as an obligation by the Second Council of Vaison in
529. In consequence a great variety of homiliaria
were current in Gaul, always including some of
Cslmrfus's own sermons. The legislation of the
Carolingian period repeated this prescription; ser
mons in the vernacular were required on all Sundays
and feast days. New collections were drawn up,
and no parish priest's library was complete without
one of them. The homilies of Gregory the Great
seem to have been specially recommended. The
polleetion of Bede, in two books of twenty five
sermons each, had a long use and grew by addi
tions to 140. The large collection of Alcum
perished early; that which has been known as his
since the fifteenth century is a rearrangement of
that of Paulus Diaconus. Alcuin's original com
pilation was in 1892 discovered in the Bibliotbbque
Nationale in Paris. There.were two collections by
Rabanus Maurus, both containing material from
other preachers; of these nothing is extant except
about a third of the section in the Scripture lessons
for Sundays and feast days, extending from Easter
to the fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost. Another collection passes under the name of Haimo, but is probably not older than the eleventh century.
Meantime another class of homiliaria had grown up, intended primarily for reading in the choiroffices of the clergy. A characteristic example of this sort of collection is found first in the homiliarium of Bishop Egino of Verona (d. 802), containing 202 sermons, principally from Augustine and Leo. This was surpassed in popularity by the collection of Paulus Diaconus, undertaken at the instance of Charlemagne, after whom it is sometimes called. The work was done at Monte Camino between 786 and 797, and the book officially introduced by order of Charlemagne throughout the, empire. More than a fifth of the whole number of etracts from homilies come from Maximus of Turin; neat to him the favorite author is Bede, and then come Leo, Gregory, Augustine, and ten others. It appears that this collection was partly meant for popular use, and the absence of special reference to the monastic life caused Benedict of Aniane to draw up a homiliarium of his own for the Benedictines. For clerical use that of Paulus was exceedingly popular from the fifteenth century, although the first printed editions (Speyer, 1482; Cologne, n.d.) show that it had undergone radical changes; and in 1493 a revision so radical was begun by Surgant that scarcely any thing more than the old title was left. Of this later form the Cologne edition of 1539 is reprinted in 11iPL, gcv. The homiliarium of Paulus, had on the one hand, its effect upon the development of the breviary; and, on the other, set the model for Luther's Kirehenpoatille, so that the undertaking of Charlemagne had a far reaching influence.
BanrooaArar: Ranke, in TSK, ncviii (1855), 382 398; F. Wieeand~ Dae Homiliarium Hark des Grosses, Leipsic, 1897; R. Cruel, Geschichte der deutaehsn Predipt im Mittdalter, pp. 18 09, Detmold, 1879; L. Hahn, in Porsehurr pen sw deutwhen Gescbickfa, vies. 583 625, Gottingen, 1884; A. Lineenmayer, Geschichts der Predipt in Deutschland, pp. 41 03, Munich, 1888; Revue BJabdidine, 1892, pp. 49 81, 311f 328, 1894, 385 402, 1898, pp. 97 111, 1898, pp. 400 403; Hauck, KD, ii. 246 sqq., 888 b89. 836 837. Much of the literature under PRRAGHINa,Hnrvosr or, deals with the subject; e. g., E. C. Dwgan, Hitt. of Preacriirw, pp. 187, 199 .qq., 304 305, New York, 1905.
HOMILIES: A collection of sermons issued by the Church of England with the title: The Two Books of Homilies Appointed to be Rend in Churches. The collection has had a noteworthy history. It relates to the labors of the English Reformers to establish their fellow countrymen in the distinctive theology of Protestantism. The first of the two books was prepared by Archbishop Franmer during the lifetime of Henry VIII. but prudently held back until after his death, and was published on July 31, 1547. The reading of at least a portion of one of these homilies was in the preface made obligatory, in King Edward's name, upon all pariah ministers every Sunday as part of divine service, unless the said minister had preached a sermon. It was also enjoined that the homilies were to be read over and over again. As sermons were rarities in many parishes the homilies were divided into sections which would not require more than fifteen minutes to read. The first book has twelve
homilies, five from Cranmer. The second book has twenty one, similarly divided, only the homilies are much longer and the sections take nearly thirty minutes to read reverently. The collector of the second book was Bishop Jewel, who is the author of nine of the sermons. The topics treated in both collections are fundamental to training in sober living in the Protestant faith. Whether the style was sufficiently simple to accomplish this purpose may well be questioned, in view of the general illiteracy of priest and people.
In March, 1552 53 Convocation in the thirtyfourth of the original XLII. Articles of Religion then passed, used this language: " The Homilies of late given and set out by the King's authority be godly and wholesome, containing doctrine to be received by all men, and therefore are to be read diligently, distinctly and plainly." Thus the Church endorsed the work. In July of that year Mary came to the throne and ordered the destruction of these homilies, but showed her appreciation of that kind of instruction by causing similar homilies setting forth Roman Catholic doctrine to be prepared and enjoined. In 1558 Elizabeth suoceded Mary and the homilies of Cranmer were revived and enjoined. It was not till 1652 63 that the second book appeared. The two books were published separately, and the editions were not uniform till 1582. In 1632 for the first time they were united in one volume. In Art. XXXV. of the present XXXIX. Articles of Religion both in the Latin text of 1563 and in the English text of 1571 the homilies are commended and the contents of the second book given. Appended to this article as adopted by the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America in 1801 is a bracketed note which states that the reading of these homilies in churches is suspended " until a revision of them may be conveniently made for the clearing of them, as well from obsolete words and phrases, as from the local references."
