A comparative Look

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Italian Unification vs. German Unification

“A Comparative Look”



Important Leaders

Victor Emmanuel II= leader of Piedmont-Sardinia; future King

Cavour= prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia

Giuseppe Garibaldi= Nationalist and leader of Red Shirt Army

Giuseppe Mazzini= Nationalist leader of Young Italy Movement

Wilhelm I= leader of Prussia; first Kaiser of unified Germany

Ottto von Bismarck= prime minister of Prussia; first chancellor of unified Germany

Wilhelm II= Kaiser of Germany; forces Bismarck to resign

Specific Goals

And Plan

Goals: Rid Italy of foreign rule and unify North under Piedmont-Sardinia and annex the South
Plan: using “Realpolitik” use nationalism to increase strength of Piedmont-Sardinia and unify all of Italy

Goals: unify German people under Prussia excluding Austria.
Plan: using “Realpolitik” use nationalism to increase strength of Prussia and unify all German people and by forming alliances to help



1. Young Italy movement leads

revolt in 1848

2. War vs. Austria gains Lombardy

3. Domino Effect causes Parma,

Tuscany, Modena, and Romagna

to revolt against foreign rulers

4. Red Shirts gain Sicily and Naples

5. Venetia gained by Seven Weeks


6. Rome joins via the Franco-

Prussian War

1. Danish War in 1864 gains

Schleswig and Holstein

2. Seven Weeks War in 1866 gains

Prussia control of unification

3. Northern German Confederation

created and excludes Austria and

catholic states

4. Franco-Prussian War in 1870

joins southern German states

with Northern German States

Date and Place of


1860 Garibaldi and Emmanuel II meet in Naples agree to unite
1861 Meeting in Turin Emmanuel confirmed as king of Italy
Limited Constitutional Monarchy

1871 German States meet in hall of mirrors at the Palace of Versailles
Declare the formation of the Second Reich
Limited Constitutional Monarchy

Future Problems/


Italy will face political, social, and economic problems:

1. little experience with self-government

2. rivalries between regions

3. language and transportation

4. unemployment/labor problems

5. standard of living will be low

Germany will expand the empire and influence around the world
Germany will become a military and industrial power
Industrialization, Militarization, and Reforms

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