A abilene a city in central Kansas; in the 1860s, Abilene was the northern end of the Chisholm Trail; 39¡N, 97¡W. (m. 521, t. 520) Africa

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This Gazetteer is a geographical dictionary that will help you to pronounce and locate the places discussed in this book. Latitude and longitude are given for cities and some other places. The page numbers tell you where each place appears on a map or in the text.


Abilene A city in central Kansas; in the 1860s, Abilene was the northern end of the Chisholm Trail; 39¡N, 97¡W. (m. 521, t. 520)

Africa One of Earth's seven continents. (m. 121, t. 120)

Alamo The A mission in San Antonio, Texas, where Mexican troops defeated Texan defenders in 1836; 30¡N, 98¡W. (t. 419)

Alaska Range A mountain range in southern Alaska. (m. R10)

Albany Capital of New York State; 43¡N, 74¡W. (m. 34)

Alberta A province of Canada, in the southwestern part of the country. (m. 653)

Allegheny Mountains A mountain range in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, part of the Appalachians. (m. R11)

Amazon River The longest river in South America, flowing from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. (m. 665, t. 664)

Anchorage A city in southern Alaska, the largest city in the state and an important port; 61¡N, 150¡W (m. R10, t. 83)

Andes Mountains A mountain range along the west coast of South America, the world's longest chain of mountains. (m. 665, t. 664)

Angel Island An island in San Francisco Bay, California, which served as the west coast entry point for immigrants from the 1880s to the early 1920s; 38¡N, 122¡W (t. 546)

Annapolis Capital of Maryland and site of the U.S. Naval Academy; 39¡N, 76¡W. (m. 34)

Antarctic Circle A line of latitiude at 66¡33'S. (m. R14)

Antarctica One of Earth's seven continents. (m. G5, t. G4)

Antietam A creek near the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland, site of a major Civil War battle in 1862; 39¡N, 78¡W (m. 491, t. 478)

Appalachian Mountains Chain of mountains stretching from Canada to Alabama. (m. R11, t. 214)

Appomattox Court House A town in central Virginia, where Confederate General Lee surrendered to Union General Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War; 37¡N, 79¡W (m. 491, t. 492)

Arctic Circle A line of latitude at 66¡ 30'N. (m. R14)

Arctic Ocean The smallest of Earth's four oceans. (m. G5, t. G4)

Argentina A country in southern South America. (m. 665, t. 664)

Asia The largest of Earth's seven continents. (m. R15, t. 114)

Atlanta Capital and largest city in the state of Georgia; 34¡N, 84¡W. (m. 33, t. 489)

Atlantic Ocean One of Earth's four oceans. (m. R14, t. G4)

Augusta Capital of Maine; 44¡N, 70¡W (m. 34) Austin (Os'tin) Capital of Texas; 30¡N, 98¡W (m. 31)

Australia The smallest of Earth's seven continents. (m. G5, t. G4)


Bahama Islands A chain of islands in the West Indies, southeast of Florida. (m. 139, t. 141)

Baja California A long, narrow peninsula that juts out from the northwest corner of Mexico. (m. 657)

Baltimore The largest city in Maryland and a port on Chesapeake Bay; 39¡N, 77¡W (m. R9, t. 388)

Baton Rouge Capital of Lousiana; 30¡N, 91¡W (m. 33)


Belize A country on the northeastern coast of Central America, on the Caribbean Sea. (m. 661, t. 661)

Bering Strait A narrow waterway connecting the Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. (m. R10, t. 86)

Beringia A sunken land bridge that once connected North America and Asia. The first people to come to North America may have used this route across what is now the Bering Strait; 62¡N, 167¡W (m. 76, t. 76)

Berlin The capital of Germany, divided from 1945 to 1989; 53¡N, 13¡E. (m. 602, t. 605)

Berlin Wall A wall that separated communist East Berlin and democratic West Berlin. It was torn down in 1989 as part of a democratic revolution. (t. 635)

Birmingham A city in north-central Alabama, the largest city in the state; 34¡N, 87¡W. (m. R9)

Bismark Capital of North Dakota; 47¡N, 101¡W. (m. 32)

Black Hills A mountain range in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming. (m. R10, t. 98)

Boise Capital and largest city of Idaho; 44¡N, 116¡W (m. 30)

Bolivia A country in west-central South America. (m. 665, t. 651)