It is probably now true that few persons living have read these homilies, although none can read the XXXIX. Articles of Religion without encountering in the eleventh article this language: " That we are justified by Faith only, is a most wholesome Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely is expressed in the Homily of Justification." Curiously enough there is no homily which has this title.
BIBLIOGRAP8T: The edition issued by the Oxford University Press in 1859 is a preface which gives very full histonoa~and aritioal notes. Consult also: J. T. Tomlinson, The Prayer Book Articles and Homilies, chaps. lx. X.: London, 1897.
HOMILY. See HOMILETICS.
HOMINES INTELLIGENTLE (" Men of Intelligence ") : A heretical sect of mystics that flourished in Brussels 1410 11. They were also called Free Spirits. The source of their heretical doctrine was undoubtedly the pantheistic mysticism of the Flemish poetess Hadewick Blommaerdine (q.v.), whose teachings had been opposed by Jan van Ruysbroeck early in the fourteenth century. The heads of the Brussels sect were lEgidius Cantoris, an untutored layman, and Willem van Hilderniasen, a Carmelite. Though differing in the details of their doctrine,
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
these leaders held in common the general view that only those in a state of mystical ecstasy and union with God are able to understand the Bible. Both boasted of the wonderful visions beheld by them; and on one occasion Cantoris, while in the ecstatic state, ran naked through the streets of Brussels calling himself the savior of humanity. That the sectaries expected freedom of spirit and beatification of all wicked spirits to come with the era of the Holy Spirit, which they regarded as imminent, was due to influence of the tradition of Joachimism (see JOACHIM OF FIORE). Serious complaints were made about their immoral mode of life. Two inquisitors who interfered in 1410 met with opposition on the part of the Brussels populace and barely escaped withtheirlivea. At that time Hilderniasen formally recanted, but the following year he was again tried for heresy and condemned to lifelong imprisonment. No account has been preserved of the trial of other members of the sect, or of the after effects of this movement, which was evidently deep seated.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Fr6dl;ri'(.Q, Corpus dOCBmGnEorRm inquisirionia Neeriandicte, i. 288 279, Ghent, 1889; A. Jundt, HiaE, du pantheiame populaire au moyen 8pe, pp. 111 aqq., Paris, 1875; J. J. Altmeyer, Lea FrJeuraeura de la reorme aux Pays Bas, i. 82 eqq., ib. 1888.
HOMOIAN, HOMOIOUSIAN, HOMOOUSIAN. See ARIANIBM, L, § 6, IL, § 1.
HOMOLOGUMENA. See CANON OF SCRIPTURE, 11.,5,7.
HONDURAS. See CENTRAL AMERICA.
HONE, WILLIAM: English author and bookseller; b. at Bath June 3, 1780; d. at Tottenham, London, Nov. 6, 1842. At the age of ten he was placed in an attorney's office in London, but in 1800 he gave up law and became a bookseller. On account of his various philanthropic schemes he was uniformly unsuccessful in business. In order to support his family he took up authorship in 1815 and published numerous political squibs and satires, which were illustrated by Cruikshank. For parodying the litany, the Athanasian Creed, and the church catechism, he was tried on three separate charges Dec. 17 19, 1820, but was acquitted on each count. As a result of researches which he made in preparing his own defense he published The Apocryphal New Testament (London, 1820) and Ancient Mysteries Described (1823). He collected a dozen of his controversial pamphlets, including The Political House that Jack Bunt (1819), under the title Faceti7e card Miscellanies (1827). In the literary world Hone is remembered for his three compilations, The Every Day Book (2 vo1s.,1826 27), The Table Book (2 vole., 1827 28), and The Year Book (1832), in the preparation of which he had the approval and assistance of Robert Southey, Charles Lamb, and others. In the latter part of his life Hone became converted and frequently preached in the Independent Weigh House Chapel, Eastcheap.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gentleman'a Magazine, May, 1843; Some Account of the Conversion of yV. Hone, London, 1853;
DNB, xxvu. 243 247 (where other sources are indicated).
HONIUS, CORNELIUS (CORNELIS HENRIK, HOEN): Dutch Protestant; b. probably at Gouda
353 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Homilies
Honorius (11 m. n.e. of Rotterdam); d. at The Hague 1524.
