CRM 740: The Foundations of Homeland Defense and Security
Instructor: Dr. Bernie McCarthy,
Professor and Director, Center for Homeland Security and Defense
Program Coordinator-Homeland Security and Criminology, MSAS program
222 Strong Hall, Missouri State University
417 836-6679 (office)
417 576-4935 (cell)
Introduction and Course Description
This class begins with some key questions. Was there a massive government failure before September 11, 2001 that led to the attacks on the World Trade Centers and the Pentagon? If so, what has been accomplished to prevent another such attack? Are we any safer today? How has the homeland security and defense role expanded to include other missions in addition to counter terrorism?
This course exams important questions relating to our nation’s safety and security. Homeland Security (HLS) is a major government endeavor that has emerged from significant national disasters and response. During the last dozen years the United States has embarked on building a homeland security/defense bureaucracy having neither fully understood nor tamed all that it encompasses. New missions and issues are added as crises are confronted (government surveillance, border security, hurricane Katrina and the gulf oil spill are examples). This challenging course examines the foundations of HLS and provides a broad overview of the issues and problems associated with homeland security and homeland defense in the United States since 9/11. The goal is to provide you with the generally accepted body of knowledge required of the homeland security professional. The course focuses on four areas: the mission (both the enemy, why they hate us and the threat they pose and the added mission of emergency management/response); the policies and procedures enacted since 9/11; the key players at the federal, state and local levels; and legal issues critical to the conduct of homeland security and defense. In addition to gaining a broad, general understanding of this wide range of subjects, you will also gain some experience in asymmetric thinking, develop an appreciation for the growing body of literature in the discipline of homeland security and its connection to other academic fields, and have the opportunity to examine a key issue in depth through a research paper.
The primary learning objectives are:
To review and understand the lessons of September 11, 2001.
To become familiar with the threat environment and major sources of information that are used to identify threats.
To gain an understanding of the motivations, means, and methods of terrorist groups and the threat they pose to the United States.
To develop an understanding of the broad range of federal HLS policies and procedures enacted since the events of 9/11.
To gain an understanding of the organizations involved in homeland security, how they are organized, how they interrelate, and their specific roles. This includes federal organizations, such as the Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense, the National Guard, and those at the state and local levels.
To improve your ability to interpret, analyze, evaluate and make inferences of ill-defined homeland security issues and problems.
To provide you with foundational knowledge of the discipline of homeland security.
Office Hours My office is in Strong Hall 222.
I am available most days. My official office hours are: T (10-11:30am 1:30-4 pm) Wed. 1:30-4 pm, Th. 10-11:30am 1:30-4 pm). However, I am in the office M-F and will be happy to meet with you when you can make it. The best way to contact me is to send me an email or call for an appointment. I encourage you to come by and chat about the course and any career plans you may have. My cell phone number is (417) 576-4935.
Fall Classes begin August 18, 2014
First class assignment August 22
Labor Day Holiday: No classes September 1, 2014
Identification of Research Topics October 3
Fall Break: No classes/offices open October 9 and 10, 2014
Thanksgiving Holiday: November 25-November 30, 2014
Papers due: December 3, 2014
Last day of class: December 4, 2013
Final Exam: Week of December 8, 2014
Readings Students do not have to purchase any materials for this class. Readings from online articles, videos and reports will be provided on blackboard. No text is used in this class but students may wish to read Bruce Hoffman’s, Inside Terrorism for background information.
This course will be conducted via a distance learning medium using MSU’s blackboard. The distance learning (DL) sessions will be divided into five units each covering one block of material. It is imperative that you familiarize yourself with MSU blackboard software. If you have trouble, a blackboard expert is available at the MSU help desk at 417-836-5891.
Units (5 Blocks) Introduction: an understanding of September 11, 2014
Fundamentals of Terrorism and the Threat
Homeland Security and Policies
Homeland Defense/Security Players and Organizations
Legal and Jurisdictional Issues
Course Requirements Grading Summary
Class Participation (15x4)=60 pts
Research Paper Identification of Research Topic(10 pts)
Submission of an original paper research paper(40 pts)
Nims certification (10 pts)
Total Points: Your final grade will be determined by the number of points you have accumulated.
