Effective surveillance now – regardless of sunset on PATRIOT Act wiretapping program
Savage et al 6/4/15 (Charlie Savage is a Washington correspondent for The New York Times. He is known for his work on presidential power and national security legal policy matter, “Hunting for Hackers, N.S.A. Secretly Expands Internet Spying at U.S. Border”, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/05/us/hunting-for-hackers-nsa-secretly-expands-internet-spying-at-us-border.html?ref=topics, 2015)
WASHINGTON — Without public notice or debate, the Obama administration has expanded the National Security Agency‘s warrantless surveillance of Americans’ international Internet traffic to search for evidence of malicious computer hacking, according to classified N.S.A. documents. In mid-2012, Justice Department lawyers wrote two secret memos permitting the spy agency to begin hunting on Internet cables, without a warrant and on American soil, for data linked to computer intrusions originating abroad — including traffic that flows to suspicious Internet addresses or contains malware, the documents show. The Justice Department allowed the agency to monitor only addresses and “cybersignatures” — patterns associated with computer intrusions — that it could tie to foreign governments. But the documents also note that the N.S.A. sought permission to target hackers even when it could not establish any links to foreign powers.The disclosures, based on documents provided by Edward J. Snowden, the former N.S.A. contractor, and shared with The New York Times and ProPublica, come at a time of unprecedented cyberattacks on American financial institutions, businesses and government agencies, but also of greater scrutiny of secret legal justifications for broader government surveillance. While the Senate passed legislation this week limiting some of the N.S.A.’s authority, the measure involved provisions in the U.S.A. Patriot Act and did not apply to the warrantless wiretapping program. Government officials defended the N.S.A.’s monitoring of suspected hackers as necessary to shield Americans from the increasingly aggressive activities of foreign governments. But critics say it raises difficult trade-offs that should be subject to public debate. The N.S.A.’s activities run “smack into law enforcement land,” said Jonathan Mayer, a cybersecurity scholar at Stanford Law School who has researched privacy issues and who reviewed several of the documents. “That’s a major policy decision about how to structure cybersecurity in the U.S. and not a conversation that has been had in public.” It is not clear what standards the agency is using to select targets. It can be hard to know for sure who is behind a particular intrusion — a foreign government or a criminal gang — and the N.S.A. is supposed to focus on foreign intelligence, not law enforcement. The government can also gather significant volumes of Americans’ information — anything from private emails to trade secrets and business dealings — through Internet surveillance because monitoring the data flowing to a hacker involves copying that information as the hacker steals it. One internal N.S.A. document notes that agency surveillance activities through “hacker signatures pull in a lot.” Brian Hale, the spokesman for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, said, “It should come as no surprise that the U.S. government gathers intelligence on foreign powers that attempt to penetrate U.S. networks and steal the private information of U.S. citizens and companies.” He added that “targeting overseas individuals engaging in hostile cyberactivities on behalf of a foreign power is a lawful foreign intelligence purpose.” The effort is the latest known expansion of the N.S.A.’s warrantless surveillance program, which allows the government to intercept Americans’ cross-border communications if the target is a foreigner abroad. While the N.S.A. has long searched for specific email addresses and phone numbers of foreign intelligence targets, the Obama administration three years ago started allowing the agency to search its communications streams for less-identifying Internet protocol addresses or strings of harmful computer code. The surveillance activity traces to changes that began after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. The government tore down a wall that prevented intelligence and criminal investigators from sharing information about suspected spies and terrorists. The barrier had been erected to protect Americans’ rights because intelligence investigations use lower legal standards than criminal inquiries, but policy makers decided it was too much of an obstacle to terrorism investigations.