He studied at Utrecht and settled at The Hague as
an advocate. In 1509 he received a batch of papers
of the lately deceased Jacob Hoeck, canon and dean
of Naaldwijk and pastor at Wassenaar, among
which he found several works of Johann Weasel
(q.v.), including a treatise on the Lord's Supper, in
which Wessel, rejecting the doctrine of transubstan
tiation, sought to show (by combining John iii. 36
and vi. 54) that " eat " and " drink " can mean
nothing more than believing in Christianity and
assimilating it into our lives. In reflecting over this
work Honius concluded that eat in the words of
institution could mean only *nif cat. He com
municated thin view to several friends, particularly
to Johannes Rode (q.v.), rector of the Hieronymus
School at Utrecht. Rode and Honiua determined
to acquaint Luther and Zwingli with the new doc
trine, which Honius had cleverly formulated in a
short treatise, and to this end Rode visited Witten
berg, Basel, and Zurich in 1522. Zwingli was so
well pleased with the writing of Honius that in 1525
1900. Consult also C. Ullmann, Reformers before the Ref
ormation, ii. 509, 519 522, Edinburgh, 1877.
HONOR: The recognition accorded by one per
son to another. None can value this more highly
than the Christian, yet 'no man is inwardly more
independent of honor than the Christian, though,
since it widens his sphere of activity, he is in duty
bound to seek it. Christians are not to be " the
servants of men " (I Cor. vii. 23), yet those who
seek only honor from men can not believe (John
v. 44), and Paul declares that he sought no glory
of men (I Thess. ii. 6). Christian honor is entirely
distinct from that of the ancient world. The Chris
tian seeks honor with God alone, and receives
through the Holy Spirit the assurance that he is a
child of God (Rom. viii. 16), but in proportion as he
strives for human honor he loses the freedom of the
children of God through envy of his fellow men
(cf. Gal. v. 25). Nevertheless, the Christian should
maintain his honor among men. If the Christian
protects his honor simply because he seeks honor
with God, he has a joy in that transitory earthly
treasure such as no other can have. The tendency
of this joy to become a struggle for honor is checked
by the realization that service alone is the way of
life, and it becomes clear that the desire to serve
includes striving after all necessary means so far
as they are accessible. Evident though it be that
honor among men is an extremely important means
of efficiency, the Christian should bear in mind that
striving for honor must be held in check.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The subject is treated more oT less completely in treatises on Christian ethics. Consult: F. W. Reinhard, system der chrietlichsn Moral, iii. 47 52, Wittenberg, 1807; W. M. L. de Wette, Chriatliche 3ittenlehre, iii. 282, Reimer, 1823; J. B. Hiraoher, Die cArietlicAa Moral, iii. 318, TObingen, 1851;KL, iv. 231 238; and the lexicons, s.v. b6la. HONORATUS, SAINT. See LARixe, MONASTERY OF.
HOfTORIUS: The name of four popes and one antipope.
Honorius L: Pope 625 638. He came of a distinguished Campanian family, succeeded Bonifacius V. Nov. 3 (Oct. 30), 625, and died in Oct., 638. His policy was to continue the designs of Gregory I. (q.v.); and in this respect he was particularly successful in relation to the Anglo Saxons and the Lombards. He managed to abrogate the schism which had prevailed in Istria and Venetia since the ThreeChapter Controversy (q.v.), and to restore there the canonical sovereignty of the Church of Rome. It was probably the assistance furnished him then by the emperor Heraclius that persuaded him to side with the emperor at the outbreak of the Monothelite strife (see MONOTHELITEa), and to make common confession with the patriarchs of Constantinople and Alexandria concerning the dootrine of " one will " in Christ (cf. his Epist., iv. and v., to the patriarch Sergius, in MPL, lxxx. 470, 474). At the Sixth Ecumenical Council in Conatantinople, Mar. 28, 681, he was anathematized along with the leaders of the Monothelite party, and with the assent of the legates of Pope Agathos I. Leo II. confirmed the anathema in 682 (MPL, xcvi. 399), and characterized Honorius as one " who did not adorn this Apostolic See with the doctrine of apostolic tradition, but endeavored to subvert immaculate faith by profane treason." The anathema gained acceptance in the confession of faith which every pope had to pronounce at his elevation (cf. La'ber Diurnus,112PL, ev. 52). By degrees, however, the thought of this grave event died out, in the West at least, though Byzantine annalista and canonista recur to it quite often. To eliminate the obstacle herein implied to the doctrine of papal infallibility, Baroniua declared the council's acts and the papal briefs to have been falsified. Others (Bellarmin, Asaemani) viewed the anathem;s as an error of the council or modified the sentence (Garnier, Pagi), making the point turn, not on any heresy in the pope, but on his attitude favoring heresy. At the Vatican Council Bishop Hefele declared himself in favor of condemning the pope for heresy, but in the second edition of his Conrilien: geschichte, he qualified this view in the sense that Hoaorius had merely blundered in expression. Certain it is that Honorius, when committing himself to the Monothelite doctrine, could not yet forecast the fall sweep of the contest: nor did he survive its real development. He was at no time a conscious, deliberate Monothelite. G. KRtYoER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The briefs are in MPL, laxx. 489 484, Consult: Liber pontiftcalia, ed. Duehesne, vol. i.. Paris, 1888, ed. Mommeen, is MGM, (best, punt. Rom., i (1898), 170 175; Jaff6, Regeata, i. 223 228; C. J. von Hefele, Cauea Honorii Papa?, Naples, 1870; idem, Concilaengeachichte, vol. iii. passim, Eng. trans]., vol, v. passim; B. Jungmann, Dfasartationea eslecta, ii. 382 458. Regenr
Honorius THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 364
burg, 1881; Ward, in DwUin Reoieta, zmii. 1879; J. Langan, Gidhts der romuehen Kiaahe, ii, 507 680, Bonn, 1885; Mann. Popes, i. 304 345 (luminous); H. Grisar, Analeda Romana, no. ix , Rome, 1899; B Platina, Lirow of Are Popes, i. 145 eqq, London n.d.; Chapman. Condemnation of Pope Hononus, ib., 1907; Milman, Latin Christianity, ii. 289; Bower, Popes, i. 432438.; and literature under MoxoTBzLrr$s.