Explanation of Requirements Class Participation
Weekly Question(s) for Discussion
Students will be given an assignment each week. You will have one week to respond to these questions/or the specific assignment, and your responses should be posted to the appropriate blackboard discussion board site. Your responses should be approximately 1 page in length or 250 words. Please type your response directly into the appropriate discussion board forum (identified by the week).
You will also read and respond to two of your classmates answers to the question(s). Your responses should reflect a critical analysis of the issues being addressed and integrate the reading or review materials for the week. Simply agreeing or disagreeing will not be sufficient. You must build upon or critique a position in respectful way.
Your assignment will generally be posted on Friday by 6 pm and your responses will be due the following Friday (6 pm). Unexcused late work will be penalized one letter grade per day. In answering these questions, you will be expected to integrate the materials provided from the course into your responses. For maximum credit you should cite sources in your postings. The postings will be evaluated and you will receive a maximum of 4 pts (4=A) for your postings for each week.
Rubric/ Grading for the discussion postings and journal entries: The point value you receive for your posting will be based upon a combination of three factors.
Is it apparent from reading your posting that you read and digested the material provided for the assignment? Did you site or comment upon the assigned readings in a professional way in your answers?
Is your posting well written (proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, word choice and sentence structure is expected)?
What is the level of effort that went into preparing the assignment? Minimal participation will be frowned upon and penalized. When you look at the postings during the course of the semester, you will note that some people put a lot more effort into the assignment than others. My assessment will reflect that differentiation.
To help you understand one of the major issues responding to major disasters I have included an assignment where you will be exposed to the concept of a incident commend system. You may avail yourself of additional training and the earning of certificates on your own if you so desire.
Submission of a completed certificate will be awarded the maximum points for this assignment.
This task may be completed anytime during the semester but must be completed before December 4. The class is online and can be found at
Paper (15-20 pages) Your initial choice of a paper topic is due October 3, this will include and identification of the topic and description of the problem or policy being examined and a short bibliography.
The research paper will give you the opportunity to investigate and report on a significant issue/policy in homeland security. You will be expected to select a topic that is related to the course material.
Your paper should include a cover page and title, a short problem statement that identifies the depth and breadth of the problem or issue being investigated, a concise literature review reflecting the use of up to date materials, the main body of the problem, divided into subject headings appropriate for your paper, a final section that includes a summary and recommendations. The bibliography should reflect course content as well as an academic search of data bases.
The writing and organization of your paper will be greatly facilitated if you use headings and subheadings. The papers will be evaluated in terms of how well you addressed the assignment. Did you do a good job in finding and synthesizing the available materials, quality of writing (if you simply cut and paste, expect to get a low grade), and relative effort? A minimum of 10 scholarly or official sources should be included. Appropriate sources include books, peer-reviewed journal articles, statutes or congressional reports, plans, white papers, policies, standards, strategies or guidelines by government agencies, think-tanks, associations, etc. Articles in trade journals, newsletters or popular media (e.g., magazines, newspapers, etc.) may also be used on a limited basis to supplement or reinforce scholarly sources. Wikipedia and blogs are not acceptable sources.
Please Note: Late submissions will be reduced by a minimum of one letter grade on each activity submitted beyond the due date without a justifiable explanation and prior approval.
Block Overview and Readings Block 1: Introduction-The Origins of Homeland Security.
Block 2 - Fundamentals of Terrorism and the Threat
What is terrorism?
As part of understanding homeland security, we must understand the unique kind of violence that is described when we consider “terrorism.” Many people—even in positions of authority—confuse what kind of violence terror describes. In this short introductory section, students will learn to distinguish the primary differences between war, insurgency, terrorism and criminal violence. Without this fundamental base of operations—no real appreciation of the threat can be obtained nor the implications of policy. One of the very real and controversial issues surrounding terrorism policy today is the question of whether we deal with it as a criminal justice issue or use the war designation and all that implies (courts vs military tribunals).
Implications of the use of the terror tactic
Terrorism, like all forms of political violence has a history, which informs the present, and future. Students need to understand that the use of terror as a tactic is not something that emerged on 9/11 and thus is something we don’t know how to react to. Rather, early history, colonial periods and more recent developments since 1968, have provided analysts with an understanding of the evolution of the use of this tactic that is very helpful for today’s decision makers and leaders in civilian, law enforcement and military arenas.
