A history of Chile whap/Napp

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A History of Chile WHAP/Napp
Brazil was the first nation to experience the full effects of the conservative reaction to the Cuban Revolution. Claiming that Brazil’s civilian political leaders could not protect the nation from communist subversion, the army overthrew the democratically elected government of President João Goulart in 1964. The military suspended the constitution, outlawed all existing political parties, and exiled former presidents and opposition leaders. Death squads – illegal paramilitary organizations sanctioned by the government – detained, tortured, and executed thousands of citizens. The dictatorship also undertook an ambitious economic program that promoted industrialization through import substitution, using tax and tariff policies to compel foreign-owned companies to increase investment in manufacturing.

This combination of dictatorship, violent repression, and government promotion of industrialization came to be called the ‘Brazilian Solution’ in Latin America. Elements of this ‘solution’ were imposed across much of the region in the 1970s and early 1980s, beginning in Chile. In 1970 Chile’s new president, Salvador Allende, undertook an ambitious program of socialist reforms to redistribute wealth from the elite and middle classes to the poor. He also nationalized most of Chile’s heavy industry and mines, including the American-owned copper companies that dominated the Chilean economy. From the beginning of Allende’s presidency the administration of President Richard Nixon (served 1969 – 1973) worked to organize opposition to Allende’s reforms and to overturn his election. Afflicted by inflation, mass consumer protests, and declining foreign trade, Allende was overthrown in 1973 by a military uprising led by General Augusto Pinochet and supported by the United States. President Allende and thousands of Chileans died in the uprising, and thousands more were illegally seized, tortured, and imprisoned without trial. Once in power Pinochet rolled back Allende’s social reforms, dramatically reduced state participation in the economy, and encouraged foreign investment.” ~ The Earth and Its Peoples
Main Points of Passage:

  1. Chile’s Geography

  1. Western Coast of South America

  2. Between Andes and Pacific Ocean

  1. Indigenous Cultures

  1. 10,000 years ago  settled valleys/coast

  2. Diversity of cultures

  3. Slash and burn farming, hunting, fishing

  1. The Incas

  1. Extended empire into central Chile

  2. But northern area’s barrenness prevented settlement

  1. The Conquistadors

  1. 1536  looking for gold

  2. Conquest – 1540  Pedro de Valdivia, lieutenant in Pizarro’s army

  1. Spanish rule

  1. Ruled in the interest of Spain (nearly 300 years)

  2. Mercantilism  colony benefited mother country

  1. Napoleon

  1. Napoleon’s brother, Joseph, took Spanish throne

  2. Chileans proclaimed independence from Napoleon’s rule

  3. But then Spain retook the colony

  1. Bernardo O’Higgins

  1. Nationalist leader of Chile

  2. 1818 independence achieved

  3. With assistance from José de San Martín

  1. After Independence

  1. Little change of social hierarchy/Still stratified class system

  2. Influenced by Family Politics/Influenced by Roman Catholic Church

  3. Wealthy landowners dominated

  4. Suppressing Mapuche Indians

  1. Parliamentary Democracy

  1. Late 19th century but degenerated into Oligarchy

  1. Liberals and Conservatives

  1. Liberals wanted reforms while Conservatives wanted status quo

  1. Eduardo Frei Montalva

  1. Christian Democrat president in 1964/Wanted reforms

  2. But not enough for liberals and too much for conservatives

  1. Salvador Allende

  1. 1970, Marxist, named President

  2. Nationalization of key industries and land expropriation

  1. Nationalization of copper mines

  1. But opposition to his “Chilean Road to Socialism”

  2. 1973  Chilean society split apart

  1. Military Coup

  1. September 11, 1973

  2. 3,000 killed in military onslaught

  3. Presidential palace bombed with Allende inside

  4. Allende either assassinated or committed suicide

  1. General Augusto Pinochet

  1. Led new military government/17 year rule

  2. Dissolved Congress and suspended constitution

  3. Night-time curfew, limits on media

  4. Free market

  5. Brutal repression/Thousands died, thousands fled

  1. 1990

  1. Pinochet miscalculated  lost plebiscite

  2. Controlled army though until 1998

  3. Accused of corruption  $28 million in secret bank accounts and trials for human rights abuses

  4. Spent remaining years in Chile fighting charges

Application: Questions from the World History AP examination

  1. What was the Spanish conquistadors’ PRIMARY motivation in gaining new territories in the Americas?

  1. They were mainly concerned with making great profits.

  2. Above all, they wanted to bring Catholicism to the Native Americans.

  3. They planned to use the land to build prisons for Spanish felons.

  4. They hoped to find the “Fountain of Youth.”

  5. None of the above

  1. How did the harshness and ruggedness of the terrain in the Andes Mountains affect the way that societies there evolved?

  1. People were forced to cooperate with each other and work out a division of labor.

  2. Very few buildings were erected.

  3. Culture was very primitive.

  4. There was much fighting over scarce resources.

  5. Individual families tended to remain isolated, retarding the development of sophisticated societies.

  1. What political characteristic did Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina share during the 1920s and 1930s?

  1. All became democracies.

  2. All were governed by authoritarian regimes.

  3. All were monarchies.

  4. All were ruled by Getúlio Vargas

  5. All had experienced communist revolutions.

  1. Who among the following was a democratically elected leader of a Marxist government in Chile?

  1. Salvador Allende

  2. Che Guevara

  3. Augusto Pinochet

  4. Juan Perón

  5. Fidel Castro

  1. The precious metal most sought by the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas was

  1. Gold

  2. Copper

  3. Tin

  4. Silver

  5. Nickel

  1. Spain’s principal reason for colonization in the New World was

  1. Economic profit

  2. Conversion of Native Americans to Catholicism

  3. Scientific curiosity

  4. Strategic advantage

  5. The desire of ordinary Spanish to settle elsewhere

  1. At its height, how large was the Incan Empire?

  1. It stretched from Chile to what is today Panama

  2. It stretched from Argentina to Brazil

  3. It stretched from Chile to northern Ecuador

  4. It stretched from Colombia to Peru

  5. It stretched from Mexico to Costa Rica

Complete the Review Quilt Below (Place Key Points in Each Box):



Spanish Colonialism:


Class Hierarchy during Colonialism:

Class Hierarchy after Independence:

Napoleon and Chile:

Bernardo O’Higgins:

Nationalism :



Salvador Allende:

Augusto Pinochet:

1973 in Chile:

Human Rights Violations in Chile:

Charges against Pinochet:

During Pinochet’s dictatorship many who were considered political dissidents were arrested and most were never heard from again. In response to this harsh political climate, the arpillera movement was born. Arpilleras are small hand sewn and embroidered/embellished tapestries, created by women, most of whose relatives were among those listed as detained/disappeared during the military dictatorship in Chile.

  • Describe the arpillera movement.

  • Explain the historical events which led to the arpillera movement.

  • Explain the point of view of the arpillera movement.

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