Boonesborough A town in east-central Kentucky, now Boonesboro; site of fort founded in 1775 by Daniel Boone; 38¡N, 84¡W. (m. 376, t. 377)

Boston Capital and largest city of Massachusetts; 42¡N, 71¡W (m. 34, t. 204)

Boswash Unofficial name given to the megalopolis of cities running south from Boston, Massachusetts, to Washington, D. C. (m. 34, t. 34)

Brasilia The capital of Brazil; 16¡S, 48¡W. (m. 665, t. 650)

Brazil The largest country in South America, in the eastern part of the continent. (m. 665, t. 664)

British Columbia A province in southwestern Canada. (m. 653)

Brooks Range A mountain range extending across the northern part of Alaska. (m. R10)

Buenos Aires The capital of Argentina; 35¡S, 58¡W (m. 665, t. 650)

Bull Run A stream in northeastern Virginia near Washington, D. C.; site of two major Civil War battles in which the Union forces were defeated (1861 and 1862); 39¡N, 77¡W. (m. 491, t. 475)


Cahokia A city founded around 1,300 years ago by moundbuilding peoples near the Mississippi River, in present-day Illinois; 38¡N, 90¡W (m. 74, t. 73)

California Trail A trail through the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada mountains to the California gold fields used by "Forty-Niners" in 1849. (m. 431, t. 432)

Cambodia A country in southeastern Asia. (m. 628, t. 629)

Canada A country in northern North America, bordering the United States. The second-largest country in the world, it is made up of ten provinces and two territories. (m. 563, t. 652)

Canadian Shield A low-lying plateau of ancient rocks that covers more than half of Canada. (m. 653, t. 653)

Cape Canaveral The site of the Kennedy Space Center; main United States launching and testing center for missiles and spacecraft, on the Atlantic coast of Florida; 28¡N, 81¡W. (t. 639)

Cape Cod A peninsula in southeastern Massachusetts, enclosing Cape Cod Bay. (m. 188, t. 187)

Cape Horn The southernmost tip of South America. (m. 665)

Cape of Good Hope The southernmost tip of Africa; 34¡S, 18¡E. (m. 126, t. 127)

Caribbean Sea A part of the Atlantic Ocean, due east of Central America. (m. 660, t. 660)

Carson City Capital of Nevada; 39¡N, 120¡W (m. 30)

Cascade Range A mountain range extending from northern California through Oregon and Washington. (m. R10)

Catskill Mountains A mountain range in New York State, part of the Appalachian Range. (m. 214)

Central America A region between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, occupying the southern part of the North American continent south of Mexico. (m. 661, t. 660)

Central Valley A valley lying between the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada mountains in California. (m. K10, t. 660)

Chapultepec A rocky hill in Mexico City, Mexico, site of a fortress captured by United States forces in 1847 in the Mexican War; 19¡N, 99¡W. (t. 424)

Charleston Capital and largest city in West Virginia; 38¡N, 82¡W (m. 33) and a coastal city in southeastern South Carolina, originally Charles Town; 33¡N, 80¡W. (m. 332, t. 243)


Charlestown A town in Massachusetts across the Charles River from Boston; the Battle of Bunker Hill was fought near there in 1775; 42¡N, 71¡W. (m. 301, t. 304)

Chesapeake Bay A long arm of the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. (m. 179, t. 178)

Cheyenne Capital of Wyoming; 41¡N, 105¡W. (m. 30, t. 523)

Chicago A city in northeastern Illinois, the largest city in the state, a transportation and manufacturing center; 42¡N, 88¡W. (m. R9, t. 267)

Chile A country in southwestern South America. (m. 665, t. 665)

China A country in eastern Asia, the most populous in the world. (m. 116, t. 114)

Chisholm Trail A cattle trail from San Antonio, Texas, to Abilene, Kansas, in use from 1867 to 1886. (m. 521, t. 520)

Coast Ranges The mountain ranges along the Pacific Coast of North America. (m. R10)

Colorado River A river in the southwestern United States, flowing from Colorado to the Gulf of California. (m. R10, t. 382)

Columbia Capital and largest city in South Carolina; 34¡N, 81¡W. (m. 33)

Columbia River A river in northwestern North America which begins in Canada and flows between Oregon and Washington into the Pacific Ocean. (m. R10, t. 382)

Columbus Capital of Ohio; 40¡N, 83¡W (m. 32)