ISIS is in the US, surveillance is key now
Evan Perez and Shimon Prokupecz, CNN Updated 4:56 PM ET, Sat May 30, 2015 (CNN, FBI struggling with surge in homegrown terror cases, available online at http://www.cnn.com/2015/05/28/politics/fbi-isis-local-law-enforcement/)
New York (CNN) The New York Police Department and other law enforcement agencies around the nation are increasing their surveillance of ISIS supporters in the U.S., in part to aid the FBI which is struggling to keep up with a surge in the number of possible terror suspects, according to law enforcement officials. The change is part of the fallout from the terrorist attack in Garland, Texas earlier this month. The FBI says two ISIS supporters attempted a gun attack on a Prophet Mohammad cartoon contest but were killed by police. One of the attackers, Elton Simpson, was already under investigation by the FBI but managed to elude surveillance to attempt the foiled attack. Texas man charged with providing support to ISIS Texas man charged with providing support to ISIS. FBI Director James Comey told a group of police officials around the country in a secure conference call this month that the FBI needs help to keep tabs on hundreds of suspects. As a result, some police agencies are adding surveillance teams to help the FBI monitor suspects. Teams of NYPD officers trained in surveillance are now helping the FBI's surveillance teams to better keep track of suspects, law enforcement officials say. NYPD Commissioner William Bratton has said he wants to add 450 officers to the force's counterterrorism unit, partly to counter the increasing domestic threat posed by ISIS sympathizers. The same is happening with other police departments around the country.The Los Angeles Police Department's counterterrorism unit is also beefing up its surveillance squads at the request of the FBI, law enforcement officials say.Comey said at an unrelated news conference Wednesday that he has less confidence now that the FBI can keep up with the task. Hayden: Attacks like TX shooting will be "new normal" "It's an extraordinarily difficult challenge task to find -- that's the first challenge -- and then assess those who may be on a journey from talking to doing and to find and assess in an environment where increasingly, as the attorney general said, their communications are unavailable to us even with court orders," Comey said."They're on encrypted platforms, so it is an incredibly difficult task that we are enlisting all of our state, local and federal partners in and we're working on it every single day, but I can't stand here with any high confidence when I confront the world that is increasingly dark to me and tell you that I've got it all covered," he said. "We are working very, very hard on it but it is an enormous task."
Surveillance key to stop terrorism
Bolton 15 (John Bolton is a lawyer and researcher at the American Enterprise Institute for US Foreign policy and national security, “NSA activities key to terrorism fight”, https://www.aei.org/publication/nsa-activities-key-to-terrorism-fight/, April 28, 2015)
Congress is poised to decide whether to re-authorize programs run by the National Security Agency that assess patterns of domestic and international telephone calls and emails to uncover linkages with known terrorists. These NSA activities, initiated after al-Qaeda’s deadly 9/11 attacks, have played a vital role in protecting America and our citizens around the world from the still-metastasizing terrorist threat. The NSA programs do not involve listening to or reading conversations, but rather seek to detect communications networks. If patterns are found, and more detailed investigation seems warranted, then NSA or other federal authorities, consistent with the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures, must obtain judicial approval for more specific investigations. Indeed, even the collection of the so-called metadata is surrounded by procedural protections to prevent spying on U.S. citizens. Nonetheless, critics from the right and left have attacked the NSA for infringing on the legitimate expectations of privacy Americans enjoy under our Constitution. Unfortunately, many of these critics have absolutely no idea what they are talking about; they are engaging in classic McCarthyite tactics, hoping to score political points with a public justifiably worried about the abuses of power characteristic of the Obama administration. Other critics, following Vietnam-era antipathies to America’s intelligence community, have never reconciled themselves to the need for robust clandestine capabilities. Still others yearn for simpler times, embodying Secretary of State Henry Stimson’s famous comment that “gentlemen don’t read each others’ mail.” The ill-informed nature of the debate has facilitated scare-mongering, with one wild accusation about NSA’s activities after another being launched before the mundane reality catches up. And there is an important asymmetry at work here as well. The critics can say whatever their imaginations conjure up, but NSA and its defenders are significantly limited in how they can respond. By definition, the programs’ success rests on the secrecy fundamental to all intelligence activities. Frequently, therefore, explaining what is not happening could well reveal information about NSA’s methods and capabilities that terrorists and others, in turn, could use to stymie future detection efforts. After six years of President Obama, however, trust in government is in short supply. It is more than a little ironic that Obama finds himself defending the NSA (albeit with obvious hesitancy and discomfort), since his approach to foreign and defense issues has consistently reflected near-total indifference, except when he has no alternative to confronting challenges to our security. Yet if harsh international realities can penetrate even Obama’s White House, that alone is evidence of the seriousness of the threats America faces. In fact, just in the year since Congress last considered the NSA programs, the global terrorist threat has dramatically increased. ISIS is carving out an entirely new state from what used to be Syria and Iraq, which no longer exist within the borders created from the former Ottoman Empire after World War I. In already-chaotic Libya, ISIS has grown rapidly, eclipsing al-Qaeda there and across the region as the largest terrorist threat. Boko Haram is expanding beyond Nigeria, declaring its own caliphate, even while pledging allegiance to ISIS. Yemen has descended into chaos, following Libya’s pattern, and Iran has expanded support for the terrorist Houthi coalition. Afghanistan is likely to fall back under Taliban control if, as Obama continually reaffirms, he withdraws all American troops before the end of 2016. This is not the time to cripple our intelligence-gathering capabilities against the rising terrorist threat. Congress should unquestionably reauthorize the NSA programs, but only for three years. That would take us into a new presidency, hopefully one that inspires more confidence, where a calmer, more sensible debate can take place.
