7.5 Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Japan.
7.5.3 Describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the lasting influence of the warrior code throughout the twentieth century.
7.5.4 Trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism.
7.5.6 Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the samurai in that society.
CH 22 PREVIEW page 148
In this lesson you will learn about the training of Japanese soldiers known as samurai, including the skills, knowledge, and values these soldiers were taught. The samurai’s training was very different from the training of modern American soldiers.
OVERVIEW OF CH 22 You learn about the rise of a warrior class in Japan and the pivotal role the samurai played from the end of the 12th to the 19th centuries. After reading about the forces that led to the creation of a lord-vassal system in Japan, students learn about a samurai school and will see various aspects of samurai training. OBJECTIVES OF CH 22
analyze the rise of a military society in the late 12th century and the role of the samurai in that society.
describe the values, social customs, and traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai.
trace the development of distinctive forms of Japanese Buddhism.
describe the lasting influence of the warrior code throughout the 20th century.
compare Western Europe in the Middle Ages with the samurai society of Japan.
I. NOTES FOR CH 22.2 page 242
The Rise of the Samurai
The Shogun was the commander in chief (Minamoto Yoritomo)
Samurai under the Shoguns
The shogun rewarded the samurai with land or appointments to office
The samurai promised to serve and protect the shogun
He gave the samurai land, money, + appointments to office
The samurai promised to be obedient and loyal to the daimyo
The daimyo started to replace the shogun as the lords had done so in Medieval Europe
By the late 15th century Japan fell into chaos. In 1603 after almost 100 years of fighting, Tokugawa Ieyasu, became shogun and established a new capital in Edo ( present day Tokyo)
For the next 250 years Japan was at peace
NOTES FOR CH 22.3 page 243
The Samurai’s Armor and Weapons
The samurai was first and foremost a warrior
Under his armor he wore a colorful robe called a kimono
Samurai armor was unique — it had row of small metal plates coated with lacquer laced with silk -> strong yet flexible
Boxlike panels covered the chest and back
Metal sleeves covered arms
Broad shoulder guards and panels for hips
Thigh and shin guards
Ferocious looking iron mask
Iron helmet — before putting on the helmet he burned incense — to smell sweet if cut off in battle
Most prized weapon is the sword. A samurai’s swords were the finest in the world, they were flexible enough not to break and hard enough to be razor sharp. He carried 2 swords: a long sword with a curved blade for battle and a shorter sword to cut off heads
Bow and Arrows – wooden bow could be up to 8 feet long. In battle sharpshooters on horses pulled arrows from quivers on their backs and fired at each other
Foot soldiers used spears to knock riders off their horses or kill an enemy with a powerful thrust.
NOTES FOR CH 22.4 page 244
Military Training and Fighting
The way of the horse and the Bow and latter the art of swordsmanship
1st young samurai were apprenticed to archery masters
Samurai learned shoot accurately while - horseback
The art of fencing was just as demanding
Force his opponent to make the 1st move
Fight in tight spaces; against more than 1 opponent
They continued to fight without a sword using other weapons
or even their hands
Metal fans or wooden staffs
Using martial arts
There was a unique style of battle
1st messengers met to decide time and place of battle
They then would shout — their names, their
ancestor, heroic deeds, and reasons for fighting
Only then would they charge each other
There was savage hand-to-hand combat, one-on-one duels
Each samurai found an opponent who matched in rank
He would knock opponent off horse, wrestle him to ground, and slit his throat
After the battle the winning side cut off the heads of opponents. Heads were cleaned and mounted on boards and presented to leader. The victorious lord rewarded his samurai with swords, horses, armor, or land.
NOTES FOR CH 22.5 pages 245
A samurai had to learn self-control so they could overcome emotions that might interfere with fighting
Training in Self-control
On a daily basis a samurai should:
think about how to overcome his fear of death
To overcome the fear of death they were told to think of themselves as already dead.
Training in Preparedness
Samurai had to develop a sixth sense about danger
Samurai were trained to be prepares at all times
One samurai was hit with a wooden sword throughout the day until he learned to always stay alert.
NOTES FOR CH 22.6 page 246
Training in Writing and Literature
By the more peaceful 17th century, samurai were expected to be students of culture as well as fierce warriors.
Samurai practiced calligraphy, the art of beautiful writing by carefully drawing each character with his brush
Samurai also wrote poetry. One famous samurai poet was Matsuo Basho who invented a new form of short poetry called the Haiku
Haiku is poetry that consists of three lines of five, seven, and five
-syllables making 17 syllables in all.
NOTES FOR CH 22.7 page 246+247
Training for the Tea Ceremony
The Tea ceremony fostered a spirit of harmony, reverence, and clam which served as way to form political alliances
There was a certain procedure to the ceremony
Enter room thru a low door
Room was very simple
The only decorations found were: a scroll painting or an artistic flower arrangement
Guests sat silently, watching the master make + serve tea
Engaged in sophisticated discussions, about utensils
The master had a procedure in the making of the tea:
to atone for crime, shameful deed, or insult to another,
as a form of protest against an injustice,
as punishment for a crime, or
Because of the death of a lord. I am always loyal to my lord and willing to die for him.
Seppuku became an elaborate ceremony
Guests were invited
The samurai would take a bath & Unbind his long hair
Putting on the white clothes used for dressing a corpse
Served his favorite food
Then a sward was placed in from of him
He took the sword and plunged it into & across his stomach, trying to make a complete circle.
A swordsman standing behind him quickly cut of his head to end his agony
NOTES FOR CH 22.10 page 249
Women in Samurai Society
The position of women in samurai society declined over time. In the 12thcent, women of the warrior class enjoyed honor and respect. By the 17th cent. samurai women were treated as inferior to their husbands
A samurai’s wife helped manage the household and
promote the family’s interest
She could inherit a husbands property and perform the duties of a vassal
Some women took part in battles
Samurai Women in the 17thCentury
As the warrior culture developed, women’s position weakened
By the 17th century, samurai men were the unquestioned lords of their households.
When young, women should obey their fathers; when grown, their husbands; and when old, their sons.
Girls did not even choose their own husbands
They were expected to bear sons and look after their husbands
Sometimes they were even expected to kill themselves when their husbands died.
Not all Japanese women were treated the same way. Peasant women had some respect and independence because they worked alongside their husbands. But in samurai families, women were completely under men’s control.
NOTES FOR CH 22.11 page 250
Comparing Japan and Europe in the Middle Ages
The Japan of the samurai was both like and unlike Europe during the Middle Ages.
In both societies, ties of loyalty and obligation bound lords and vassals.
Both had rulers who rose to power as military chiefs