A. Canada Becomes a Nation



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A. Canada Becomes a Nation
The Dominion of Canada was still a __________________ of the British Empire in 1914. Canada controlled its __________________ but not its external affairs, e.g. Alaskan Panhandle Dispute. If Britain went to war Canada was __________________ at war.

A Canadian Identity Emerges
1). Canada’s __________________ (1890-1910) was a source of pride for Canadians.

2). In 1899, Britain asked Canada to go to war with it against the in South Africa. PM Laurier sends a contingent of volunteers __________________. Many Canadians (mainly in Quebec) did not want to even send __________________. Canadians were asserting themselves.

3). Britain sided with America during the __________________ making some Canadians believe greater __________________ was needed.

4). The ____________________________________ peoples fundamentally changed the nature of what it is to be “Canadian.”

5). In the years before the __________________, Canada constructed its own navy as a symbolic gesture of independence.


World War I & Its Aftermath

__________________ supported going to war against Germany (__________________ did not). There were __________________ riots in Quebec during the war years. In 1917 Canada became internationally recognized for her victory at the __________________. After Vimy the __________________ became an army in its own right and fought on its own instead of under Britain.

Prime Minster __________________ signed Canada’s name to the __________________ (1919). Canada was given its own seat at the __________________. The “__________________” sparked a constitutional crisis, e.g. ____________________________________ asked _________________________ to dissolve Parliament; Byng refused and instead simply appointed a new prime minister to govern Canada (ignoring the wishes of Mackenzie). This crisis led to a weakening of the Governor General’s power in Canada. Further establishing Canada’s independence, the __________________ disappeared and was replaced in 1926 by the __________________________.

In 1931 Westminster passed the ________________________ granting Canada its __________________ from Britain. In 1982 Prime Minister __________________ repatriated the British North America Act (renaming it the __________________). By repatriating the BNA Act Canadians now had the legal ability to ______________________ their own constitution.

B. Canada & the Battle of Vimy Ridge


The Battle of __________________ was a military engagement that took place during the larger __________________ in April, 1917. The main combatants were the Canadian Corps (four divisions total) against three divisions of the German Sixth Army. The Canadian victory at Vimy was a defining moment for Canada, i.e. historians argue it was at this battle that Canada ____________________________________ (by achieving what both France and England could not—victory at Vimy).map of north western europe during first world war, map adapted from d.f.oliver and l.brandon, canvas of war, 2000, p.6

The Canadians achieved victory at Vimy for a number of technical reasons: firstly, normally only officers were made aware of __________________; however, at Vimy everyone regardless of rank knew what everyone’s objectives were so the entire Canadian Corps could fight as one; secondly, the assault on Vimy Ridge was __________________ many times before the actual attack took place, e.g. a full scale model of the ridge was created and the Canadian Corps practiced timings, attacks, strategies, etc. which meant they were extra prepared when it came to the actual assault; thirdly, the Canadian Corps developed a technique called ____________________________________, e.g. instead of targeting enemy soldiers Canadian machine gunners would shoot at a German position to force the Germans to keep their heads down which enabled Canadians to dash across No-Man’s Land without being shot at; if a German decided to put their head up they’d be shot; if they kept their heads down they’d soon be bayonetted by a charging Canadian; fourthly, engineers from the __________________ (a French Canadian division nicknamed the “Vandoos”) developed a technique whereby they could use the sound of enemy artillery gunfire to locate enemy artillery; this meant that during the battle the Canadian big guns could locate the big guns of the Germans and silence them; and lastly, the Canadians made use of a strategy called the “__________________,” e.g. a curtain of gunfire would precede the Canadian Corps as they headed towards the German trenches; this curtain moved forward taking out barbed wire, mines, machine guns, etc. and provided cover for the Canadians as they drew closer to the German positions. The Germans saw what the Canadians were doing and were forced to remain in the open to man their defenses. This meant the artillery had a devastating effect on the defending Germans (who normally would hide underground during artillery barrages).



The entire attack involved more than 15,000 Canadians, e.g. 3,598 were killed and 7,000 wounded.

Short Answer Questions for Unit 6 Exam
Chapter 7

1). What was the purpose of alliances in the pre-war years? What was the unintended result of the emergence of opposing alliances?
2). Historically speaking, nations typically choose war over diplomacy to solve conflicts. Why?

Chapter 8
1). List and describe the various roles that women filled during the war years. What kinds of political and social reforms did women achieve during the war?
2). Prepare a short time line that indicates when women in each of the provinces received the right to vote provincially and at the federal level.
3). If women, instead of men, were the primary decision makers in government in the years leading up to World War I could the Great war have been avoided? Why or why not?

Chapter 9
1). Describe the measures taken by the Canadians in their preparation for the assault on Vimy Ridge.
2). How do our biases affect the way we study history?
To answer this question you can use the following webpage (http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24870046). Although this question asks you talk about history generally try to make reference to Canada in to your answer.

General
1). Between the years 1899-1982 several things took place encouraging Canada to become completely independent from Great Britain. Identify and explain the significance of three of these events as they relate to Canada’s independence.




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