Concord Capital of New Hampshire; 43¡N, 72¡W. (m. 34)

Concord A town in eastern Massachusetts, site of one of the first battles of the American Revolution; 42¡N, 71¡W. (m. 301, t. 302)

Continental Divide An elevation of land that runs along the tops of the Rocky Mountains. Rivers to the west drain into the Pacific Ocean and rivers to the east drain into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. (m. 30, t. 30)

Corn Belt An area of the Middle West well-suited to growing corn. (m. 32, t. 32)

Costa Rica A country in southern Central America. (m. 661, t. 650)

Cuba An island country in the Caribbean Sea, the largest and westernmost of the West Indies. (m. 661, t. 556)

Cumberland Gap A natural pass through the Cumberland Mountains, of Kentucky. 37¡N, 84¡W (m. 376, t. 377)


Dallas A city in northeastern Texas; 33¡N, 97¡W (m. R8)

Death Valley The lowest point in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Mojave Desert in California; 37¡N, 117¡W (m. R10)

Denver Capital and largest city in Colorado; 40¡N, 105¡W (m. 30)

Des Moines Capital and largest city in Iowa. 42¡N, 84¡W; (m. 32)

Detroit A city in southeastern Michigan, the largest city in the state, an important manufacturing center; 42¡N, 83¡W (m. R9, t. 267)

District of Columbia Area encompassing the capital of the United States; 39¡N, 77¡W (m. R9, t. 379)

Dodge City A city in southwestern Kansas. In the 1870s and 1880s, Dodge City was a railhead at the end of a major cattle trail; 38¡N, 100¡VV. (m. 521, t. 520)

Dominican Republic A country in the West Indies, occupying the eastern part of the island of Hispaniola. (m. 661, t. 650)

Dover Capital of Maryland; 39¡N, 76¡W. (m. 34)

Dust Bowl A 150,000-square-mile area of the Great Plains that suffered years of drought and dust storms in the 1930s. (m. 593, t. 593)


Eastern Hemisphere The half of Earth that lies east of the Prime Meridian (0¡ longitude) and west of 180¡ longitude. (m. G5, t. G4)

Ecuador A country on the northwestern coast of South America. (m. 665, t. 651)

El Camino Real A number of routes that connected Spain's colonies in the American Southwest to Mexico from the late 1500s to the middle 1800s. (m. 260, t. 257)

El Salvador A country in western Central America. (m. 661, t. 660)

Ellis Island A small island in upper New York Bay which served as the chief United States point of arrival for immigrants from 1892 to 1943; 41¡N, 74¡W. (m. 539, t. 546)

England A part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies the southern part of the island of Great Britain. (m. 126, t. 125)

equator An imaginary line encircling Earth halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole, designated as 0¡ latitude. (m. G5, t. G4)

Erie Canal A human-made waterway across New York State, connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie. (m. 413, t. 412)


Europe One of Earth's seven continents, between Asia and the Atlantic Ocean. (m. G5, t. 18)


Florida Keys A chain of small islands off the southern coast of Florida. (m. R11)

Fort Duquesne A fort built by the French in 1754 where Pittsburgh stands today. (t. 273)

Fort McHenry A fort protecting the harbor of Baltimore, Maryland. (t. 388)

Fort Necessity A temporary fort built 60 miles south of Fort Duquesne in 1754 by troops under George Washington's command; 40¡N, 80¡W; (t. 273)

Fort Sumter A fort guarding the entrance to Charleston Harbor, South Carolina; site of the first battle of the Civil War; 33¡N, 80¡W (m. 491, t. 472)

Fort Ticonderoga A fort on Lake Champlain, New York; site of important battles in the American Revolution; 44¡N, 74¡W (m. 332, t. 304)

Fort Vincennes A fort on the site of present-day Vincennes, Indiana, on the Wabash River; 39¡N, 88¡W (m. 332, t. 329)

Fort Wagner A fort on Morris Island in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina; 33¡N, 80¡W (t. 480)

Four Corners The place at which the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado meet; 37¡N, 109¡W. (m. 74, t. 74)

France A country in western Europe. (m. 126, t. 125)

Frankfort Capital of Kentucky; 38¡N, 85¡W (m. 33)

French Guiana An overseas department of France on the Atlantic coast of South America. (m. 665, t. 651)


Gao In the 1400s, the capital of the African kingdom of Songhai; 16¡N, 0¡W. (m. 121, t. 122)

