You must select a MINIMUM TWO primary documents and use within your editorial that support your position on Imperialism.
You must select a MINIMUM TWO primary documents and use within your editorial that contradict your position on Imperialism and attack the validity of their arguments.
Documents Against Imperialism
Jomo Kenyatta, an African nationalist leader wrote in 1938:
“There certainly are some progressive ideas among the Europeans. They include the ideas of material prosperity, of medicine, and hygiene, and literacy which enables people to take part in world culture. But so far the Europeans…have not in reality transferred this to the Africans, and the Europeans seem to think that the only way to do this is by police discipline and armed force. They speak as if it was somehow beneficial to an African to work for them instead of for himself, and to make sure…they…take away his land…they rob him of his government, condemn his religious ideas, and ignore his idea of justice and morals…Europeans have robbed the African of the material foundations of his culture, and reduced him to an inferior state that goes against human happiness. The African…realizes that he must fight for his own complete emancipation; for without this he is doomed to remain the prey of rival imperialisms, which in every successive year will drive their fangs more deeply into his vitality and strength.”
Tom Mboya, an African nationalist leader wrote in 1960:
“Despite its force as an aid to Africa’s economic development, African colonialism has been the biggest hindrance to the development of the people. Under colonial rule, little attention has been paid to the need to invest in education, health, technical training, and general community development for Africans. Partition of Africa into separate colonies and the use of territories as sources of raw materials for the benefit and enrichment of the colonial powers have not allowed the planning of continental or regional development. Instead, colonial division has treated each territory in isolation from others.
Sekou Toure, an Africa nationalist leader wrote:
“Colonialism’s greatest misdeed was to have tried to strip us of our responsibility in conducting our own affairs and convince us that our civilization was nothing less than savagery, thus giving us complexes which led to our being branded as irresponsible and lacking in self-confidence.”
The Resolution of the All-African People’s Conference held in Accra Ghana in 1958 condemned colonialism and imperialism:
“Whereas all African peoples…deplore the economic exploitation of African people by Imperialist Countries, thus reducing Africans to poverty in the midst of plenty…Whereas fundamental human rights, freedoms of speech, freedom of association, freedom of movement, freedom of worship, freedom to live a full and abundant life…are denied to Africans through the activities of Imperialists.”
David Diop wrote the following poem that appeared in An Anthology of West African Verse:
“The White Man killed my father,
My father was proud.
The White Man seduced my mother,
My mother was beautiful.
The White Man burnt my brother
Beneath the noonday sun,
My brother was strong,
His hands red with black blood
The White Man turned to me;
An in the Conqueror’s voice said,
‘Boy! A chair, a napkin, a drink.’”
D.K. Fieldhouse in Imperialism and the Periphery wrote:
“All explanations of European expansion so far considered have three common features. All were ‘Eurocentric’ in that they concentrated on problems and ideas within Europe and North America. All treated imperialism as a positive phenomenon: Europe deliberately acquired new colonies because she needed or wanted them.”
Saadia Touval wrote in Treaty-Making and the Scramble:
“The partition of Africa and the delimitation of its borders are generally considered to have been arbitrary acts imposed by the European powers without reference to local conditions. Many Europeans used to view the Africans as simple savages and passive objects of the scramble. Many African nationalist viewed the Africans as the passive victims of the scramble…The treaties being part of the process of European colonial expansion…European motives for making treaties with African rulers were manifold. Foremost among them was the expectation that such treaties could be used to support claims for international recognition of territorial pretensions…a large number of treaties could be considered fraudulent. Some were forgeries.
Grover Clark wrote in the Balance Sheets of Imperialism:
“The struggle for colonies does not result only in cash losses. There were also lives lost, wars fought, and hatreds aroused which threatened new wars…Italy’s trade with her colonies in 1894-1932 was worth 5, 561 million lire or about $1, 100 million. This was less than one percent of her total foreign trade in the same period. In fact her expenditures on colonies for that time was 6, 856 million lire. Obviously colonies cost more than they are worth in trade.”
Bishop Desmond Tutu in 1984 said:
“When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said ‘Let us pray.’ We closed our eyes. When we opened them, we had the Bible and they had the land.”
Nnamdi Azikiwe, in a speech on British colonialism in Africa in 1947, said:
“…Socially, the ogre or monster of racial segregation and discrimination makes it extremely difficult for the colonial to develop his personality to the full. Education is obtainable but limited to the privileged. Hospitals are not available to the great number of people but only to a small minority. Public services are lacking in many respects; there are not sufficient water supplies, surfaced roads, postal services and communication systems in most communities of Nigeria. The prisons are medieval, the criminal code is oppressive, and religious freedom is a pearl of great price…”
Haile Selassie, the Ethiopian emperor from 1892-1975 wrote:
“Throughout history it has been the inaction of those who could have acted, the indifference of those who should have known better, the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most that has made it possible for evil to triumph.”