Surveillance Key to Stopping ISIS in the US
Rory Carroll Wednesday 4-22-2015 (The Guardian, NSA surveillance needed to prevent Isis attack, claims former intelligence chair Mike Rogers, former chairman of the House intelligence committee, says the NSA needs to preserve its wide powers in case of an attack on US homeland, found online at http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/apr/22/mass-surveillance-needed-isis-attack-mike-rogers)
Mass surveillance should be retained because of the prospect of Islamic State attacks within the United States, a key Republican ally of the National Security Agency has claimed. Mike Rogers, the former chairman of the House intelligence committee, said the NSA needed to preserve its wide powers in case Isis used its bases in Syria and Iraq to unleash atrocities on the US homeland. “Now you have a very real face on what the threat is,” Rogers told the Guardian on Tuesday. “Somebody calling back from Syria to Minnesota, either recruiting somebody or giving the operational OK to do something. That’s real and it’s serious. Before it seemed all hypothetical. Now you can see it.” He added: “Think about how many people are in Syria with western passports or even American passports. I want to know if they pick up the phone. If they’re calling back to the States, I don’t know about you, but I want to know who they’re talking to and what they’re talking about.” Rogers gave the warning as negotiators in the House of Representatives wrangled over a revamp of the USA Freedom Act, a bill that aimed to stop the NSA from its daily collection of US phone records in bulk which failed in the Senate in 2014, and is now returning to Congress.
ISIS in the US
WND 04/25/15 (WND is an independent news source, “2 U.S. agencies warn on imminent ISIS attack”, http://www.wnd.com/2015/04/2-u-s-agencies-warn-on-imminent-isis-attack/, 04/25/15)
WASHINGTON – While the FBI investigates a possible ISIS terror attack on the basis of intercepted chatter and intelligence information, the TSA issued a classified warning that ISIS is planning an attack on U.S. soil. Little is known about the nature of the attack other than its imminence, which has prompted the TSA to deploy its new Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response teams, or VIPR, to various undisclosed locations. The VIPR teams include airports, train stations and other busy transportation hubs. One law enforcement source suggested parts of California were of special concern.As a result of the FBI warning, some cities have increased security as a precaution, but those cities have not been disclosed. The TSA classified warning was issued Friday. The FBI investigation was confirmed Saturday. While ISIS has warned repeatedly it planned to target the U.S., this is the first time the U.S. intelligence community has acted on what it perceives as a viable, if general, threat. So far, ISIS has only attacked U.S. targets abroad.
Terrorism will be nuclear – ISIS has the means and the money to acquire nukes, at the least dirty bombs with nuclear materials
Lalbiakchhunga 15 (K. Lalbiakchhunga is a research scholar at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in the school of international studies, “NUCLEAR TERRORISM AND THE THREAT OF DIRTY BOMB”, Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(3), February 2015)
Allegations or indications that various terrorist/non-state groups have tried in the past to acquire nuclear and other radioactive material have been widely reported and indictments in criminal prosecutions of alleged members of terrorist groups have, in several cases, included such charges (IAEA: 2014). According to Lee (2003), accounts of varying credibility also point to efforts by terrorists to purchase finished nuclear weapons from inside the former USSR and apparently, the Aum Shinrikyo cult apparently harbored such intentions which is evident in the documents seized from the cult‟s “construction minister,” who had visited Russia extensively in the early 1990s, contained the ominous notation, “How much is a nuclear warhead?” and listed several prices, though whether these references reflected actual negotiations was not clear (Lee, 2003). Osama bin Laden's assertion in 1998 that it was his Islamic duty to acquire weapons of mass destruction ensured that the fulfillment of this intent would become a top priority for his lieutenants in the ensuing years (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010). The Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan‟s (TTP‟s) is another potential group that might have intention to acquire nuclear or radiological capability. Operating in Pakistan which is the hotspot of nuclear insecurity, this group may have been want to use nuclear or radiological weapon to fulfill their avowed objective of establishing an Islamic state. Finally, the most potent terrorist group ISIS pose the gravest danger to proliferation of nuclear and fissile material. In June 2014, the ISIS capture Mosul city in Iraq and took possession of about 40 kilograms radiological materials from Mosul University. Since then they started threatening countries like Israel and Britain with nuclear attack (Cefaratti, 2014; Su, 2014). For example, in 1995, Chechen extremists threatened to bundle radioactive material with explosives to use against Russia in order to force the Russian military to withdraw from Chechnya. While no explosives were used, officials later retrieved a package of cesium-137 the rebels had buried in a Moscow park (USNRC: 2014). The matter becomes more worst if we look at the level of nuclear insecurity in different parts of the world. The former Soviet states like Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Georgia