Gettysburg A town in south-central Pennsylvania, site of a major Union victory during the Civil War; 40¡N, 77¡W (m. 491, t. 484)

Goliad A city in Texas where Texan defenders were defeated by Mexican troops in 1836; 29¡N, 97¡W. (t. 419)

Grand Canyon A vast and richly colored canyon on the Colorado River in northwestern Arizona. (m. 31, t. 31)

Great Lakes A group of five large freshwater lakes in North America along the border between Canada and the United States. The Great Lakes are Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. (m. R11, t. 264)

Great Salt Lake A lake in northwestern Utah, the largest salt lake in North America; 41¡N, 113¡W (m. R10, t. 429)

Great Wall A fortified barrier of stone and earth that winds continuously over 1,500 miles in northern China. (m. 116, t. 115)

Greensboro A city in north-central North Carolina; 36¡N, 80¡W (t. 620)

Grenada An island country in the West Indies. (m. 661, t. 650)

Guadalajara The second largest city in Mexico, located northwest of Mexico City; 21¡N, 103¡W (m. 657 t. 659)

Guam An island in the western Pacific Ocean; 14¡N, 143¡E. (m. 556, t. 557)

Guatemala A country in the northern part of Central America. (m. 661, t. 661)

Gulf of Mexico An arm of the Atlantic Ocean, between the United States and Mexico. (m. 657 t. 267)

Guyana A country on the northeastern coast of South America. (m. 665, t. 651)


Haiti A country in the West Indies, occupying the western part of the island of Hispaniola. (m. R7 t. 660)

Harlem A district of New York City, on Manhattan Island. (t. 587)

Harpers Ferry A town in northeastern West Virginia; 39¡N, 78¡W (m. 443, t. 463)

Harrisburg Capital of Pennsylvania. 40¡N, 77¡W (m. 34)

Hartford Capital of Connecticut; 42¡N, 73¡W. (m. 34)


Helena Capital of Montana; 47¡N, 112¡W (m. 30)

Hiroshima A port in southwestern Japan on the island of Honshu; the first city where an atomic bomb was dropped; 34¡N, 132¡E. (m. 602, t. 605)

Hispaniola An island in the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean. (m. 139, t.661)

Hodenosaunee Trail A 250-mile path connecting the homelands of five Iroquois peoples in the 1500s. (m. 104, t. 104)

Honduras A country in northern Central America. (m. 661, t. 661)

Honolulu Capital and largest city of Hawaii; 21¡N, 158¡E. (m. 30, t. 555)

Hoover Dam A dam built in 1936 on the Colorado River at the Nevada-Arizona border by the Works Project Admistration (WPA); it forms Lake Mead; 36¡N, 115¡W. (t. 596)

Houston The largest city in Texas and a major port; 30¡N, 95¡W (m. R9, t. 420)

Hudson Bay A large inland sea in northeastern Canada. (m. 653)

Hudson River A tidal river in eastern New York that empties into the Atlantic Ocean. (m. 176, t. 175)


India A large peninsular country in southern Asia. (m. 116, t. 116)

Indian Ocean One of Earth's four largest bodies of water, south of Asia, between Africa and Australia. (m. G5, t. G4)

Indian Territory Land set aside by the Indian Removal Act of 1830 as a place for Native Americans forced from their homelands; (m. 398, t. 397)

Indianapolis Capital and largest city in Indiana; 40¡N, 86¡W (m. 32)

Iraq A country in southwestern Asia. (m. 32, t. 636)

Isthmus of Panama A narrow strip of land connecting North America and South America. (m. 661, t. 562)

Italy A country in southern Europe. (m. 126, t. 125)


Jackson Capital and largest city in Mississippi; 32¡N, 90¡W (m. 33)

Jamaica An island country in the West Indies, south of Cuba. (m. 661, t. 661)

Jamestown A town in southeastern Virginia; the first permanent English settlement in North America, founded in 1607; 37¡N, 77¡W (m. 179, t. 180)

Jefferson City Capital of Missouri; 39¡N, 92¡W. (m. 32)

Jenne A city located on the Niger River in present-day Mali, in Africa. 14¡N, 5¡W (m. 121, t. 121)

Juneau Capital of Alaska; 58¡N, 135¡W (m. 30, t. 555)


Kansas City A city in western Missouri, the largest city in the state; 39¡N, 95¡W. (m. R9)

