2nd Edition 2002 arena/olaw institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook


C.2.d. Table A. Definitions of Terminology Related to Pain and



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C.2.d. Table A. Definitions of Terminology Related to Pain and

Distress


Analgesia

A complete loss of sensitivity to pain.

Anesthesia

A total loss of sensation in a part of or in the entire body.

Distress

An aversive state in which an animal is unable to adapt completely to stressors and the resulting stress and shows maladaptive behavior.

Pain

An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.

Sedation

A state characterized by decreased awareness of surroundings, relaxation, and sleepiness. Analgesia is not present.

Tranquilization

A state of mental calming, decreased response to environmental stimuli, and muscle relaxation. No sleep, analgesia or anesthesia is present, even at increased dosage.

From: American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. 1997. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. D.F. Kohn, S.K. Wixson, W.J. White and G.J. Benson, eds. Academic Press.

C.2.d. Table B. Signs of Acute Pain



Sign

Explanation

Guarding

Attempting to protect, move away, or bite

Vocalization

Crying out when palpated or forced to use affected area

Mutilation

Licking, biting, scratching, shaking, or rubbing

Restlessness

Pacing, lying down and getting up, or shifting weight

Sweating

In species that sweat (horses)

Recumbency

Unusual length of time

Depression

Reluctance to move or difficulty in rising

Abnormal appearance

Head down, tucked abdomen, hunched, facial distortion, or pallor

Reprinted with permission from SOMA, 1987. Soma, L.R. 1987. Assessment of animal pain in experimental animals. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:71-74. Reprinted with permission from Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1992.

C.2.d. Table C. Signs, Degree, and Length of Surgically Produced Pain*



Surgical Site

Signs of Pain

Degree of Pain

Length of Pain

Head, eye, ear, mouth

Attempts to rub or scratch, self-mutilation, shaking, reluctance to eat, drink, or swallow, reluctance to move

Moderate to high

Intermittent to continual

Rectal area

Rubbing, licking, biting, abnormal bowel movement or excretory behavior

Moderate to high

Intermittent to continual

Bones

Reluctance to move, lameness, abnormal posture, guarding, licking, self-mutilation

Moderate to high: upper part of axial skeleton (humerus, femur) especially painful

Intermittent

Abdomen

Abnormal posture (hunched), anorexia, guarding

Not obvious to moderate

Short

Thorax

Reluctance to move, respiratory changes (rapid, shallow), depression

Sternal approach, high; lateral approach, slight to moderate

Continual

Spine, cervical

Abnormal posture of head and neck, reluctance to move, abnormal gait—“walking on eggs”

Moderate to severe

Continual

Spine, thoracic or lumbar

Few signs, often moving immediately

Slight

Short

*Based on observations of dogs

Reprinted with permission from Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Committee on Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1992.

References
American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. 1997. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals. D.F. Kohn, S.K. Wixson, W.J. White and G.J. Benson, eds. Academic Press.
National Research Council. 2000. Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals.
Wolfensohn, S. and M. Lloyd, 1998. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Management and Welfare, Second Edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford. 334 pp.
Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. NRC. 1992.

C.2.e. Personnel Qualifications

In evaluating proposed research projects, the PHS Policy and the AWRs require the IACUC to assess whether personnel conducting procedures are appropriately qualified and trained in those procedures (IV.C.1.f and 2.31[d][1][viii]). A similar requirement can be found on page 10 of the Guide and in U.S. Government Principle VIII (see Appendix F).


Developing Guidelines
To facilitate evaluation of personnel qualifications and training during proto-col review, each IACUC should develop a list of items to be assessed as well as a list of classifications of personnel required to participate in such training. This could be a list of qualifications and training items specific to protocols according to procedures and or manipulations proposed or the list could be broad enough to cover all aspects of the institution’s training requirements (see Section A.4).
A procedure specific checklist might include:

 proficiency in handling specific specie(s),

 proficiency in pain-relieving methods,

 proficiency in surgical manipulations,

 proficiency in aseptic techniques,

 proficiency in pain management,

 proficiency in euthanasia,

 proficiency in pre- and post-operative care,

 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) license, and

 approval by safety office.


A checklist of institutional requirements that need to be satisfied as a component of protocol review might include the following in addition to those above:

 completion of occupational health and safety risk assessment,

 demonstrated knowledge of relevant rules and regulations,

 enrollment in occupational health and safety program,

 attendance at compliance training session, and

 viewing of safety training video.


Classifications of employees whose qualifications and training may require assessment include:

  • investigators,

  • research technicians,

  • animal husbandry personnel, and

  • veterinarian and veterinary technicians.

An important decision to be made by the IACUC is the level of training required of an investigator not actually involved in the day-to-day manipu-lation and care of the animals. If the investigator is responsible for the research activity and the animals involved, should she or he demonstrate proficiency in the areas indicated above? Is the investigator responsible for training personnel in the lab? If yes, should she or he demonstrate pro-ficiency in those areas? An IACUC policy on this issue will prevent conflict later.


Evaluating Qualifications and Training
To prevent problems related to assessment of qualifications and training during protocol review, it is helpful if the IACUC determines any training needs during the protocol development and veterinary consultation. Dis-cussion of new techniques, procedures, or manipulations at this time can provide the impetus for a training opportunity for both the veterinary staff and the research staff with demonstrated proficiency completed prior to protocol review. This training experience should be so noted in the protocol or otherwise documented.
Maintaining a database of all participants in the facility’s training program who use laboratory animals will facilitate assessment of qualifications and training. With such a database, preliminary evaluation of an individual’s

expertise can be an administrative task performed by the IACUC or staff assigned to assist with managing the animal care program. If a deficiency is noted, a follow-up memo can be sent to the investigator stating that protocol review is pending until training requirements have been completed.


IACUCs should note that high morbidity or mortality rates or requests for more animals than originally planned may indicate a training opportunity and should be followed up in the context of the relevant protocol, either immediately or during the semiannual review.
Evaluating the qualifications and training of new personnel or those propos-ing to use new techniques, procedures, or manipulations will necessitate another approach by the IACUC.

New Personnel

One way to manage the training of new personnel is to initiate an IACUC policy that no protocol will be reviewed until training requirements have been satisfied. Such training would need to incorporate all institutional re-quirements as well as those specific to the work expectations of the indi-vidual, and might include those listed above.






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