Honorius IL (Cadalus) : Antipope 1081 84. After Alexander II. had been elected and enthroned as the successor of Nicholas II., an assembly of German and Lombard bishops, convened at Basel by the empress Agnes, elected (Oct. 28, 1081) as antipope Bishop Cadalus of Parma, who bore the name of Honorius II. The status of Cadalus was irregular from the very outset; and the empress was unable to compel recognition of him. After some agitation in his behalf by Bishop Benso of Alba, as imperial envoy to Rome, Cadalus could advance as far as Sutri, and he even scored a victory over Alexander's troops before the gates of Rome. But at this juncture Duke Godfrey of Lorraine took part in the strife (May, 1081) and induced both rivals to submit the matter to the king's decision. Pending the outcome they returned to their dioceses. Inasmuch as the German king happened to be under the power of the imperial administrator, to refer the decision to him as umpire was only to refer the whole issue to Anno of Cologne. The matter came up for discussion at the Synod of Augsburg in Oct., 1082, which practically decided against Honorius; but it was agreed that a German bishop should first be sent to Rome to investigate charges of simony that had been urged against Alexander. This responsible office was assigned to Anno's nephew, Burchard of Halberstadt. The result was that Alexander was conducted to Rome by Duke Godfrey in Mar., 1063. Cadalus still proceeded aggressively, even advancing upon Rome, and, contriving to secure himself at Castle Angelo; but he was obliged to leave Rome again. The council at Mantua, May 31, 1064, decreed the definitive recognition of his opponent. Cadalus died as the year 1071 lapsed into 1072. See ALEXANDER II.; and
BIBLIOGaAPHY: W. Martens, Besedzunp des p4pstlichen Stuhlea unter den Kaisers Heinrich III. and IV., pp. 118 oqq., Freiburg, 1888; G. Meyer von Knonau, Jahrbacher des
deutaden Reich# unter Heinrich IV. and V., vole. i. ii.
Leipsio, 189084; J. Langan, Gewhichts der r6mischari %irche, Vol. iii., Bonn, 1892; C. Mirbt, Die Publizietik im Zeitalter tlregors VII., Leipsie, 1894 Hauck, KD, Vol. F. Gregorovius, Hist. of City of Rome, iv. 130 eqq.,
London, 1898 (consult index under " Cadalus ").
Honorius II. (Lambert di Fagnano): Pope 11241130. He was elevated by Paschal II. as cardinal bishop of Ostia, and was one of the electors of Gelasius II., with whom he shared exile in France. As one of the six cardinals who, in France, elected Calixtus II. as successor to Gelasius II., he stood on very close terms with this pope, and was employed in the most difficult missions. It was he who concluded with the emperor Henry V. the socalled Concordat of Worms (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BUL1$, I., § 1). He was consecrated Dec. 21, 1124, by the Frangipani, contrary to the wish of the cardinals of the Leoni party, who had already proclaimed their colleague Theobald as Pope Celestine II., though subsequently they ac
quiesced in the elevation of Honorius II. Hardly
had Honorius officiated in his pontificate half a year
when Henry V. was succeeded by Lothair III., who
addressed to the pope a petition for confirmation o£
the act as consummated by the German imperial
princes. Honorius, in return, excommunicated
Lothair's royal pretender, Conrad of Hohenstaufen
(1128). The chief aim of Honorius was to enlarge
the dominion of the Roman Church in Italy. While
he sued in subjecting some counts of the
Campagna to his supremacy, ha was not,strong
enough to wrest the duchy of Apulia from Count
Roger of Sicily, and in Aug., 1128, he was obliged
to invest the ruler of Apulia with that duchy. In
this contest he vainly awaited help from Lothair,
whom he repeatedly summoned to Rome for cor
onation. Honorius died during the night of Feb.
13 14, 1130. CARL MIRBT.
Bn3LI0a8AP87: Sources are the letters from and to Hono• rius, found in MPL, clzvi. 1217 1320, in Bouquet, Rscuail, xv. 258 289, and in Jaff6, Repeats, i. 824 839, ii. 755; the Vita by Pandulph, in J. M. Wstteriah, Vita. ponriJlcum Romanorum, ii. 167 158, Leipsia, 1882 and that by Boeo, also in Watterioh, ii. 168 169 Consult: W. Bernheim, Zur (luchichts des Wormser %nkordates, pp. 42 eqq. Gottingen, 1878 W. Bernhardi, Lothar won RuPPUnburp. PP. 45 eqq., 289 eq4.. LeiPsia, 1879; J. Langan, (hschichte der rSmischan %irehs iii. 305 eqq. Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hiet. of the City of Rome, iv. 408 410, London, 1898; B. Plating, Lives of the Popes, ii. 38 39, ib. n.d.; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 144 e99.; Bower, Popes, ii. 481 484.