Terrorist organization and strategy
Terrorist organizations have operated in remarkably similar ways since the advent of modern terrorism in 1968. Understanding the rationale behind how these organizations work internally, both because of their clandestine nature and in relation to external pressures is important for those who wish to impact terrorist’s effectiveness.
Psychology and Sociology of Terrorism
Students will grapple with the Terrorism Studies debate between the nature of terrorism. They will consider these topics in relation to the rationality described in their earlier class, Terrorist Organization and Strategy. Are terrorists a particular mindset or malady? Or, are terrorists’ rational actors that have considered their political objectives and feel that terrorism provides the most likely positive outcome for their capabilities?
Religious terrorism is considered by many to be the primary threat to the US today. What makes this form of terrorism so different? Are we really engaged in a global insurgency led by jihadi fanatics? Is there anything we can do to more effectively counter the religious imperative that seems to organize and support groups attacking the US? Students will learn the various schools of thought being considered by academics and policy makers alike in regard to theological and religiously motivated groups.
Right wing and Ethno National Terrorism
In this section the students become acquainted with the specifics related with each of these types of terror motivations/ideologies. The different motivations lead to very different targets, tactics and potential for evolution from terrorism to political activism. Particular cases and examples are explored to give the student a broad understanding of these very different types of ideological motivation.
Implications of the Terrorism mission for homeland security and other agencies.
Block 3 – Homeland Security Strategies and Policies, DL
“America will never be the same again. It has proved to itself and to others that it is in truth (not just in name) the only global superpower, indeed a power that enjoys a level of superiority over its actual or potential rivals unmatched by any other nation in modern times. Consequently, the world outside America should never be the same either. There will, of course, arise new threats from new directions.”
--- Margaret Thatcher, Feb. 2002 Margaret Thatcher recognized the fundamental change in the world order in the above statement, as did US policy and strategy authorities. Following 9/11 the US developed more strategies than at any other time in its history. These strategies recognize new threats, promote values, and help shape definitions of Homeland Security. However, have they facilitated the transition from the posture adopted during the Cold War to that required for non-state threats and the conduct of the Global War on Terrorism? Are they clear enough to define roles of organizations that are responsible for Homeland Defense and Security in terms of prevention, and what are the implications for policy and the allocation of resources?
On Sept 20, 2001, President Bush stated:
“Americans are asking: How will we fight and win this war? We will direct every resource at our command – every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence, and every necessary weapon of war – to the disruption and to the defeat of the global terror network.”
One critical point to keep in mind is that the strategy and our related policy are focused on being preemptive, rather than reactive. This means we need to use offense to remove or alleviate the root causes. This is unlike the beginning of the cold war, in which George Kennan founded the US policy of containment toward the spread of communism; terrorism cannot be contained. We can deter to a certain extent through both domestic and foreign efforts. Perhaps the greatest deterrence is to take on efforts to reduce the conditions that result in a demand for terrorist activity: perceptions of injustice, humiliation, and hopelessness. Our offensive effort must include domestic intelligence collection against potential terrorist activities, increased foreign collection (to include human intelligence); and more detailed border screening and other immigration procedures. We should also work to develop better cooperation internationally so we can leverage the intelligence capabilities of our allies. With potential terrorist use of WMD, the use of modern communications to conduct their activities, and the remaining few nations that harbor terrorists or condone their activities, it is critical that all means at the disposal of the US are utilized.
This block of the class will enable students to analyze the core definitional and strategic issues at stake in Homeland Security. Students will examine the underlying challenges that continue to make these issues so contentious. Students will also briefly review the essence of strategy development and statutory allocation of authority over homeland security. We will analyze the relationship between the President’s overarching National Security Strategy and the National Strategies for Homeland Security and Combating Terrorism, and the influence of those documents on the Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support for Civil Authorities. We will then examine the relationship between Homeland Defense and Homeland Security.
Creating strategies is about setting priorities. The number of priorities we have, due to the infinite number of ways terrorists could exploit us, makes this an inherently difficult task. However, culled from our strategies are the terms that are associated with HS/D:
Deterrence – although difficult, this is the central element, and it is based on both punishment for actions undertaken and denial, or making it much more difficult to conduct a terrorist act. With the asymmetric threat we face, deterrence will come in forms other than arms, such as a robust health system that will deter the effects of a biological attack. Random security measures that make carrying out an attack more risky to the terrorist and an educated, aware public, also serve as deterrents.