Kitty Hawk A village on the Outer Banks off the coast of North Carolina. Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful airplane flight there in 1903; 36¡N, 76¡W. (m. 539, t. 563)

Kuwait A country in southwestern Asia. (m. R14, t. 636)


Lake Erie The southernmost of the Great Lakes, bordering Canada and the United States. (m. R11, t. 412)

Lake Huron Second-largest of the Great Lakes, bordering Canada and the United States. (m. R11)

Lake Michigan Third-largest of the Great Lakes, between Michigan and Wisconsin. (m.R11)

Lake Ontario The smallest and easternmost of the Great Lakes, bordering Canada and the United States. (m. R11)

Lake Superior The largest and northernmost of the Great Lakes, bordering Canada and the United States. (m. R11)

Lansing Capital of Michigan; 43¡N, 85¡W. (m. 32)

Latin America The part of the Western Hemisphere south of the United States-including Mexico, Central America, South America, and the West Indies. (m. R6, t. 390)

Lexington A town in eastern Massachusetts, site of one of the first battles of the American Revolution; 42¡N, 71¡W. (m. 301, t. 302)

Lincoln Capital of Nebraska; 41¡N, 97¡W. (m. 32)

Little Bighorn River A river in northern Wyoming and southern Montana. (t. 532)

Little Rock Capital and largest city of Arkansas; 41¡N, 97¡W (m. 33)


Los Angeles A city in southwestern California, the chief port and largest city in the state, the second largest city in the United States; 34¡N, 118¡W (m. R8 t. 626)

Lowell A city in northeastern Massachusetts; 42¡N, 71¡W (t. 406)


Madison Capital of Wisconsin; 43¡N, 89¡W. (m. 32)

Manitoba A province of Canada, in the southern part of the country. (m. 653)

Menlo Park A town in central New Jersey, site of Thomas Edison's laboratory; 41¡N, 74¡W. (t. 541)

Mesa Verde The name given an Anasazi village built around A.D. 900 into the side of a steep cliff, located in present-day Colorado; 57¡N, 108¡W (m. 74, t. 75)

Mexico A North American country on the southern border of the United States. (m. 657 t. 656)

Mexico City Capital and largest city in Mexico, the second largest city in the world; 19¡N, 99¡W (m. 161, t. 156)

Miami A port city in southeastern Florida; 26¡N, 80¡W (m. R9)

Middle Colonies The name given to the English colonies of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania before the American Revolution. (m. 212, t. 212)

Mississippi River A river in the central United States, flowing from Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico; the longest river in the United States. (m. R11, t. 33)

Missouri River A large tributary of the Mississippi, flowing from Montana to the Mississippi River north of St. Louis. (m. R10, t. 382)

Mojave Desert A desert in southeastern California; 35¡N, 117¡W (m. R10)

Montgomery Capital of Alabama; 32¡N, 86¡W (m. 33, t. 618)

Monticello The home designed by Thomas Jefferson, southeast of Charlottesville, Virginia; 38¡N, 78¡W (t. 314)

Montpelier Capital of Vermont; 44¡N, 73¡W. (m. 34)

Montreal A port city in southern Quebec; Canada's largest city; 46¡N, 74¡W (m. 653)

Mormon Trail A route west named for the 20,000 Mormons who migrated from Nauvoo, Illinois, between 1837 and 1847 (m. 431, t. 429)

Mount McKinley The highest mountain in North America, elevation 20,320 feet (6,194 m), located in the Alaska Range in south-central Alaska; also known as Denali, or "Great One"; 64¡N, 153¡W (m. R10)

Mount Vernon The Virginia home and burial place of George Washington, on the Potomac River; 39¡N, 77¡W (t. 322)

Mount Whitney The highest mountain in the continental United States, elevation 14,494 (4,418 m), located in southeast California; 37¡N, 118¡W (m. R10)


Nagasaki A city in Japan on the western coast of the island of Kyushu. It was the second city struck by an atomic bomb; 33¡N, 130¡E. (m. 602, t. 605)

Nashville Capital of Tennessee; 36¡N, 87¡W (m. 33)

National Road A road built in the first half of the 1800s. It ran from Maryland to the Mississippi River, opening the way for pioneers moving west. (m. 413, t. 410)

New Amsterdam An early Dutch settlement in New Netherland, on the site of present-day New York City; 41¡N, 74¡W. (m. 176, t. 210)

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