• Legislates to extend political rights or civil liberties
• Restricts power of executive
Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for EACH correct description of ways a legislature can be controlled in an authoritarian regime.
Acceptable descriptions may include:
• Manipulates election rules for parties and voters
• Controls election results
• Creates a dominant or single party system
• Appoints representatives
• Limits legislative meeting time
• Limits or restrain debate of opposing views
• Limits or prohibit changes to executive proposals
• Co-opts or represses dissenting legislators
• Prohibits legislative
Part (d): 1 point One point is earned for a correct explanation of why authoritarian regimes maintain legislatures. Acceptable explanations may include:
• To maintain political legitimacy
• To establish the pretense of popular support
• To respond to international pressure
• To provide a forum for superficial debate
• To recognize cleavages in an effort to reduce tension
• To support government propaganda
• To build party support or compliance
2013 #6, economic liberalization
6. Political economy involves the study of the relationship between states and markets. (a) Define economic liberalization. (b) Describe the actions governments take in pursuing a policy of economic liberalization regarding TWO of the following: x Subsidies x Tariffs x Ownership of companies and firms x Foreign direct investment (c) Identify one international organization that promotes economic liberalization. (d) Explain one reason for pursuing economic liberalization. (e) Explain one reason for resisting economic liberalization.
Country Context: We suggest that you spend approximately 40 minutes (20 minutes each) on questions 7 and 8. 7. Refer to the following map and indicators of democracy from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Source: http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf (a) Define the concept of a hybrid regime. (b) Using the map above, identify the type of regime in Russia AND identify the type of regime in China. (c) Describe the characteristics of TWO of the following elements of Russia’s political system. Explain how these characteristics contribute to the regime designation of Russia. x Electoral competition x Civil society x Media (d) Describe the characteristics of TWO of the following elements of China’s political system. Explain how these characteristics contribute to the regime designation of China. x Electoral competition x Civil society x Media
Define political socialization. Describe two methods Russian authorities currently use to socialize citizens.
One point is earned for a correct definition of political socialization. An acceptable definition includes: • The process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire their ideas about government • The process by which political values are formed and transmitted from one generation to the next One point is earned for each of two descriptions of methods currently used by Russian authorities to socialize citizens. Acceptable descriptions include: • State-controlled media sets agenda and primes citizens on important issues, as well as controlling the debate and establishing norms. • The government controls textbook content and educational curriculum to shape people’s ideas about government. • Progovernment youth organizations such as Nashi and progovernment rallies have been organized to support the regime. • Proregime Internet campaigns are used to depict Putin as a strong and capable leader. • The Russian Orthodox Church bolsters the legitimacy of the regime.
2012 #3 China economic liberalization
3. Explain how two current environmental problems in China resulted from its economic liberalization. Describe one policy the Chinese government has developed in response to one of these environmental problems.
One point is earned for each of two explanations of how current environmental problems in China resulted from its economic liberalization. Current environmental problems may include: • air pollution • habitat loss • land contamination • urban sprawl • water pollution Acceptable explanations for how the problems listed above resulted from economic liberalization may include: • expansion of industry • lack of government regulation • increased use of automobiles • increased consumption • poor infrastructure Notes: Explanations must demonstrate linkage to economic liberalization. Explanation may be the same for two distinct environmental problems. One point is earned for a correct description of a policy the Chinese government developed in response to the environmental problem identified above. Acceptable descriptions of a policy include: • temporarily shutting down factories • physically moving factories • implementation of green technologies and subsidies to companies using them • reduced use of automobiles or controls on automobile emissions • better legal framework for policy regulation • greater planning in or increased infrastructure development
2011 #, china social cleavge
Describe a major social cleavage in China. Discuss two policies the Chinese state has adopted since 1990 in response to that cleavage.
Political scientists often examine political rights and civil liberties to assess regime type. (a) Define civil liberties. Explain the difference between political rights and civil liberties. (b) Describe one example of how political rights have declined in Russia between 1995 and 2010. Describe one example of how civil liberties have declined in Russia between 1995 and 2010. (c) Describe one example of how political rights have increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. Describe one example of how civil liberties have increased in Mexico between 1995 and 2010. (d) Using the descriptions you provided in parts (b) and (c), assess the regime type in Mexico in 2010 and the regime type in Russia in 2010.
Many outside observers express concern that Russia’s political system became more authoritarian during the 2000-2008 presidency of Vladimir Putin. Explain three changes made during Putin’s presidency that are evidence that the Russian political system became more authoritarian.