Prevention – active or passive measures that will deny an attack or mitigate its effects. Controlling borders, having a military presence, providing aid, are some examples.
Preemption – political and military efforts to stop attacks before they occur. Preemption is risky from an international and diplomatic perspective, and can make the preemptor appear to be the aggressor. However, preemption does not mean launching full scale war, and can prove to be a long term deterrent.
Consequence Management – is the effort to provide emergency service and restore public health and safety in the event of an attack. While this is clearly a defensive activity, good risk management dictates that we prepare for an event if our other efforts fail.
Attribution – we must be able to rapidly identify the source of terrorist activity; without it, there can be no strategic or tactical response. It does matter who is behind a terrorist event, as the remaining elements of strategy have little worth if not directed.
Response – required to eliminate current threats and prevent future actions. Responses are required to reestablish deterrence.
Block 4 – Homeland Defense and Security Players and Organizations, This is a critical block in the course – understanding the responsibilities and roles of the nation’s primary entity charged with HS/D – the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, and the National Guard.
The Homeland Security Act of 2002 was the most significant change in the structure of the executive branch of the federal government since the National Security Act of 1947. In an effort to combine all of the functions related to securing the homeland, the Act mandated the combination of 22 agencies into one conglomerate with over 185,000 personnel.
The federal government realized after 9/11 that it was not organized to efficiently collect, analyze and disseminate information and direction regarding the security of the nation. The President first established the position of Advisor for Homeland Security, which put an individual in charge, similar to the National Security Advisor. Former Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Ridge was the first. The advisor also had a council (similar to other such councils) that brought together agency chiefs that could plan, and advice on recommended courses of action. The HS secretary saw the Attorney General (the chief criminal justice official of the US), and the DoD secretary as his primary partners. Congress saw the need for further consolidation to bring together many of the entities involved in HS such as the Border Service, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Customs, and some of the components of State and Defense.
The areas that needed the greatest effort were those that contributed most to 9/11: border security and the foreign/domestic intelligence divide. By summer of 2002, the decision was made to create DHS with an initial funding outlay of $40 billion. The primary goals/missions of the department are: improving (and possible restructuring) intelligence and law enforcement community information sharing; better federal, state, and local coordination; devising specific responsibilities for the national guard; and determining the role and responsibilities of the private sector in overall HS. The department analyzes threats, guards borders and airports, protects critical infrastructure, and coordinates responses. The department also includes the US Coast Guard and the US Secret Service.
DHS has been plagued with turf battles, inconsistent and overlapping missions, budget battles and high turnover. It has been criticized for failing to “connect the dots” (the root cause of failing to detect the 9/11 attacks) and for not providing the overarching coordination needed to achieve homeland security.
The Department of Defense has traditionally focused on conducting its missions outside the United States. However, since 9/11 there has been a redefinition and renewed emphasis on domestic missions of Homeland Defense and Defense Support to Civil Authorities. Despite having the largest portion of the federal budget, DoD has responsibilities that outweigh its resources in terms of personnel and funding. Accomplishing its domestic missions is further complicated by significant legal constraints, ranging from intelligence gathering, prosecution of law against U.S. citizens, and policies that restrict and define deployment. How has DoD organized itself to provide for prevention, especially (but not exclusively) for Homeland Defense? Can DoD assume a role as the Lead Federal Agency in domestic emergencies when conducting Homeland Defense? How can DoD partner most effectively with other Federal entities and with State and Local governments, who is in charge, and when? Does DoD have a role, in addition to supporting civil authorities, in Homeland Security, especially in the prevention realm? Does the civilian community have a role supporting its mission? Who is responsible for defense and security of the defense industrial base and protecting DOD domestic facilities? Perhaps most important, what constraints exist on the role of military forces in the defense of the homeland?
Block 5 - Legal and Jurisdictional Issues – The Law Enforcement Community, Posse Comitatus, and Domestic Operations
DHS will obviously be very closely tied to the law enforcement community. Presidential Decision Directive 39, the US Policy on Counter-Terrorism, states that terrorist acts are both criminal and threats to national security, and differentiating between them is complicated for legal, security, and investigative reasons. The regulations that oversee law enforcement and intelligence differ broadly. When conducting law enforcement (LE) activities on US soil, there are restrictions on the use of electronic surveillance, interrogation methods, tracking individuals, and obtaining information.