Hoaorius III. (Cencio Savelli): Pope 1218 27. He came of a race of possibly German origin which took its name from the fortress of Sabellum, near Albano, was educated for the Church, and became a canon of Santa Maria. Maggiore. Under Clement III. and Cslestine III. he was treasurer of the Roman Church. Celestine III. made him a cardinal deacon before Mar. 5, 1193; Innocent III. raised him to the rank of a cardinal priest before Mar. 13, 1198; and on July 18, 1216, he was elected pope at Perugia. He took up with special interest the idea of the crusade and strove to unite the princes of Europe in its interest. Far reaching prospects seemed to open before him when he was able to set the crown of the Greek empire upon the head of Pierre de Courtenay (Apr., 1217); but the new emperor was captured on his eastward journey and died in confinement. Honorius then looked to Frederick II. for help and urged him to come to Rome and be crowned as a preliminary to setting out for the East. But Frederick hung back, and Honorius repeatedly put off the date for the beginning of the expedition. Frederick had promised before Innocent's death that as soon as he should receive the imperial crown he would resign the crown of Sicily to his young eon Henry; but at the end of 1218 he summoned Henry from Sicily, and later withdrew from him the title of king of Sicily, assuming it himself. In Apr., 1220, he was elected emperor, and wrote to the pope requesting confirmation. At last he appeared in Rome, and mutual compromise seemed to bind him and Honorius closer. The crusade was again postponed until Aug., 1221; and on Nov. 22, 1220, Frederick was crowned in Rome. The advantage seemed by no means all on his side; the power of the Church
355 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Honorius
against heretics and the Italian states was strengthened; it gained possession of the donation of Matilda and full authority in the ecclesiastical territory (see PAPAL STATES); and Honorius was able to hold his place in Rome. In spite of the insistence of Honorius Frederick still delayed, and the Egyptian campaign failed miserably with the loss of Damietta (Sept. 8, 1221). June 24, 1225, was finally fixed as the date for the departure of Frederick; and Honor ius brought about his marriage with Isabella, heiress of the kingdom of Jerusalem, with a view to binding him closer to the plan. The treaty of San Germano in July, 1225, permitted a further delay of two years. Frederick now sought to upbuild his power in northern Italy, and presumed to summon the population of the states of the Church to, help him subject the Lombards, threatening penalties against the delinquents. The long suffering Honorius took up his subjects' cause. Frederick's plans in northern Italy were not very successful, and he met Honorius half way when conciliation was proposed. According to the pope's arbitrament (Jan. 5,1227), Frederick was to take the Lombards back into favor and, on condition of their keeping the peace, allow them the status quo and the recognition of their league, while penalties imposed upon them were such as served the ends of the Church.
Frederick now made serious preparations for the crusade. In the midst, however, of his hopes for the final attainment of the aim so eagerly desired Honorius died, Mar. 18, 1227. His policy had been one of general friendliness toward the emperor, because he could not do without his help for the crusade; and Frederick made ample use of this fact. In his failure to keep his promises to set out for the holy land, he had on his side the princes and the nations of Europe, among whom the old crusading enthusiasm had begun to die out. But Honorius really had too large a task; besides the liberation of the holy land, he felt bound to forward the repression of heresy in the south of France, the war for the faith in the Spanish peninsula, the planting of Christianity in the lands along the Baltic, and the maintenance of the impossible Latin empire in Constantinople. Of these duties the rooting out of heresy lay nearest to Honorius's heart. In the south of France he carried on Innocent's work, confirming Simon de Montfort in the possession of the lands of Raymond of Toulouse and succeeding, as Innocent had not, in drawing the royal house of France into the conflict. The most widely important event of this period was the siege and capture of Avignon. Both Honorius and Louis VIII. turned a deaf ear to Frederick's assertion of the claims of the empire to that town. Honorius confirmed the Dominican order in 1216 (see DobIUIIC, SAINT, AND THE DOMINICAN ORDER), and the Franciscans in 1223 (see FRANCIS, SAINT, OF Assisi, AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER). His writings are published in Horoy's Medii &evi bLbliotheea patristica, vole. i. v., Paris, 1879 83. The most important is the Liber censuum Romance ecclesice, which is the most valuable source for the medieval position of the Church in regard to property and the like, and also serves in part as a continuation of the L6ber pontificalis.