One point is earned for an explanation of each of three changes made during Putin’s presidency that led to Russia’s political system becoming more authoritarian. Answers must include how the change has led to the system becoming more authoritarian. Acceptable changes include any of the following: • presidential appointment of regional governors instead of direct election • creation of seven federal districts with appointment of super governor or presidential envoys • switch to higher parliamentary threshold • change to selecting half of Federation Council by presidential appointment • creation of a dominant party (United Russia) • cult of personality • increased state control of media (TV stations/national newspapers — not Internet or radio) • undiminished power for Putin upon becoming prime minister • arrests and convictions of opposition candidates and economically powerful individuals on limited evidence • restrictions on the formation of parties and party registration • restrictions on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) (2006 NGO Registration law) • restrictions on rights of assembly for antigovernment protests • enforcement of tax on opposition and other measures The response must explain the link between the change and the system becoming more authoritarian. Examples of the link may include: • concentration of power • limits on opposition • reduction of civil rights • limits on media • limits on parties • limits on electoral competition • diminished civil society • a less independent judiciary
2010 #6 civil society
6. Many scholars think that civil society is important for the development of democracy. (a) Define civil society. (b) Identify and explain one specific condition within a political system that would enable civil society to thrive. (c) Identify and explain another specific condition within a political system that would enable civil society to thrive.
The following are acceptable definitions: • Civil society is the formal and informal organizations that are not part of the state apparatus but operate in public. • Civil society is composed of organizations that are voluntary and autonomous self-governing groups created to advance their own causes. • Civil society is composed of groups that bring together people with common interests in social, charitable, religious, community or political concerns to articulate and advance their own causes. Note: • Definition must include conditions, not just examples of groups. • It must be clear that civil society is separate from government, but it need not be political: includes groups such as private, not-for-profit health providers, schools, advocacy groups, social service agencies, antipoverty groups, development agencies, professional associations, community-based organizations, unions, religious bodies, recreational organizations (e.g., bowling leagues) and cultural institutions. Parts (b) and (c): 4 points One point is earned for each correct identification of a condition that enables civil society to thrive, and 1 point is earned for each explanation of how that condition promotes civil society. Acceptable conditions may include: • pluralist • liberal • multiple points of access • democratic processes • free/fair elections • civil rights/civil liberties • freedoms of speech, assembly, press • rule of law • efficacy • political accountability • political competition • political freedom • political equality • political transparency Note: Students must provide an explanation of how the identified condition helps civil society to thrive. Students cannot reuse the identified condition from part (b) in part (c).
2009 #1 Mao private property
Describe the status of private property in China under Mao. Identify and explain one policy undertaken by the Chinese government within the past 30 years that contradicts that policy.
One point is earned for a correct description of the status of private property in China under Mao. Acceptable descriptions include any of the following: • Private property was not allowed (in most periods). • The constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) prohibited private ownership of property; property was “owned by the people.” • Private property was redistributed to the landless/peasants—land reform. • Private property was confiscated. • Private property was collectivized. • After collectivization of private lands, communes were formed. • The state was the primary owner of property and means of production. • People often had right of use but no ownership. Note: No identification point is earned for vague responses such as “There was none” or “People could not own anything.” One point past 30 years that contradicts Mao’s policy, and is earned for an identification of one policy undertaken by the Chinese government in the 1 point is earned for an explanation of a way in which it does so. Acceptable policies include any of the following: • Decollectivization of land • Disbanding of communes • Private production allowed • Privately owned enterprises • Extended leases for land use • Household responsibility system • Constitutional reform o New rights of ownership o Enforcing the rule of law Acceptable explanations include either of the following: • Demonstrated linkages to Mao-era private property policy • Comparative statement between Mao and current private property policy No identification point is earned for the following unless the policy is linked to private property: • Special Economic Zones (SEZs) • Open Door policy • “Three Represents” policy • Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) • Privatization • Capitalism • Market economy • Free market AP® CO
7. (a) Describe Russia’s electoral system before the 2007 Duma elections. Explain how the electoral system shaped the pre-2007 Russian party system. (b) Describe a specific change to the Russian electoral system that was designed for the 2007 Duma elections and explain its impact on party competition. (c) Describe Mexico’s current electoral system. (d) Describe one electoral reform made in Mexico in the 1990s and explain how that reform affected Mexico’s party system.
