600 ce – 1450 ce the Life of Muhammad



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5. Post-classical China

You need to know the patterns and trends of the Post-classical Chinese dynasties, as these dynasties had a significant impact on Post-classical East and Southeast Asia




Dynasty

Specific Characteristics

Shared Characteristics

Sui


        • 589 CE: Sui reestablish centralized government in China after a period of disorder following the collapse of the Han dynasty

        • very brief rule, followed by internal chaos again




        • pattern of internal disorder, then reestablished centralized rule

        • trend of increasing lands controlled by the Chinese

        • revival and strengthening of the civil service examination system

        • increase in status of scholar gentry

        • continued increase in the volume of trade accompanied by the participation in trade over seas (connected to the Indian Ocean trade routes)

        • trend of strengthening the patriarchy

Shared Characteristics



        • pattern of internal disorder, then reestablished centralized rule

        • trend of increasing lands controlled by the Chinese

        • revival and strengthening of the civil service examination system

        • increase in status of scholar gentry

        • continued increase in the volume of trade accompanied by the participation in trade over seas (connected to the Indian Ocean trade routes)

        • trend of strengthening the patriarchy


Tang


        • 618 CE: rise of the Tang

        • expanded Chinese authority to include Central Asia (Modern Afghanistan), Tibet, Manchuria, and Vietnam

        • continued construction of the Great Wall

        • use of diplomacy to control and regulate huge territory

        • revival of scholar-gentry (Confucian scholars as workers in the bureaucracy)

        • Buddhism gained popularity and acceptance; rapid and prodigious construction of Buddhist monasteries; Empress Wu supported Buddhism; tax exemptions led to monasteries growing wealthy; later Tang rulers worked to stop the growing influence of Buddhists

        • Confucianism regained popularity as Buddhism receded into the background

        • Tang rule weakened and collapsed due to rebellions and invasions from the North

        • Achievements: trade/travel protected and increased; trade by sea increased (junk ships very advanced); use of paper money and earliest forms of credit (letters of credit); urbanization; public works projects like canals and irrigation increased agricultural production; land redistribution; invention of gunpowder

        • population in rice growing areas (south) becomes larger than in wheat-growing areas (north)



Song


Song


        • 960 CE: Song dynasty gains control of most of China, but pays tribute to settled invaders in the north

        • Neo-Confucianism: blending of Confucianism and Buddhism; reinforced traditional ideas about respect for authority, family values, and gender roles

        • Song preference for scholars over soldiers prevented the Song from overpowering the northern invaders ; taxes to pay tribute burdened the peasant class

        • Northern part of Song China invaded by nomads in the North and Song influence retreated south of the Yangtze River

        • Song continued to rule this area of China until the late 13th century

        • Achievements: advanced weapons (catapults); moveable type; compasses; abacus

        • Patriarchy: footbinding and deterioration of the status of women





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