361: England 1485-1660 2013 Monarchs and main events, 1485-1660 Tudors : 1485-1603



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361: England 1485-1660

2013

Monarchs and main events, 1485-1660

  • Tudors: 1485-1603

  • Henry VII (1485-1509): (1) reduced power of nobles; (2) built up royal finances.

  • Henry VIII (1509-47): (1) 6 wives; Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn; (2) Reformation 1529-36; pope (unable to grant divorce; Charles V) loses power; church subordinated to crown; (3) Dissolution of the Monasteries 1536-40; (4) use of printed propaganda.

The Tudor Rose, combining the Red and White Roses

Monarchs and main events

  • Edward VI (1547-53): Somerset (1547-49); Northumberland (1550-3);

  • Prayer Books 1549, 1552; Protestantism;

  • Economic problems; debasement;

  • Rebellions 1549.

  • Lady Jane Grey.

  • Mary (1553-8): Catholicism and the pope restored.

Edward VI (1537/47-53)

Monarchs and main events

  • Mary 1553-8: marriage to Philip II of Spain 1554; Wyatt’s rebellion.

  • Burning of heretics.

  • Influenza 1556-8.

  • Elizabeth (1558-1603);

  • Protestantism restored 1559; Prayer Book;

  • Puritans

  • Catholics: assassination; Spanish Armada 1588

  • Finance; Ireland; America – Virginia; Drake Ralegh.

Monarchs and main events

  • Stuarts: 1603-1714

  • James VI and I (1567/1603-1625):

  • Gunpowder Plot 1605;

  • Finance; worsening relations with parliament; pro-Spanish foreign policy.

  • Charles I (1625-49): continued financial and constitutional problems; Arminianism and Catholicism;

  • Civil War (1642-6, 1648);

Monarchs and main events

  • 1647-9: the English Revolution;

  • Issues: religious toleration (new religious groups; Baptists; Independents/ Congregationalists); how much power should be returned to the King? What role should the army have, if any?

  • 1649: execution of Charles I; abolition of monarchy

  • 1649-58: republican experiments; Oliver Cromwell;

  • 1658-60: Restoration; Charles II (1660-85).

Economy and Society

  • Health, disease, and mortality:

  • Lack of hygiene;

  • Smallpox; Elizabeth 1562.

  • Typhoid; typhus (Prince Henry 1612)

  • Plague: bubonic; septicemic; pneumonic; rats and fleas; 1563, 1603, 1625, 1665.

  • But population rose: England 2.5 to 5 million 1485-1630; London 50,000 to 500,000 1500-1700; towns grew through immigration.

  • Food prices rose fivefold in 1500s; industrial prices doubled.

Henry, Prince of Wales, 1594-1612

Economy and Society

  • Price rise 1500-1650: population growth; import of silver from Spanish America; debasement of English coinage 1540s-50s.

  • Growth of population: unemployment/ vagrancy/ vagabondage.

  • Agrarian economy.

  • Importance of harvest; bad harvests 1554-6, 1594-7, 1622, 1630.

Economy and Society

  • Population rise: unemployment: poverty; migration to towns (esp. London);

  • Population rise: rise of food prices; good times for rich farmers;

  • Farming innovations: water meadows; crop rotation; new crops (cabbages, turnips, onions; potato and tobacco rare; Ralegh); draining Fens.

  • Enclosure (esp. of common land)

Economy and Society

  • Enclosure: at first of arable land for pasture (after Black Death 1348); then in 1500s for arable; enclosure disliked by Tudor governments (seen as causing vagrancy and as reducing size of population; Sir Thomas More; Hugh Latimer).

  • But by 1600s the population was clearly too large (not too small): emigration to Virginia etc. was encouraged.

Economy and Society

  • By 1650 governments stopped worrying about enclosure; English farming was producing more food than ever before;

  • Despite the great rise in population 1500-1650, England stopped importing and started exporting grain;

  • Scholarly debate – R.H. Tawney; Eric Kerridge.

  • Real wages rose in the late seventeenth century; but population did not rise; England escaped from the Malthusian trap.

Industry

  • Cloth production: a domestic industry; clothiers.

  • Slump in early 1620s: major economic problems.

  • Building

  • Mining: silver in Wales; lead in Derbyshire; tin in Cornwall; iron in west Midlands; coal in North.

  • Development of a national economy: the growth of London turned a group of regional economies into a national one.

James I, Crown, 1624: Welsh Plumes.

Social Structure

  • Nobles; gentry; yeomen; husbandmen; labourers; vagrants; (and anomalous townsfolk);

  • Nobles: duke/ duchess; marquess/ marchioness; earl/ countess; viscount (-ess); baron (-ess);

  • Gentry: baronets (1611); knights; esquires; mere gentry; Members of Parliament (MPs); Justices of the Peace (JPs)

  • 1600: 2% gentry; own 50% of land; nobles own 15%; crown and church own much of the rest.

Social Structure

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