Explain what it means to say that a government has transparency. Describe two examples that show how the Chinese government since 1997 limits transparency.
One point is earned for a correct explanation of what it means to say a government has transparency. Acceptable explanations may include: • A government has transparency when it disseminates accurate political and economic information to the public. • A government has transparency when it allows information about government and policy to circulate openly. • A government has transparency when it allows citizens several points of access for obtaining information about governmental actions. One point is earned for each of two descriptions that show how the Chinese government since 1997 limits transparency. Acceptable descriptions of limitations include: • Closed government proceedings (e.g., courts). • Censorship of information relating to public policy or events of public relevance. • Government control of the media, linked to transparency. • Not publishing budgetary information or information on salaries of government officials. • Suppressing any information that could be construed as damaging to the government. • Secrecy in selection of leaders. Notes: • The task here seeks an explanation, not a definition. • Correct answers will focus on what information the government as an agent allows, rather than on what citizens seek to access. • Descriptions of limits should be accompanied by an explanation of HOW they influence. • An example of a specific incident that the Chinese government suppressed is not awarded a point UNLESS there is an explanation of how this suppression limited transparency.
#7- China economic- legal system
7. Various economic changes have affected the legal system in China. (a) Describe two reforms to the legal system in China in the past two decades. (b) Explain two reasons that reforms to the legal system have occurred. (c) Describe two important features of the Chinese legal system that have not changed in the past two decades.
8. Mexico and Russia have each experienced economic liberalization and political liberalization. (a) Define economic liberalization and define political liberalization. (b) Describe one economic liberalization policy pursued in Mexico since 1985 and one economic liberalization policy pursued in Russia since 1991. (c) Describe one political liberalization policy undertaken in Mexico since 1985 and one political liberalization policy undertaken in Russia since 1991. (d) Compare one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Mexico with one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Russia
2007 #1 3 functiosn of political parties in authoritarian and liberal
2007 #4 market vs command
2007 #5 politcial participation in authoritarian system
2007 #7- Referencum in UK and Russia
Pre 2015 Study Guide/ objectives
Russia Test Review
Earliest days of the Soviet Union influenced by democratic centralism
Communist Manifesto predicted that capitalism would no longer be viable economic system after the revolution of the proletariat
“To bring political knowledge to the workers the Social Democrats [Bolsheviks] must go among the classes of the population; they must dispatch units of their army in all directions… For it is not enough to call ourselves the ‘vanguard’, the advanced contingent; we must act in such a way that all the other contingents recognize and are obliged to admit that we are marching in the vanguard.”
Russia experienced coup d’etat and revolution in the during the 20th century
Nomenklatura: recruitment of Communist Party leaders under the old Soviet Union
Compared with FPP system, PR electoral system
Gives third parties a better chance at winning seats in a legislature
Presidential election every 6 years
Great Britain’s parliament within a 5 year period called by the Prime Minister
So far political parties in the Russian Federation tend to base their organization on the appeal of particular leaders
Can veto the president’s appointment of prime minister
Boris Yeltsin and Duma’s relationships so stormy that the government’s effectiveness was seriously hampered
Upper House Federal Council
One of the primary functions of Russia’s Constitutional Court is to exercise judicial review
Russia’s judicial system is weak (Similar to Mex)
Consequences of ending the centrally planned economy in Russia after 1991:
Decentralized production decisions
Increase in number of individually owned enterprises
Key component of economic liberalization in former command economies is
Eliminating price controls
“Shock Therapy” sudden free-market economic reform accompanied by rapid democratic political reform
Russians are more likely to believe in equality of result rather than equality of opportunity
Caucasus difficulty based on ethnic differences
Challenges to cultural heterogeneity
Ethnic minorities have been scattered by invasion and expansion, so that borders are difficult to draw
The large variety of cultural groups makes communication with and control by the government more difficult
Ethnic minorities in the north and east are very different from minorities in southern Russia and the Caucasus
Frequent border changes have meant that particular groups have sometimes been under Russian control and sometimes not.
Legitimacy indicator is that citizens follow laws because they believe in the government’s right to rule.
In a Parliamentary system, interest groups tend to have minimal impact on individual legislators in parliamentary systems because the strength of political parties gives individual legisaltors less power over policy
Transitions to democracy (comp with Mex), In Mexico old institutions were reformed, while in Russia new institutions were created
Even though Russia is not a Communist state, one feature that it shares with communist China
Government restrictions on the development of civil society