Stanislas Lefranc, a Belgian prosecutor, reported on the abuses of Leopold in the Congo:
"The station chief selects the victims....Trembling, haggard, they lie face down on the ground...two of their companions, sometimes four, seize them by the feet and hands, and remove their cotton drawers....Each time that the torturer lifts up the chicotte, a reddish stripe appears on the skin of the pitiful victims, who, however firmly held, gasp in frightful contortions....At the first blows the unhappy victims let out horrible cries which soon become faint groans....In a refinement of evil, some officers, and I've witnessed this, demand that when the sufferer gets up, panting, he must graciously give the military salute.”
Belgian official reporting on abuses in the Congo:
“It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. “
Edward Morel The Black Man’s Burden Excerpt:
“Nor is violent physical opposition to abuse and injustice henceforth possible for the African in any part of Africa. His chances of effective resistance have been steadily dwindling with the increasing perfectibility in the killing power of modern armament. Thus the African is really helpless against the material gods of the white man, as embodied in the trinity of imperialism, capitalistic exploitation and militarism. “
J.A. Hobson, a British scholar wrote:
“The period of imperialism has witnessed many wars. Most of these wars have been caused by attacks of white races upon so-called ’lower races.’ They have resulted in the taking of territory by force….The white rulers of the colonies live at the expense of the natives. Their chief work is to organize labor for their support. In the typical colony, the most fertile lands and the mineral resources are owned by white foreigners. These holdings are worked by natives under their direction. The foreigners take wealth out of the country. All the hard work is done by the natives.”
Letter from African King Lobengula:
Background: This letter was written by an African king to Queen Victoria of England.
To Her Majesty Queen Victoria,
“Some time ago, a party of men came to my county, the principal1 one appearing to be a man called Rudd. They asked me for a place to dig for gold, and said they would give me certain things for the right to do so. I told them to bring what they could give and I would show them what I would give. A document was written and presented to me for signature. I asked what it contained, and was told that in it were my words and the words of those men. I put my hand to it. About three months afterwards I heard from other sources that I had given by the document the right to all the minerals2 of my country”
Signed: King Lobengula
Kwame Mkrumah was an African nationalist:
“It is far better to be free to govern3 or misgovern4 yourself than to be governed by anybody else. Africa’s earth is rich, yet the products that come from above and below the soil continue to enrich5, not Africans, but groups and individuals who operate6 to Africa’s impoverishment7.”
Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League ---American Anti-Imperialist League, 1899 :
“We hold that the policy known as imperialism is hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism, an evil from which it has been our glory to be free. We regret that it has become necessary in the land of Washington and Lincoln to reaffirm that all men, of whatever race or color, are entitled to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. We maintain that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. We insist that the subjugation of any people is “criminal aggression” and open disloyalty to the distinctive principles of our Government. We hold, with Abraham Lincoln, that “no man is good enough to govern another man without that other’s consent. When the white man governs himself, that is self-government, but when he governs himself and also governs another man, that is more than self-government-that is despotism.”
Documents Supporting Imperialism
John Gunther wrote in Inside Africa in 1955:
“The benefits the colonial system brought to Africa, even if it brought abuses too, are incontestable. Perhaps much of what the whites did was selfish, since it was for the benefit of the white .the continent, but they also opened it up to civilization. Colonialism made today’s nationalism possible, and opened the way to democracy. The Europeans abolished slavery, and ended tribal warfare. They created communications, improved the standard of living, developed natural resources, introduced scientific agriculture, fought to control malaria and other diseases, established public health controls, gave natives only an inch away from barbarism stable administration and a regime based in theory at least, on justice and law (the white man’s law, of course). Most important, they brought Christianity and western education. Not much education, but some. And there has been practically none before.”
George H. T. Kimble in a 1962 New York Times article, “Colonialism: the Good, the Bad, the Lessons” wrote:
“…The colonial powers failed to provide the African with sufficient preparation…None of the newly independent countries had enough skilled African administrators to turn their own or enough African technicians to keep the public utilities working…And no country had an electorate that knew what independence was all about…For all its faults, colonial government provided security of person and property in lands that had known little of either…It was colonial powers who were largely responsible for the opening of the region to the lumberman, miner, planter, and other men of means without whom its wealth would be continued to lie fallow or uncultivated.”
