A. Home policy: the succession of Mary & William iii(of Orange), securing protestantism in a peaceful, bloodless, thus the glorious „revolution”, the beginning of protestant constitutional monarchy manifested in the

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Dear Students,
I tried to summarize my 2 cancelled lectures in the following more detailed handouts, hope it might help your preparation.
The „History of England 1” exam is a 2-hour written exam, consisting of 7o multiple choice questions on the given period (from the Romans to 1815). There are 2o questions related to documents of the given period from the Frank-Magyarics Handouts for British History document section (available both in the Campus library and in the printshop off the library and 1o questions on terminology also found in the glossary sections of Frank-Magyarics Handouts, the remaining 4o questions focus on the main political, constitutional, social and economic as well as religious and cultural events of the given period. Major dates, names and institutions to be remembered are underlined on handouts (1-1o) also available on the Internet under SEAS3.elte.hu, Velich, handouts.
Compulsory literature: C.Roberts—D.Roberts: A History of England vol 1 and chapters running up to 1815 from vol 2 (Prentice-Hall, 1985) also available both in the campus library and in the printshop until 2o Dec.
Enjoy your study and please take your INDEX books with you for the exam. NOBODY CAN TAKE THE EXAM WITHOUT HIS or HER INDEX BOOK.


I tried to emphasize the most important events by underlining them
A. Home policy:
--the succession of Mary & William III(of Orange), securing protestantism in a peaceful, bloodless, thus the glorious „revolution”, the beginning of protestant constitutional monarchy manifested in the
the Bill of Rights, 1689: (compulsory from the Frank-Magyarics documents) no billeting, no martial law, annual Parliament, no taxation without representation
--the Toleration Act (of religion) to reward, to tolerate the noncomformists (non-Anglicans)

--the constitutional settlement in the 1701 Act of Settlement – ensured the future protestant succession; a separate civil service founded; efficient taxation

-- the Bank of England (first joint-stock bank) founded in 1694 to help solvency, get state credit

-- increasing political split along the tory (conservatives) vs whig(liberal) line

-- John Locke's significance; royal mail & the first newspapers; freemasonry
--Queen Anne /1702--1714/ -- not a significant monarch, loved nothing but eating, country run by ministers like Godolphin, Marlborough, when most important event: England & Scotland united in 1707 (unification document to be studied from Frank-Magyarics Handouts, Documents) and securing

--the Hanoverian (protestant but German) succession, resulting the Georgian period /George I-- IV; 1714-- 183O/
--George I /1714--1727/

does not speak English, country run by party politicians, but the first real Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole, was to act under
--George II /1727--1760/
-- Sir Robert Walpole, the first English PM & his cabinet /1721--42: peace, tax reforms & free trade elements/
--menwhile the Jacobites (the followers of the Stuarts to restore the Stuart absolutism) & their efforts also in Scotland & Ireland; but the Jacobite restoration attempt by the Old & the Young Pretenders/1715 & 1745/ failed

--religious renewal, against pluralism (having more than one religious title, office) including John Wesley, who founded the Methodist church (more Bible-based, a strict protestant movement, less middle-course than the Anglicanism from the 1730s)
B. Diplomacy:
Britain involved in four successive, partly colonial wars:

--the Nine Years War /1688-1697/ -- a war between England in alliance with the Netherlands against France not recognising the new protestant couple, supporting the Stuarts ended by the Treaty of Ryswick recognising Mary and William III, but after 2 years of truce, the war continued as part of
--the War of the Spanish Succession /1702--1713/ --the famous English victories at Blenheim & Ramilles by John Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough; war ended by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713--15), with an advanced technique of diplomacy; Gibraltar & Minorca were left on British hands
--the War of the Austrian Succession /1740--1748/ -- Britain fought Spain for commercial advantages in America; the war is also known as the War of Captain Jenkins' Ear
--the Seven Years War /1756--1763/ -- between Britain and France, the military skills of William Pitt, the Elder; war ended by the Treaty of Paris in 1763 with British colonial gains including India, Quebec
--with international mercenaries & bayonets emloyed; Britain emerged as a sea power; Britain fights France; damaging commerce, but having colonial gains
--the Balance of Power principle emloyed to support the weaker side in international wars to tip the balance


India -- the priority of the East India Company /Warren Hastings/

-- after 1773 a governor-general nominated

-- from 1784 a new board of 7 commissioners

--autocracy in India while Parliamentary oversight in Britain
the Industrial Revolution & its impact /rising population and fuel to boost production/
--- improved farming methods result in rural unemployment & in accelerated urbanization

--- British commerce doubled because of trading with America & Asia

--- better transportation & financial facilities

--- the cyclical fluctuations of the economy

--- the social consequences
George III /1760--1820, but the regency of the future George IV from 1810 to 182o/

-- the first popular Hanoverian monarch

-- the rise of radicalism /John Wilkes & John Dunning/

-- demonstrations lead to reforms:

  • the survey of all government offices & sinecures

-- forerunners of movements for further financial, administrative & electoral reforms

-- Catholics in the army after 1778

-- the significance of William Pitt, the Elder & William Pitt, the Younger

/an independent whig to dominate English politics 1784-1805/

-- abolitionism /William Wilberforce against colonial slave trade/

-- the unification Britain & Ireland in 1801(document to be studied from Frank-Magyarics documents)
Diplomacy: -- wars to overshadow the period
-- the consequences of the American War of Independence

-- the dilemmas caused by the French Revolution & the wars with France/1793--1801; 1802--1815/

-- the zenith of the British navy; Nelson' s victory at Trafalgar in 18o5

-- difficulties overland; changing alliances; Britain' s allies preoccupied elsewhere, e.g. with the partition of Poland; Britain often left alone against France; the French threat on British commercial interests

-- Napoleon's miscalculations with Egypt & Russia

-- Napoleon' s return from Elba; the importance of the Waterloo victory by Wellington in 1815 to end the ' 100 days'

-- the Vienna Settlement of 1815 /Lord Castlereagh for the balance of power & the Concert of Europe, but against the 'Holy Alliance' /

& the British war gains: Heligoland, Malta & the Ionian islands & further overseas possessions /the Cape Colony, Mauritius & Ceylon/

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