“a blending of Cultures” Human Geography of Latin America

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A Blending of Cultures

Human Geography of Latin America

    • Places & Terms

      • Spanish Conquest: The conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish.

      • __________________: Ancient Aztec capital

      • ________________: People of mixed Spanish & Native American heritage

      • Maquiladoras: Factories in Mexico that turn imported materials into finished products for export.

      • NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement

    • Native Americans & the Spanish Conquest

      • The rich fabric of native life in Mexico was torn apart by the Spanish conquest. In 1519 Hernando __________ landed on the coast of Mexico & marched until he reached the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico City). By 1521 he & his soldiers had conquered the Aztecs.

      • Until 1821 Mexico remained apart of the _______________ Empire.

      • Spanish influence still remains in Mexico with it’s language & Catholic religion.

      • Mexico has large mestizo population – people of mixed ____________ & Native American heritage.

    • Economics: Cities & Factories

      • Mexico continues to struggle with two main economic challenges.

        • 1. Attempting to close a long-standing gap between the ________ & the ___________. (Haves & Have Nots) *Income Gap

        • 2. Attempting to develop a modern industrial economy.

      • Many people are moving to the __________ seeking jobs, largely abandoning their farming roots. *urbanization!

      • Most factories or Maquiladoras’ are located along the border of the US. (Why? Think NAFTA)

Central America & the Caribbean

    • Places & Terms

      • Cultural hearth: Heartland or place of origin of a major culture.

      • _______________: Ship canal cut through Panama connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

      • Reggae: Music developed in Jamaica in the 1960’s. Blends African, Caribbean, & American music often dealing with social and religious problems.

      • Calypso: Music developed in Trinidad and blends elements of _________, Spain, & the Caribbean.

    • Central America is known as a cultural hearth as well as a ______________.

    • The Mayan Indians built a great civilization that spread throughout the region. What exactly happened to the Mayan people still remains very much a mystery.

Although Central America was ruled by ____________, the Caribbean was settled & claimed by many _____________ powers. *COLONIZATION

      • In addition, with disease brought over by the Europeans that killed many of the native peoples, Africans were brought over to work as ____________ further blending the cultural exchange.

      • ______________ remains an important crop in the Caribbean to this day as well as citrus fruits.

      • The Panama Canal connects the two great oceans making Panama a crossroads of world ____________.

Caribbean Colonies

    • All were mainly French-English-Dutch-Spanish-Danish Colonies

Spanish-Speaking South America

    • Places & Terms

      • Inca: People of South America who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains. (conquered by Francisco Pizarro in 1533)

      • _____________: Language of the Inca Empire. Now spoken in the Andes highlands.

      • Mercosur: Economic common market that began operating in the southern cone of South America in __________. (think NAFTA for South America)

    • One of the greatest civilizations of the Americas arose in the rugged Andes Mountains of Peru. Created by the Inca. They were later conquered by Francisco _______________ in 1533.

    • The Mercosur Trade Group

      • Economic common market that began in South America in 1995.

      • Goals include:

        • Make member economies more stable

        • Increase _________ within the region

        • Channel some profits to groups who need it most


    • Places & Terms

      • Treaty of _____________: Treaty between Spain & Portugal in 1494 that gave Portugal control over the land that is present day Brazil.

      • Carnival: The most _______________ feast day in Brazil.(think Mardi Gras)

      • Samba: Brazilian _________________ with African Influences.

      • Capoeira: Martial Arts dance developed in Brazil from African influences.

    • The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) gave _________ control over much of the land that became present-day Brazil. South America became a continent divided into the Spanish speaking west & the Portuguese-speaking east.

    • Brazilian Life Today

      • The most colorful feast day in Brazil is ______________. Floats and parade through the streets of Rio de Janeiro and people dance to the music of the samba.

      • There is a widening ____________ between the rich & the poor much like other Latin American countries resulting in crime _________ and _________ abuse.

Chapter 10 Quiz

1. The Aztec Empire fell under the rule of Spain as a result of

a. Diffusion

b. the Spanish Conquest

c. the Free Trade Agreement

d. manufacturing

2. The Aztec city that became the site of Mexico City was called

a. Augustin

b. Juarez

c. Texcoco

d. Tenochtitlan

3. NAFTA is an important trade agreement that promotes economic prosperity of

a. Mexico, the US, and Spain

b. Mexico and Spain

c. Mexico and the US

d. Mexico, Canada, and the US

4. An important Central American water route that connects the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean is the

a. Suez Canal

b. Panama Canal

c. Mississippi River Delta

d. Juarez Waterway

5. A place of origin of a major culture is known as

a. cultural crossroads

b. calypso

c. cultural hearth

d. samba

6. Conquered the Inca Empire

a. Pizarro

b. Cortes

c. Columbus

d. Magellan

7. A feast day celebrated with floats that parade through Rio de Janeiro

a. Thanksgiving

b. Mercosur

c. Halloween

d. Carnival

8. Agreement that divided South America between Spain and Portugal

a. Treaty of Tordesillas

b. Treaty of Versailles

c. Warsaw Pact

d. Treaty of Paris

9. Which of the following was developed to make South American member nations economies more stable

a. Quenchua

b. United Provinces of Central America

c. Mercosur

d. National Action Party

10. Panama was an excellent choice to build a canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans because of its

a. history

b. culture

c. economy

d. geography

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