O.P. Austin wrote in the article ‘Does Colonization Pay’ in The Forum in 1900:
“Modern progressive nations lying in the temperate zone seek to control garden spots in the tropics, mainly in Africa, Latin America, and Asia under progressive nations’ directions, these places can yield tropical produce. In return, the progressive nations bring to the people of those garden spots the foodstuffs and manufactures they need. Progressive nations develop the territory by building roads, canals, railways, and telegraphs. They can establish schools and newspapers for the colonies and give these people the benefit of other blessings of civilization which they have not the means of creating themselves.”
Parker T. Moore in Imperialism and World Politics in 1926 wrote: EDIT
“To begin with, there are the exporters and manufacturers of certain goods in the colonies. The makers of cotton and iron goods have been very much interested in imperialism. Their business interests demand that colonial markets should be opened and developed and that foreign competitors be shut out. Such aims require political control and imperialism.
Finally, the most powerful of all business groups are the bankers. Banks make loans to colonies and backward countries for building railways and steamship lines. They also make loans to colonial plantation owners, importers, and exporters.
The imperialist business interests have powerful allies. Military and naval leaders believe strongly in extending the white man’s rule over the ‘inferior races,’ To this company many be added another element---the missionary. Missionaries went forth to preach a kingdom beyond this world. But they often found themselves the builders of very earthly empires…Last, but by no means least, let us add politicians to our list of empire builders.”
Prince Leopold, heir to the throne of Belgium and future king in a conversation in 1861 said:
“Surrounded by the sea, Holland, Prussia, and France, our frontiers can never be extended in Europe…But the universe lies in front of us; steam and electricity have made distances disappear, all the unappropriated lands on the surface of the globe may become the field of our operations and of our resources…Since history teaches that colonies are useful, that they play a great part in that which makes up the power and prosperity of states, let us strive to get one in our turn…let us see where they are unoccupied lands…where are to be found peoples to civilize, to lead to progress in every sense, meanwhile assuring ourselves…the opportunity to prove to the world that Belgians also are an imperial people capable of dominating and enlightening others.”
Benjamin Disraeli, the British prime minister in a speech to the House of Commons on the Suez Canal in February 1876 said:
“I have never recommended, and I do not recommend now, this purchase either as a financial investment or as a commercial speculation. I have always and do now recommend it to the country as a political transaction, and one which I believe is calculated to strengthen the empire.”
Joseph Chamberlain, a British industrialist, political and reformer made a speech in 1888 and said:
“We have suffered much in this country from depression of trade. We know how many of our fellow subjects are at this moment unemployed. IS there any man in his senses who believes that the crowded population of these British Isles could exist for a single day if we were to be cut adrift from the great dependencies which now look to us for protection and which are the natural markets for our trade?...If tomorrow it were possible, as some people apparently desire, to reduce by a stroke of the pen the British Empire to the dimensions of the United Kingdom, half at least of our population would be starved.”
Lord Lugard, in The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, in 1965 wrote:
“…The condition of Africa when Europe entered the continent, which Isaiah so graphically describes as ‘the land shadowing with wings, which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia…a people scattered and peeled,’ was deplorable. On the East Coast, Arabs and half-castes were engaged in a lucrative trade in slaves for export to Arabia and to Turkish possessions. In the west, powerful armies of Moslem States depopulated large districts in their raids for slaves. Europe had failed to realize that throughout the length and breadth of Africa inter-tribal war was an ever present condition of native life, and that extermination and slavery were practiced by African tribes upon each other.
It was the task of civilization to put an end to slavery, to establish Courts of Law, to inculcate in or teach the natives a sense of individual responsibility, of liberty, and of justice, and to teach their rulers how to apply these principles; above all, to see to it that the system of education should be such as to produce happiness and progress in the discharge of these great responsibilities. For, in my belief, under no other rule---be it of his own uncontrolled rulers or of foreigners---does the African enjoy such a measure of freedom and of impartial justice, or a more sympathetic treatment, and for that reasons I am a profound believer in the British Empire and its mission in Africa.”
Jules Ferry, the French Prime Minister, made a speech before the French Chamber of Deputies on March 28, 1884 ‘On French Colonial Expansion’ and said: EDIT?
