What effects did European colonization and exploration have on the Native American tribes of the Miami area? Was it a positive or a negative experience for Native Americans?
The Effects of Exploration on The Tequesta- Native Americans in Miami
Florida Literacy Standards Alignment:
LAFS.4.RI.1.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
LAFS.4.RI.1.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.
NGSSS -Social Science Standards Alignment:
SS.4.A.3.1 Identify explorers who came to Florida and the motivations for their expeditions.
SS.4.A.3.2 Describe causes and effects of European colonization on the Native American tribes of Florida.
SS.4.A.3.6 Identify the effects of Spanish rule in Florida.
SS.4.A.9.1 Utilize timelines to sequence key events in Florida history.
Please note: The reading(s) associated with this lesson is for both teacher content knowledge and student content knowledge development. Teachers are encouraged to use the readings in their entirety and/or select portions of the reading to best fit the needs and reading levels of their particular students. It is highly suggested that teachers review the reading(s) thoroughly and adapt the reading(s) and plan instruction using appropriate instructional strategies in order to maximize student understanding according to their particular students’ abilities.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
Topic: The Effects of Exploration on The Tequesta- Native Americans in Miami Essential Question What effects did European colonization and exploration have on the Native American tribes of the Miami area? Was it a positive experience for the Native Americans or a negative one?
Learning Goals 1. The students will be able to describe the differences between Spanish and British Rule.
2. The students will be able to explain the results of the American Revolution.
3. The students will be able to explain the transfer of Florida control from 1492 to 1783.
4. The students will be able to utilize timelines to sequence key events in Miami’s history.
5. The students will be able to describe effects of European colonization on the Native American tribes of the Miami area
Overview Students will demonstrate an understanding of the transfer of Florida control from 1492 to 1783 and the effect of each European occupation on the local Native American tribes in the Miami area.
Background Information Control of Florida has changed several times during its history. Three different European countries have controlled the area at one time or another. Spain’s control of Florida started in 1513. Then, France was in Florida between 1562 and 1565. After the Spanish destroyed Fort Caroline, Spain regained control. Another European country, England, also had an interest in Florida.
Students will read about the local Native Americans and what happened when these different cultures met. As they read, students should think about how the actions of the different groups of people from Europe affected Native Americans—and each other.
“Control of Florida/Miami” Reading Passage
The Effects of the European Fights Over Florida quiz
Teacher Timeline Answer Sheet
Student Timeline Template
Introduction (3 minutes)
Ask students “What if you have a visitor who came to visit you a few times and at first you didn’t know them very well so it was a little awkward. Later the two of you learned to share things and work together. You had a great time while they were with you but by the time they left they hurt your feelings and left you feeling really badly. (1 minute)
Ask the students to take two minutes to write if they think this was a positive experience or a negative experience. (2 minute)
Activity (10 minutes)
Students will read “Control of Florida/Miami” passage (3minutes)
Teacher will ask Higher Order Thinking Questions to assist students in thinking critically about the text.
Which Southeastern most tribe is part of our local history?
Why was there both cooperation and conflict between the colonists and Native Americans?
How did the friendly relations between the Tequesta and colonists affect the tribe?
What were the similarities and difference between the interaction of the Native Americans with the British and interactions with the Spanish?
Students will complete the Timeline of the Struggle for Florida and Its Effects on Miami (7 minutes)
Closure (2 minutes)
Based on what we have read and learned, what effects did European colonization and exploration have on the Native American tribes of the Miami area? Was it a positive experience for the Native Americans or a negative one?
Prepare a stack of about 25 (depending on the # of kids in the class) basic facts about the Local History related to the Struggle for Florida. One card is passed out randomly to each student. The person who gets the card that says START begins.
It goes like this:
"I have the person who established the first mission on the mouth of the Miami River. You have.
Next person says "I have Francisco Villareal. You have the Southeastern most tribe of Native American in Florida."
The game continues through all the cards. The last card says STOP.
If you play using a timer, interest is kept through many practices. Kids try to beat their previous time. This also practices listening skills as we don't repeat the question. We just add time to the timer.
Write a Journal Entry
You are a European settler. Write a journal entry describing your experiences. Since your journal is your record of what has happened, you will want to include major events as well as how you feel about your experiences. Use information, the text and other references to write your journal entry. Organize your ideas detailing; your goal for going on the expedition, what the land looked like, what the native Americans were like, and what you learned from the experience.
At the beginning of the historic period, in 1492 AD, it is conservatively estimated that there were about 100,000 natives living in Florida. Some estimate as many as 350,000. Accepting the first estimate, the distribution is thought of as this: Timucuans in the northeast, 40,000; Apalachee and Pensacola in the northwest, 25,000; Tocobaga in the west-central, 8,000; Calusa in the southwest, 20,000; Tequesta in the southeast, 5,000; Jeaga, Jobe and Ais (pronounced 'ice') in the east-central, 2,000. There were others, as well as sub-groups, i.e., Saturiwa, Santaluces, Boca Ratones, Tocobaga, etc.
After 1513, the Spaniards began to explore and settle in their territory. Southernmost of all the tribes in Florida were the Tequesta, a name that seems to be associated with a group of tribes. As a group of tribes, the Tequesta were a savage people, scattered up and down the eastern seaboard, extending from the Keys to the northern limits of old Dade County. Then, France was in Florida between 1562 and 1565. After the Spanish destroyed Fort Caroline near what is now Jacksonville, Florida, Spain regained control.