has large stockpile of fissile materials and nuclear insecurity in Pakistan is well known. Beside, several radiological materials have been available in open market as they are use in peaceful purposes like industry, hospital and university. These materials like caecium-137 or cobalt-60 has capability of unleashing enormous destruction if detonated in densely populated areas. Cases of Nuclear and Radioactive material Trafficking Nuclear terrorism requires the acquisition of nuclear materials by terrorist groups. But processing radioactive materials to be use either for nuclear weapon or other peaceful uses require sophiscated technology and human resources which terrorist usually lacking. But this shortcoming can be overcome through illicit trafficking and theft of nuclear material. This shortcut method can lead to nuclear proliferation and the possible construction of improvised nuclear devices or radiological dispersal and exposure devices. The continued reports of illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material from different parts of the world especially after the end of Cold war makes nuclear terrorism all the more plausible. The IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) reported that from January 1993 to December, 2013, a total of 2477 incidents were reported to the ITDB by participating States and some nonparticipating States. Of the 2477 confirmed incidents, 424 involved unauthorized possession and related criminal activities. Incidents included in this category involved illegal possession, movement or attempts to illegally trade in or use nuclear material or radioactive sources. Sixteen incidents in this category involved high enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium. There were 664 incidents reported that involved the theft or loss of nuclear or other radioactive material and a total of 1337 cases involving other unauthorized activities, including the unauthorized disposal of radioactive materials or discovery of uncontrolled sources (IAEA: 2014a). Result From the above analysis, the following inferences can be drawn 1. Nuclear terrorism is a clear and present danger and especially the threat of dirty bomb is very real due to availability of radiological substance in an open market.2. There are terrorist groups who have intention to acquire weapons of mass destruction and will not hesitate to use it. 3. From the record of IAEA, there is a vibrant nuclear black market in different parts of the world. Conclusion Looking at the intention of terrorist groups and their increase capability in terms of human resources and financial prowess, they are in a position to buy nuclear materials from black market. Groups like ISIS are estimated to have asset worth $ 2 billion. Beside, the unabated report of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials from various parts of the world is a matter of serious concern. What more worrisome is that majority of illegal trafficking and theft originated from unstable areas and terrorist hotspot like Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Impact
Speice 06 (Patrick Speice, JD Candidate, 47 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1427, February 2006, Lexis)
Terrorist groups could acquire a nuclear weapon by a number of methods, including "steal[ing] one intact from the stockpile of a country possessing such weapons, or ... [being] sold or given one by [*1438] such a country, or [buying or stealing] one from another subnational group that had obtained it in one of these ways." 40 Equally threatening, however, is the risk that terrorists will steal or purchase fissile material and construct a nuclear device on their own. Very little material is necessary to construct a highly destructive nuclear weapon. 41 Although nuclear devices are extraordinarily complex, the technical barriers to constructing a workable weapon are not significant. 42 Moreover, the sheer number of methods that could be used to deliver a nuclear device into the United States makes it incredibly likely that terrorists could successfully employ a nuclear weapon once it was built. 43 Accordingly, supply-side controls that are aimed at preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear material in the first place are the most effective means of countering the risk of nuclear terrorism. 44 Moreover, the end of the Cold War eliminated the rationale for maintaining a large military-industrial complex in Russia, and the nuclear cities were closed. 45 This resulted in at least 35,000 nuclear scientists becoming unemployed in an economy that was collapsing. 46 Although the economy has stabilized somewhat, there [*1439] are still at least 20,000 former scientists who are unemployed or underpaid and who are too young to retire, 47 raising the chilling prospect that these llkjkjklnm would be devastating in terms of immediate human and economic losses. n49 Moreover, there would be immense political pressure in the United States to discover the perpetrators and retaliate with nuclear weapons, massively increasing the number of casualties and potentially triggering a full-scale nuclear conflict. N50 In addition to the threat posed by terrorists, leakage of nuclear knowledge and material from Russia will reduce the barriers that states with nuclear ambitions face and may trigger widespread proliferation of nuclear weapons. n51 This proliferation willincrease the risk of nuclear attacks against the United States [*1440] or its allies by hostile states, n52 as well as increase the likelihood that regional conflicts will draw in the United States and escalate to the use of nuclear weapons. Terror attack goes nuclear, ends in extinction