A lightning storm passed over the Mann Gulch area at 4PM on August 4, 1949 and is believed to have set a small fire in a dead tree. When the fire was spotted by a forest ranger, the smokejumpers were dispatched to fight it. Sixteen of them flew out of Missoula, Montana at 2:30PM in a C-47 transport. Wind conditions that day were turbulent, the smokejumpers and their cargo were dropped on the south side of Mann Gulch at 4:10PM from 2000 feet rather than the normal 1200 feet, due to the turbulence. The parachute that was connected to their radio failed to open, and the radio was pulverized when it hit the ground. The crew met ranger Jim Harrison who had been fighting the fire alone for four hours, collected their supplies, and ate supper. About 5:10 they started to move along the south side of the gulch to surround the fire. Dodge and Harrison, however, having scouted ahead, were worried that the thick forest near which they had landed might be a "death trap". They told the second in command, William Hellman, to take the crew across to the north side of the gulch and march them toward the river along the side of the hill. While Hellman did this, Dodge and Harrison ate a quick meal. Dodge rejoined the crew at 5:40PM and took his position at the head of the line moving toward the river. He could see flames flapping back and forth on the south slope as he looked to his left.
"Then Dodge saw it?" What he saw was that the fire had crossed the gulch just 200 yards ahead and was moving toward them. Dodge turned the crew around and had them angle up the 76-percent hill toward the ridge at the top. They were soon moving through bunch grass that was two and a half feet tall and were quickly losing ground to the 30-foot-high flames that were soon moving toward them at 610 feet per minute. Dodge yelled at the crew to drop their tools, and then, to everyone's astonishment, he lit a fire in front of them and ordered them to lie down in the area it had burned. No one did, and they all ran for the ridge. Two people, Sallee and Rumsey, made it through a crevice in the ridge unburned, Hellman made it over the ridge burned horribly and died at noon the next day, Dodge lived by lying down in the ashes of his escape fire, and one other person, Joseph Sylvia, lived for a short while and then died. The hands on Harrison's watch melted at 5:56 , which has been treated officially as the time the 13 people died.
After the fire passed, all the dead were found in an area of 100 yards by 300 yards. It took 450 men, five more days to get the 4,500-acre Mann Gulch fire under control. At the time the crew jumped on the fire, it was classified as a Class C fire, meaning its scope was between 10 and 99 acres.
五、Reading Comprehension (15 分)
[Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.]
Describing what managers do isn't an easy or simple task. Just as no two organizations are exactly alike, no two managers' jobs are exactly alike. But even given these constraints, we have well over 100 years of formal management study to draw from and some specific categorization schemes that have been developed to describe what managers do. What are these categorization schemes? We're going to look at what managers do in terms of functions and processes, roles, skills, managing systems, and managing different and changing situations.
In the early part of the twentieth century, a French industrialist by the name of Henri Fayol proposed that all managers perform five management functions They plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. In the mid-1950s, two professors at the University of California-Los Angeles drew upon Fayol's work and used the functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling as the framework for a management textbook that for 20 years was the most widely sold text on the subject. Most management textbooks still continue to be organized around management functions, though they have been condensed down to four basic functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Let's briefly define what each of these management functions encompasses.
If you have no particular destination in mind, it doesn't matter what road you take. Because organizations exist to achieve some purpose, someone must clearly define that purpose and the means for its achievement. Management is that someone. The planning function involves the process of defining goals, establishing a strategy for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Managers are also responsible for designing an organization's structure. We call this function organizing. It includes the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and at what level decisions are made. As we know, every organization includes people, and management's job is to integrate and coordinate the work of those people. This is the leading function. When managers motivate subordinates, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channel, or resolve conflicts among members, they are leading.
The final management function managers perform is controlling. After the goals are set (planning function), the plans formulated (planning function), the structural arrangements determined (organizing function), and the people hired, trained, and motivated (leading function), something may still go wrong. To ensure that things are going as they should, managers must monitor performance. Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it's management's job to get work performance back on track. This process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting is what we mean by the controlling function.
According to the passage above, the management functions that appear in currently used Management texts are: