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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) The new technology that made the fourteenth-century European conquests possible was: 1) _______

A) black powder. B) matches.

C) the horse-drawn wagon. D) the sail boat.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

2) Describe the personal and public consequences of war to societies and people.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

3) According to Sigmund Freud, violent behavior occurs when: 3) _______

A) people are not fully evolved.

B) men believe that they must compete with their father for their mother's attention and affection.

C) the id, ego, and superego come into conflict with one another.

D) children are separated from their parents at an early age.


ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

4) Discuss the different types of terrorism. Which is the most threatening to U.S. society and why?


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

5) The worst act of domestic terrorism was the Oklahoma City bombing. 5) _______


6) The US Census Bureau calculated that 40,000 Iraqi soldiers were killed while more than 80,000 Iraqi civilians were killed during Desert Storm. 6) _______
7) By World War II, destruction of civilians was deliberate U.S. wartime policy. 7) _______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

8) According to Barbara Ehrenreich, significant characteristics of war include: 8) _______

A) the way the United States fought the Gulf War.

B) the decline of the military industrial complex.

C) the decrease in civilians who have become targets of war-related violence since World War I.

D) the persistence of war.


9) All of the following statements regarding repressive terrorism are correct, except: 9) _______

A) Repressive terrorism often makes everyone a potential victim.

B) Repressive terrorism involves acts of violence against civilians that are carried out by internal enemies of the government who desire to bring about political change in a nation.

C) Repressive terrorism has taken place in Haiti, the People's Republic of China, and the Pol Pot government's regime in Cambodia.

D) Repressive terrorism often involves mass executions.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

10) The September 11, 2001 al Qaeda attacks on the U.S. are examples of revolutionary terrorism. 10) ______


11) Domestic terrorism is often used to achieve some political goal. 11) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

12) Social analyst Barbara Ehrenreich predicts that war: 12) ______

A) will be against life forms on other planets in the future.

B) may someday end because of human resistance.

C) will eventually destroy the planet.

D) is inevitable because it is deeply embedded in economic systems.


13) According to the text, peace is: 13) ______

A) unattainable.

B) a less-clearly-defined concept than war.

C) sometimes equated with losing in battle.

D) believed to be relations in a world without disagreement.
14) Functionalists identify all of the following functions of war, except: 14) ______

A) War is a means of punishing other nations that do not agree with a country's viewpoint on certain issues.

B) War serves as a means of population control.

C) War is a means of disseminating ideologies.

D) War settles disputes between nations.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

15) In the twentieth century, more lives were lost in wars than during all other centuries combined. 15) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

16) Terrorism: 16) ______

A) is the use of calculated, unlawful physical force against a government, organization, or individual to gain some objective.

B) may involve threats of violence rather than actual physical force.

C) includes tactics such as bombings, hijackings, and extortion.

D) All of these are accurate.


17) All of the following statements regarding terrorism are correct, except: 17) ______

A) Terrorist actions share certain commonalities with war.

B) Terrorists often target civilians in hopes of pressuring government officials to fulfill their demands.

C) Terrorism is similar to war in that it produces fear, loss of human life, and destruction of property.

D) Political terrorism involves war between nations.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

18) Compare and contrast war and terrorism on the issue of hurting civilians.


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

19) All of the following statements regarding war are correct, except: 19) ______

A) The term war system refers to social institutions and cultural practices that promote war as a normal part of a society and its foreign policy.

B) Some social scientists believe undeclared wars, covert operations, and some forms of terrorism should be defined as war.

C) The twentieth century was a period of both war and resistance to war.

D) General warfare refers to conflict between rival factions located within a specific geographic area.


20) All of the following statements regarding nuclear weapons are correct, except: 20) ______

A) The development of nuclear weapons contributed to war among the major world powers since the late 1940s.

B) Scientists estimate that a nuclear war could kill more than 160 million people outright and over a billion people during the first few hours.

C) Some contemporary nuclear warheads are over 4,000 times more powerful than the bombs that dropped on Japan in World War II.

D) The nuclear bomb dropped over Hiroshima killed over 130,000 people instantly or shortly thereafter.
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

21) Compare and contrast functionalist and conflict perspectives on war. Which approach do you think best explains the U.S.'s continual preparedness for war? Why?


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

22) The Cold War was primarily founded in military preparedness and the threat of war, not actual warfare. 22) ______


23) War is an institution that involves fear more than violence. 23) ______
24) Terrorists depend on media to accomplish their goals. 24) ______
25) Weapons that use biological, chemical or radiological means to destroy vast amounts of property and kill thousands of individuals are defined as the war system. 25) ______
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

26) According to the conflict perspective, the origins of war can be traced to: 26) ______

A) the functions it serves in society.

B) inherited predispositions that are more common in males than females.

C) the language people use when they communicate with one another.

D) corporate boardrooms and the economy.


27) Organized violence by individuals or groups who seek to promote their cause or resist social policies or practices they consider oppressive is known as: 27) ______

A) organized warfare. B) civil strife.

C) terrorism. D) collective violence.
28) All of the following statements regarding strategically significant weapons systems are correct, except: 28) ______

A) Strategically significant weapons can destroy petrochemical plants.

B) Strategically significant weapons have become less important in contemporary warfare.

C) Strategically significant weapons decisively erode the enemy's war-making capability.

D) Strategically significant weapons determine the winners and losers in wars.
29) The longest series of terrorist acts in the United States occurred when the: 29) ______

A) World Trade Center in New York City was bombed.

B) Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, mailed bombs to people.

C) Montana Freeman engaged in a standoff with the FBI.

D) Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in Oklahoma City.
30) Post-traumatic stress disorder: 30) ______

A) has been linked to high rates of drug abuse and suicide.

B) includes situations (such as television programs or movies) that trigger a flashback to a wartime event.

C) has been identified as a psychological disorder experienced by many Vietnam War veterans.

D) All of these are accurate.
31) The text states that war is: 31) ______

A) a form of justified interpersonal violence.

B) economic resolution.

C) historically absent before the 18th century.

D) intended to bring pain, injury, and stress to people or to harm property.
32) According to Tamotsu Shibutani, prolonged conflicts turn into a: 32) ______

A) dehumanization of the enemy.

B) reduction of overpopulation.

C) struggle between good and evil.

D) vilification of minority groups.
33) ________ involves acts of violence against civilians that are carried out by internal enemies of the government who desire to bring about political change in a nation. 33) ______

A) Persecution terrorism B) Repressive terrorism

C) State-sponsored terrorism D) Revolutionary terrorism
34) According to biological explanations for war and terrorism: 34) ______

A) people inherit a tendency toward aggressive behavior.

B) such behaviors evolved out of a communal defense response of prehuman ancestors.

C) violent behavior may be linked to chemical or physical abnormalities.

D) All of these are accurate.
35) In 2004, the nations of the world spent nearly ________ billion dollars on military expenditures. 35) ______

A) 950 B) 750 C) 550 D) 350


TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

36) Colonel Muammar Qaddafi as leader of Libya, provided money and training for terrorist groups which financed the skyjacking of an airplane over Turkey. This is an example of state sponsored terrorism. 36) ______


37) Political and revolutionary terrorism are synonymous. 37) ______
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

38) Discuss reasons why war and terrorism are both domestic and global social problems. Can these problems be reduced without international cooperation? Why or why not?


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

39) The Cold War: 39) ______

A) involved joint Chinese-U.S. military research.

B) refers to a conflict between nations based on military preparedness and the threat of war.

C) involved an international space race.

D) is likely to continue in the twenty-first century.


40) According to Jennifer Turpin and Lester Kurtz, many people are ambivalent about war because they: 40) ______

A) believe the only way to fight violence is with more violence.

B) know war contributes to the economic well-being of their society.

C) have seen violent movies and enjoyed them.

D) have not evolved beyond the primal confrontations of their prehuman ancestors.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

41) Friedman and Friedman argue that "smart weapons" used by the US in Desert Storm do not kill or harm civilians, hence the name "smart weapons." 41) ______


MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

42) Which of the following statements most accurately describes the effect of war on civilians? 42) ______

A) Civilians are less likely to be killed in today's wars than in the past because of new technologies that make it possible to strike targets without killing people.

B) Using advanced statistical methods, it is relatively easy to determine the number of civilian casualties in wars such as the Gulf War.

C) Civilians were the primary casualties of war prior to World War II.

D) Civilians accounted for 75 to 90 percent of all war-related deaths in the 1980s and 1990s.


43) The major direct effect of war is: 43) ______

A) loss of human life.

B) the psychological effects that war has on survivors.

C) the serious physical consequences war has on survivors.

D) All of these are accurate.
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

44) The U.S. military-industrial complex first emerged during World War II. 44) ______


45) During the twentieth century, new technologies made wars more deadly than in previous centuries. 45) ______
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