There are clear differences in why and how information is collected by LE versus intel. LE is focused on legally obtaining and maintaining a custody trail of information used for criminal prosecution. Intel, on the other hand, collects and analyzes foreign intelligence for national security purposes, to include supporting national policy and taking military action. As a result of these widely differing missions, sharing of information between the two in the past has been rare, sometimes thought unnecessary, and has often been subject to turf battles. The requirements for classifying information during the cold war, and the highly centralized structure of the CIA, have also not been conducive to information sharing.
Terrorists can be classified as both combatants and criminals. As combatants they can be held under the tenets of the Geneva Conventions, subject to trials by military tribunals, and be detained for the duration of a conflict. If they commit acts on US soil, they are criminals, and they fall under the purview of LE organizations and US statutes
The FBI, which is part of the Department of Justice, has primary responsibility for terrorist/criminal matters domestically. However, it must be noted that the only official with authority over both the LE and intel communities is the president.
University Policy Statements
Students who require assistance during an emergency evacuation must discuss their needs with their professors and the Disability Resource Center. If you have emergency medical information to share with me, or if you need special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, please make an appointment with me as soon as possible.
For additional information students should contact the Disability Resource Center, 836-4192 (PSU 405), or Larry Combs, Interim Assistant Director of Public Safety and Transportation at 836-6576.
For further information on Missouri State University’s Emergency Response Plan, please refer to the following web site: http://www.missouristate.edu/safetran/erp.htm
Missouri State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution, and maintains a grievance procedure available to any person who believes he or she has been discriminated against. At all times, it is your right to address inquiries or concerns about possible discrimination to the Office for Institutional Equity and Compliance, Park Central Office Building, 117 Park Central Square, Suite 111, (417) 836-4252. Other types of concerns (i.e., concerns of an academic nature) should be discussed directly with your instructor and can also be brought to the attention of your instructor’s Department Head. Please visit the OED website at www.missouristate.edu/equity/.
To request academic accommodations for a disability, contact the Director of the Disability Resource Center, Plaster Student Union, Suite 405, (417) 836-4192 or (417) 836-6792 (TTY), www.missouristate.edu/disability. Students are required to provide documentation of disability to the Disability Resource Center prior to receiving accommodations. The Disability Resource Center refers some types of accommodation requests to the Learning Diagnostic Clinic, which also provides diagnostic testing for learning and psychological disabilities. For information about testing, contact the Director of the Learning Diagnostic Clinic, (417) 836-4787, http://psychology.missouristate.edu/ldc.
Missouri State University is a community of scholars committed to developing educated persons who accept the responsibility to practice personal and academic integrity. You are responsible for knowing and following the university’s student honor code, Student Academic Integrity Policies and Procedures and also available at the Reserves Desk in Meyer Library. Any student participating in any form of academic dishonesty will be subject to sanctions as described in this policy.
Statement of attendance policy
Students are expected to attend all classes, or notify/explain to the faculty member in writing of any absence. Excessive absences can be expected to interfere with the student’s ability to progress through the class.
Dropping a class
It is your responsibility to understand the University’s procedure for dropping a class. If you stop attending this class but do not follow proper procedure for dropping the class, you will receive a failing grade and will also be financially obligated to pay for the class. For information about dropping a class or withdrawing from the university, contact the Office of the Registrar at 836-5520.
August 24 is the last date to drop a Fall 2012 class and receive a 100% refund of tuition. Refunds are prorated after that date.
Cell Phone Policy
As a member of the learning community, each student has a responsibility to other students who are members of the community. When cell phones or pagers ring and students respond in class or leave class to respond, it disrupts the class. Therefore, the Office of the Provost prohibits the use by students of cell phones, pagers, PDAs, or similar communication devices during scheduled classes. All such devices must be turned off or put in a silent (vibrate) mode and ordinarily should not be taken out during class. Given the fact that these same communication devices are an integral part of the University’s emergency notification system, an exception to this policy would occur when numerous devices activate simultaneously. When this occurs, students may consult their devices to determine if a university emergency exists. If that is not the case, the devices should be immediately returned to silent mode and put away. Other exceptions to this policy may be granted at the discretion of the instructor.