BIBLroanAPHP: As sources consult the Letters, ad. C. Rodenberg; in MGH, Epist. awe. ziii., i (1883), 1 260, 729730; ad. P. Presautti, vol. i., Rome, 1884; in Bouquet, RseueiE, iia. 809 778; also the Opera omnia, ad. Horoy, vola. i. v., Paris, 1879 83 (includes the Vita by 8. Majolo, ii. 397 410); and cf. W. H. Bliss, Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers, i. 40 117, in Roils Series, London, 1893. Consult further: J. Clausen, Papat Honoriua Ill., Bonn, 1895; P. T. Masetti, I Pontefici. Onorio III., Grepm^io IX ad Innocenso V. Rome 1884; A. von Reumont, Geachichte der Stadt Rom, ii. 500 aqq., Berlin, 1867; W. Wattenbach, Geachiehte des rbmiachen Papattuma, pp. 198 eqq., ib. 1870; F. Gregoroviue, Hiat. of the City of Rome, v. 110 141 et passim, London, 1897; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, ii. 73 78, ib. n.d.; Milman, Latin Christianity, v. 221 eqq.; Bower, Popes, ii. 550 552; and the literature under CRU8ADF.6 dealing with his period. A large list of books is given in Hauck Herzog, RE, viii. 318 319. Honorius IV. (Giacomo Savelli): Pope 1285 87. He was a great nephew of Honorius III.; and was born about 1210. He was educated at Paris, made a cardinal by Urban IV. in 1261, unanimously elected pope at Perugia Apr. 2, 1285, and crowned May 20. The most pressing question that confronted him was that of Sicily, where the famous " Vespers " of Mar. 30, 1282, had rent away half the kingdom from the Church and its vassal, Charles of Anjou; Peter of Aragon had been crowned at Palermo as the husband of Manfred's daughter, and the Ghibelline faction was becoming more audacious all over Italy. The war between France and Aragon ended with a precipitate withdrawal of the French, and Philip IV. thought more of strengthening his power at home than of foreign conquest; Charles II., for eighteen months a prisoner, was anxious to secure his freedom at the cost of renouncing his claims to Sicily. The power of Aragon was now divided, the Spanish kingdom going to Peter's eldest son, Alfonso, the Sicilian to his brother James. Honorius refused to recognize him and maintained the claims of the Church to the island, treating as invalid the renunciation of Charles II., made at Barcelona Feb. 27, 1287. Edward I. of England had brought about a truce between Alfonso and Philip IV. (July 25, 1286), which Honorius approved; and when Alfonso's envoys came to Rome at Christmas, though he nominally maintained his predecessor's policy of hostility to the house of Aragon, he showed himself ready for further negotiations. He did not, however, live to see the end of these troubles, which came in 1302 under Boniface VIII. He had better success in the Continental portion of the kingdom of Sicily, where he asserted his rights as suzerain, limited the royal power, and enacted important statutes for the protection of the people against arbitrary tyranny. In regard to the crusading plans which he had inherited, he confined himself to collecting the tithes imposed by the Council of Lyons, arranging with the great banking houses of Florence, Sienna, and Pistoia to act as his agents. In his relay j tions with the empire, where no more danger was to be apprehended since the fail of the Hohenstaufen, he followed the via media taken by Gregory X. Rudolf of Hapsburg sent Bishop Henry of Basel to Rome to request coronation. Honorius appointed the envoy archbishop of Mainz, fixed a date for the coronation, and sent Cardinal John of Tusculum to Germany to assist Rudolf's cause. But general
opposition showed itself to the papal interference; source of information says " he flourished under
a council at Wtirzburg (Mar. 16 18, 1287) protested Henry V.," the year 1135 may be assumed as the
energetically, and Rudolf had to protect the legate culminating period of his activity.
from personal violence, so that both his plans and The meagerness of biographical data is balanced
with his predecessor, and his brother Pandulf main
tained a strict but just government. Martin IV.
had carried on a continual and almost hopeless con
flict in the states of the Church with the Ghibellines,
under the leadership of Guy of Montefeltro; but
Honorius restored order here also, and by mild and
considerate government of the cities on which
Martin had laid an interdict succeeded in securing
a greater degree of tranquillity and submission than
any pope for some time before or after. Venice also
was now released from the interdict laid upon it by
the legate of Martin IV. because it had declined to
fit out a fleet in behalf of Charles of Anjou against
Peter of Aragon. Salimbene, the chronicler of
Parma, asserted that Honorius was a foe to the
religious orders, especially to the mendicant friars;
but his Regeata, as published by Prou, affords proof
of the contrary. As a matter of fact, he confirmed
and enlarged their privileges, often appointed them
to special missions and to bishoprics, and gave them
exclusive charge of the inquisition. He had a special
affection for the Williamites, to whom he gave the
monastery which he had built at Albano when he
was a cardinal. On the other hand, he gave orders
in a bull of Mar. 11, 1286, that the Apostolic Breth
ren (q.v.), whom Segarelli of Parma was then
attempting to organize, should be suppressed as
heretics. (HANG SCHULZ.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Las Repietres d'Honorius IV., ed. M. Prou, Paris, 1887,89 (especially the Introduction, pp. 1 111); B. Pawlicki, Papat Honorius IV., Munster, 1898 O. Lorenz, Deutsche Gesehichte im 13. and 1¢. JahrhunderE, ii. 339 sqq., 388 sqq., 552 sqq., Vienna, 1887; A. van ReumOnt, GeeeAkAte der Stadt Rom, ii. 809 sqq., Berlin, 1807; W. H. Bliss, Calendar of Entries in the papal Registers, i. 479 491, in Roils Series, London, 1893; Hefele, COncilien0eeehiAtB, vi. 211, 245 253; F. Gregorovius, Hiet. 01 the City of Rome, v. 503 507, 834 838, 843, London, 1897; B. Platina, Lives of the popes, ii. 115 118, ib. n.d.; Mil , Latin Christianity, vi. 172; Bower, popes, iii. 35 37.
