160,000.

B)



is a non-partisan political organization which has sought for over fifty years to reform campaign financing.

C)



is a bipartisan body responsible for administering campaign finance laws and enforcing compliance with those laws.

D)



tabulates and certifies the votes in all federal elections.

E)



is the Republican party's watchdog organization which monitors fund-raising and spending by Democratic candidates.




59)



One of the provisions of the McCain-Feingold Act of 2002 was to

59)


_______

A)



increase the limit on individual contributions to $5,000.

B)



increase the limit on "soft money" contributions.

C)



increase the limit on individual contributions from $1,000 to $2,000.

D)



increase the amount of federal money presidential candidates can spend.

E)



increase the limit on individual contributions to $10,000.




60)



PAC is an acronym for

60)


_______

A)



the Partisan Activities Commission.

B)



power-as-cash.

C)



positive action campaign.

D)



political access conveyance.

E)



political action committee.




61)



Most PACs give money to

61)


_______

A)



candidates of only one political party.

B)



the parties and let them distribute money among their candidates as they see fit.

C)



challengers trying to unseat incumbents.

D)



candidates who disagree with them, but who are likely to be "bought."

E)



candidates who already agree with them in the first place.




62)



Which of the following have been found to be most successfully affected by campaigns?

62)


_______

A)



conversion

B)



reinforcement and conversion

C)



activation and conversion

D)



reinforcement, activation, and conversion

E)



reinforcement and activation




63)



The selective perception of most voters means that they

63)


_______

A)



pay most attention to things they already agree with, and interpret events according to their own predispositions.

B)



are skeptical of all candidates and view all campaigning as suspect.

C)



make rational choices about the purposive benefits to themselves of voting for a particular candidate.

D)



keep a fairly open mind regarding the candidates during the election campaign, and choose based on rational analysis.

E)



are susceptible to having their minds changed fairly easily by effective campaigns.




64)



Legitimacy in terms of American elections means

64)


_______

A)



the election is nearly unanimously accepted as a fair and free method to select political leaders.

B)



the public is generally not satisfied with the candidates, the results, or the methods by which elections are held.

C)



the public is satisfied with the qualifications and the policy positions of the candidates.

D)



the public is nearly unanimously happy with the results.

E)



the best candidate is selected.




65)



California's famous Proposition 13, in which voters frustrated by a lack of action by their legislature forced an issue on the ballot and voted to limit the rise in property taxes, was an example of

65)


_______

A)



an indirect primary.

B)



a referendum.

C)



a voter override.

D)



an initiative.

E)



a direct primary.




66)



The first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the history of the world occurred as a result of the presidential election of

66)


_______

A)



1800.

B)


1860.

C)


1789.

D)


1896.

E)


1796.




67)



An election whereby voters are given the chance to approve or disapprove some legislative act or constitutional amendment is called

67)


_______

A)



a ratification election.

B)



a referendum.

C)



an initiative petition.

D)



a direct election.

E)



a direct primary.




68)



The issue of free silver (to increase the amount of currency in circulation) was championed in the election of 1896 by ________, whose most famous oration was his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic national convention.

68)


_______

A)



William Jennings Bryan

B)



Grover Cleveland

C)



Woodrow Wilson

D)



Theodore Roosevelt

E)



William McKinley




69)



In 1896, who liked silver money?

69)


_______

A)



debtors

B)



exporters

C)



Eastern manufacturers

D)



bankers

E)



coin collectors and dealers




70)



In


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