From 1565-1572 Francisco Villareal, a Spanish missionary, built aJesuitmission at the mouth of the Miami River, but it was short-lived. These Franciscan Jesuits established a fortified mission on the site on Biscayne Bay. Key Biscayne and Biscayne Bay are supposed to be derived from the name the Viscaynos who were a tribe among theTequesta tribes,. This mission did not produce many converts so the Jesuits left and decided to look for more willing subjects outside of Florida. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fight European-introduced diseases, such assmallpox, without European help. Wars with other tribes greatly weakened their population. Powerful in the seventeenth century these tribes rapidly dwindled in numbers under the attacks of the Lower Creeks, and they were easily defeated in 1702 and 1703.
By 1711, the Tequesta had sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba to ask if they could migrate there. The Cubans sent two ships to help them, but Spanish illnesses struck, killing most of their population. By the late 1700s, it is thought that all or most of these indigenous natives were gone, but they were never "destroyed" or "fully conquered,". They were eventually absorbed, such of them as remained in southern Florida, into the Lower Creek group and neighboring Calusa tribe, and took on the name of Seminoles (the "Wild People"). In 1743, Franciscans Jesuits renewed the attempts to establish a fort and a church. The Spaniards sent another mission to Biscayne Bay, where they built their mission.The missionary priests proposed a permanent settlement, where the Spanish settlers would raise food for the soldiers and Native Americans. However, the proposal was rejected as impractical and the mission was withdrawn before the end of the year.
Native Americans’ way of life changed—for good and for bad— during Spanish colonization. For example, Native Americans gained new goods and ways of doing things. Through trade, Native Americans got metal tools and weapons, glass beads, and other European items. Native Americans also learned about Spanish agriculture and used Spanish language and clothing. These new items and methods usually made life easier for Native Americans. However, by taking on parts of Spanish culture, Native Americans lost many of their traditional ways of living.
In 1763, France, Britain, and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris at the end of the French and Indian War. As part of the treaty, France gave up almost all of its land in North America and Spain gave up Florida. During the French and Indian War, Britain had captured Havana, Spain’s busiest port. In exchange for Havana, the Spanish traded Florida to Britain. The British then divided Florida into two territories: East Florida and West Florida. This time is known as the British Period.
In an attempt to bring settlers to East Florida, the British offered land grants to settlers who would come to farm and defend the new British territory. The first governor of East Florida was James Grant. Grant did more to increase the population of East Florida than anyone else. He remained friends with the Seminole Indians and traded goods with them.
In 1766, Samuel Touchett received a land grant from the British government of 20,000 acres (81 km2) in the Miami area. The grant was surveyed by Bernard Romans in 1772. A condition for making the grant permanent was that at least one white settler had to live on the grant for every 100 acres (0.4 km2) of land. While Touchett wanted to place a plantation on the grant, he was having financial problems and was never able to develop it.
Reclaimed by the Spanish
Unlike the northern colonies, Florida did not have problems with Britain. In fact, many of the English settlers that lived in East Florida invited Loyalists from South Carolina and Georgia to move to Florida. The majority of these Loyalists settled in St. Augustine. Most of the war took place far north of Florida, but Florida suffered occasional raids. In 1779, Spain took advantage of Britain’s preoccupation with the colonies and invaded West Florida. By 1781, Britain had lost West Florida to Spain. At the end of the American Revolution, Spain regained the rest of Florida.
The British did not rule Florida for long. Unlike the northern colonies, Florida did not have problems with Britain. In fact, many of the English settlers that lived in East Florida invited Loyalists from South Carolina and Georgia to move to Florida once the war broke out.Although, most of the war took place far north of Florida, Florida suffered occasional raids. In 1779, Spain invaded West Florida. By 1781, Britain had lost West Florida to Spain. At the end of the American Revolution, Spain regained the rest of Florida. On September 3, 1783, another Treaty of Paris was signed ending the American Revolution. It was at this time that Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
Source:Exploring Florida- Resources for Teachers
The Effects of the European Fights Over Florida Quiz
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1.Which two wars led to a change in control of Florida?
A.The French and Indian War and the American Revolution.
B.The Seven Years' War and the War of 1812.
C.The American Revolution and the War of 1812.
D.The French and Indian War and World War I.
2.How did Florida become Spanish after the British control?
A.The British were tired of controlling Florida and gave it back to Spain.
B.The Americans won the American Revolution in 1783.
C.The Spanish helped the Americans fight the British during the American Revolution.
D.Britain lost the American Revolution and had to give Florida back to the Spanish.
3.Who won the American Revolution? In what year?
A.the French, 1565
B.the British, 1783
C.the Spanish, 1779
D.the Americans, 1783
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4. What tools and weapons did the Spanish bring to the Miami Natives?
A. They did not bring tools.
B. They brought metal tools, guns, knives.
C. They brought wooden tools.
D. They brought laser guns and computers.
5. What do you think was an effect of the Europeans arrivals on the Tequesta Native Americans in Miami?
A. The lives of Tequesta did not change.
B. The Tequesta lost some of their traditions and culture.
C. The Tequesta taught Europeans about Christianity.
D. The Tequesta were able to defeat the Creek with their new weapons .
6. What positive items did Europeans bring to Miami Natives?
B. new weapons and tools
C. clothing materials
D. all of the above
7. How did disease affect the Native Americans of Miami?
A. Many were exposed to new diseases and died.
B. Europeans diseases did not affect the tribes.
C. Native Americans got sick but did not die.
D. Native Americans spread disease to the Europeans.Bottom of Form