HONOORIt1S OF AUTUft: Theologian; d. 1152. He is the great unknown in the church history of the twelfth century. The annals of Pohlde, which extend to 1139, praise him as a learned recluse filled with spiritual wisdom. The Frenchmen claim him for France, more specifically for Autun, since he styles himself Auguatudonenais, which may, however, mean Augsburg. Indeed, it is the Austi
and Bavarian monasteries which' contain most o
Honorius's works. Munich alone possesses more
than 100, Graz thirty codices in which writing of his occur. Moreover, Honorius treats Ger
many more fully than any other country in
Imago mundi and mentions in this geographical de
scription only one city Regeneburg. Thus Rege
burg may be assumed as the field of his activity,
especially as Cuno, the friend of Rupert of Deutz
to whom Honorius was closely related, was bisho
there. Since Honorius in his Imago mundi close the list of rulers with Lothair, and since the oldest
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
by the mass of his writings, almost o which are
preserved. From these it may be inferred that
Honorius was a Platonist, a mystic, and a realist,
born even if Adam had not fallen because the cause
of Christ's incarnation was the predestination of
human deification. Of greater importance is the
christological position of Honorius. As in the
doctrine of the trinity, so here he reveals his real
ism. The two natures are not only united in the
person of Christ, but with each other, and they per
meate each other with the entire communication
also of the attributes, hence also of the divine nature
to the human. If we speak of the person of Christ,
the natures are included. The name " Son of God "
pertains therefore to the substance also of the
natures, at least after the Resurrection and Ascen
sion. Since those events the human nature, the
flesh of Christ, has been received by the Logos into
the unity of his substance and is in no way circum
scribed; thus Christ according to both natures is
everywhere. (R. Rocaorl..)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His works are in MPL, cluii. 10 1270; the Summa totius de omnimodo hietoria and part of the first book of the Imago mundi dealing with Germany and the end of the third book, ed. R. Wilmans, are in MGH, Script., a (1852), 125 134. Consult: O. Doberents, in zeitaehrart ffir deutaehe Philologia, Iii (1881), 257 301, 387 451, xuti (1882); 29 57, 165 223; Wattenbaoh, DGQ, i (1885), 83, ii. 230 232, i (1893), 2, 86, ii. 258 260; R. Rocholl, Rupert won Deuta, pp. 12 Hqq., GUteraloh, 1886• %L, vi. 268 274; ADS, aiii. 74 eqq.; J. A. Endres, Honorius Aupuatodunensis, Kempten, 1906. HONORIUS OF CANTERBURY: Fifth archbishop of Canterbury; d. at Canterbury Sept. 30, 653. He was one of the disciples of Pope Gregory, but when he came to England is not known. He was consecrated archbishop by Paulinus of York at Lincoln after the death of Justus (Nov. 10, 627). He sent Felix to preach to the East Angles, made Paulinus bishop of Rochester after his flight from Northumbria, consecrated Ithamar as Paulinus' successor in 644, and Thomas as second bishop for East Anglia. He received the gallium from Pope Honorius I. in 634, but did not exercise jurisdiction outside of Bent and East Anglia.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Hist. accl., ii. 15 20, iii. 14, 20, v. 19; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, iii. 82 98; W. F, Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, i. 110 123, London, 1860; W. Bright, Early English Church History, p. 140 et passim, Oxford, 1897; DCB, iii. 153 155; DNB, azvii. 249.
HONORIUS, FLAVIUS: Roman emperor 395423; b., probably at Constantinople, Sept. 9, 384; d. at Ravenna Aug., 423. He was the younger son of Theodosius I. and his devout wife, Mia Flaccilla, and assumed the government of the Western Empire upon his father's death, in 395, when he was not yet eleven years of age. Aroadius (q.v.) obtained the East. Agreeably to the father's wish, the Vandal Stilicho supported Honorius as a wise and powerful counselor during the heavy times of the barbarian invasions and of repeated usurpations. After Stilicho's assassination (408), the Asiatic Olympus
succeeded him, and he, in turn, was succeeded by others, with all of whom the amiable and pliant ruler proved a mere instrument, with scarcely any will of his own.
Honorius lived in the self conscious orthodoxy of his father. He was therefore seriously disposed not only to maintain intact the authority and the rights of the Church, but to extend and confirm theme.g., the right of asylum, and episcopal jurisdiction. The civil power was more than ever available for the annihilation of heresy. Teachers of error were excluded from court offices. Especially severe were the measures in force against the Manicheans and the Donatists.
The religious policy affecting heathendom was exercised along similar lines (cf. Victor Schultze, Der Untergang des griechisch ramiachen HeidenEuma, i., Jens, 1887, pp. 334 sqq.). The fanaticism which had even transferred its enmity toward the gods to antique works of art was resisted; but, all in all, the attitude to paganism was much harsher than under Theodosius. The temples lost their revenues, the priesthoods their last remnant of privileges, the still extant images of the gods were cast aside. Paganism was wholly outlawed. At the same time the bloody gladiatorial spectacles came to an end.
To a degree beyond all precedent, the State now
fell under the influence of the Church. The govern
ment openly reflected the conviction that the
strengthening of the Church also signified the
strengthening of the State politically. But, in spite
of all this, the civil right of supreme supervision
over the Church was maintained. Under this head
belong decisions in case of the Donatist and Pelagian
disputes, and stringent regulations against eccle
siastical improprieties. The emperor's moral be
havior is expressly lauded, and statements to the
contrary rest on gossip. He was the weakly son
and successor of a great emperor, whom he brought
to mind in scarcely anything but his face. After
him the destiny of the Western Empire fell into the
hands of his more resolute sister, Galls. Plaeidia.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: DOB, iii. 142 150 (minute and detailed);
E. Von Wietereheim, Geschichte der V6Xkawanderunp, ii.
110 sqq., Leipsic, 1881; W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography and Mythology, ii. 513 516, Lon
don, 1890; G. Rausehen, Tahrbacher der chrisuichen Kirehe
unter dem Kaiser The" , Freiburg, 1897 Gibbon,
Decline and Fall, claps. Imz. x3oi., zlmii.; L. 6. Is N.
de Tillemont, Hiatoirs des empereurs, 6 vole., Paris, 17201738; Neauder, Christian Church, ii. 92, 100 102, 235236, 649, 651; Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 66 67.
HONTER (HONTERUS), JOHANN: Hungarian Reformer; b. at Kronstadt (70 m. ex.e. of Hermannstadt) 1498; d. there Jan. 23, 1549. In 1515 he entered the University of Vienna. Fifteen years later he was attending lectures and teaching Latin grammar at Cracow, but he seems to have gone in the same year to Basel, where he remained until his native city recalled him in 1533. As early as 1519 the ideas of the German Reformation had found admission into Saxon Transylvania. A flourishing industrial and mercantile activity promoted prosperity, education, independence, and freedom which maintained its own convictions and rights in religion as well as in politics. Thus the
doctrine of Rome, which placed all power in the hands of popes and bishops, had never entirely supplanted the ancient privileges of the congregation. The influence of the University of Vienna, moreover, elevated the spirit of the Saxon youth and formed a contrast with the doctrines of Rome. Luther's doctrines had, accordingly, been firmly established in Hermannstadt since the beginning of the third decade of the sixteenth century, and had 'found a powerful patron in Markus Pempflinger, the royal judge. About the same time the new teaching had entered Kronstadt, but there it was Honter who first gave it definite direction, although prima rily he influenced it chiefly in a literary way by establishing a printing press. In him were united the two chief tendencies of the time, the regeneration of classical literature and of Evangelical Christianity. He proceeded with caution in introducing the new gospel, nor did he break openly with the established religion, since he drew his material from Augustine and looked upon the Reformation as a revival of old truths. In 1542, however, he boldly avowed the cause of Evangelicalism in his Formula reformotionia ecclesice Coronensis ac Barcenais totius provinciea. Thenceforth the Reformation made rapid progress. Jeremias Jekel, a priest of Kronstadt, married, the mass was abolished, and the sacrament was administered in both kinds. The deputies of town and country assembled for a final decision on the reformation of the Church, and shortly afterward a church visitation was instituted to test the lootrines of the clergy and to remove unworthy preachers from office. In 1544 Honter became preacher in Kronstadt, and in the same year the academy of the city was reorganized on the basis of the Comtitutio acholca Coronensia, which he had drafted in the previous year, Valentin Wagner, a disciple from Wittenberg, being its first president. In 1547 Honter recast his Formula reformationia of 1543 both in Latin (Reformatio eeclesiarum Saxonicdrum in. Transailvania) and in German (Kirchenordnung aller Deutachen in. Siebenbargen) in order to avoid dissension and to introduce uniform ecclesiastical governance. The main topics discussed were the appointment of the clergy, Christian doctrine, office of the clergy, baptism, the Lord's Supper, abuse of private mass, communion of the sick, power of absolution, excommunication, erection of schools, organization of relief for the poor, care of orphans, marriage, reformation of common abuses, annual visitations, matins, high mass, vespers, and ceremonies in villages. The church order distinguishes itself by its moderation, and reveals the conservative principle of the Saxon spirit.
Honter was a prolific writer, his chief works being De grammatica libri duo (1530 or 1531); Rudimenh torum coamographice ltbri, duo (Cracow, 1530); Apologia reformationis (1543); Compendium juria civilis, in usum eivitatum ac aedium Saxoniearum colleetum (1544); and Agende fur die Seelaorger and Kirchen• diener in Siebenbiirgen (1547).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources. which are greatly scattered,
are indicated in Hauck Herzog. RE, viii. 333. Consult:
O. D. Teutech, Usber Honterus and %ronetadt zu seiner
Zeit, Hermannetadt, 1878; T. Wolf, Johann Honterut,
Kronetadt, 1894; J. HSOhsnIann, Johannes Honter, der
THE NEW SCHAFF HEZROG
Refonmator ,giebenb2lrpena, Vienna 1898; O. Netolioska,
Johannes Honterue. Kronetadt. 1898: Moeller, Christian