“Gentlemen, we must speak more loudly and more honestly! We must say openly that indeed the higher races have a right over the lower races…I repeat, that the superior races have a right because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races…In the history of earlier centuries these duties, gentlemen, have often been misunderstood; and certainly when the Spanish soldiers and explorers introduced slavery into Central America, they did not fulfill their duty as men of a higher race…But, in our time, I maintain that European nations acquit themselves with generosity, with grandeur, and with sincerity of this superior civilizing duty.
I say that French colonial policy, the policy of colonial expansion, the policy that has taken us under the Empire, that has led us to Tunisia, to Madagascar---I say that this policy of colonial expansion was inspired by…the fact that a navy such as ours cannot do without safe harbors, defense, supply centers on the high seas…Are you aware of this? Look at a map of the world.”
Carlton J.H. Hayes wrote in Bases of a New National Imperialism:
“A favorite explanation of why European imperialism turned abruptly has been the economic…Cotton grew better in Egypt…Rubber could be gotten from the Congo…Copra, with its useful oil , was to be had in the South Seas islands…Tin was essential…Sugar cane and coffee, cocoa and tea, bananas and dates were very palatable to the enlarging European multitude.”
Cecil Rhodes wrote:
“I think what [God] would like me to do is paint as much of Africa British Red as possible.”
King Leopold on Competition:
“I don’t want to miss the chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake.”
Raymond Aron in The Century of Total War in 1954 wrote:
“None of the colonial undertakings were motivated by the quest for capitalist profits; they all originated in political ambitions…the nation’s will to power…or glory or national greatness.”
“If they [all people] are sufficiently complete to live, they do live and it is well they should live. If they are not sufficiently complete, they die, and it is well they should die.”
Pierre L. van den Berghe wrote in Race & Racism. 1967:
“Some groups of people survive and compete better than others. The struggle leads to human progress. Some groups advance human progress more than others.”
British Professor argued in 1900:
“The path of progress is strewn with the wrecks of nations; traces are everywhere to be seen of the slaughtered remains of inferior races. Yet these dead people are, in very truth, the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.”
David Livingstone’s Epitaph:
“Brought by faithful hands over land and sea, here rests David Livingstone, missionary, traveler, philanthropist, born March 19, 1813, at Blantyre, Lanarkshire, died May 1, 1873, at Chitambo’s village, Ulala. For thirty years, his life was spent in an unwearied effort to evangelize the native races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, to abolish the desolating slave trade of Central Africa. Where with his last words he wrote, ‘All I can add in my solitude is may Heaven’s rich blessings come down to everyone, American, English, or Turk, who will help heal the open sore of the world.”
King Leopold on Imperialism:
“To open civilization the only part of our globe where it has not penetrated, to pierce the darkness which envelops whole populations, is a crusade, if I may say so, a crusade worthy or this century of progress.”
Cecil Rhodes in Confession of Faith in 1877 wrote:
“I contend that we are the first race in the world, and the more we inhabit, the better it is for the human race…It is our duty to seize every opportunity of acquiring more territory and we should keep this one idea steadily before our eyes that more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.”
Cecil Rhodes was a famous British imperialist:
“We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploitthe cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories.”
The Benefits of British Rule, 1871, by Dadabhai Naoroji:
In the Cause of Civilization12: Education, both male and female……Resuscitation13 of India's own noble literature. Politically14: Peace and order. Freedom of speech and liberty of the press. Improvement of government in the native states. Security of life and property. Freedom from oppression15… Materially: Loans for railways and irrigation16. Development17 of a few valuable products, such as indigo18, tea, coffee, silk, etc. Increase of exports19. Telegraphs20. The Detriments of British Rule
In the Cause of Humanity: Nothing.
In the Cause of Civilization: There has been a failure to do as much as might have been done. Politically: Repeated breach21 of pledges22 to give the natives a fair and reasonable share in the higher
administration of their own country……an utter23 disregard of the feelings and views of the natives. Financially: New modes of taxation, without any adequate effort to increase the means of the people to pay. Unequal financial relations24 between England and India. Summary: To sum up the whole, the British rule has been: Morally - a great blessing; Politically - peace and order on one hand, blunders on the other; Materially - impoverishment….. Our great misfortune is that you do not know our wants. When you will know our real wishes, I have not the least doubt that you would do justice. The genius25 and spirit of the British people is “
“It is sufficient to reiterate here that, as long as our policy is one of free trade, we are compelled to seek new markets; for old ones are being closed to us by hostile tariffs, and our great dependencies, which formerly were the consumers of our goods, are now becoming our commercial rivals. It is inherent in a great colonial and commercial empire like ours that we go forward or go backward. To allow other nations to develop new fields, and to refuse to do so ourselves, is to go backward; and this is the more deplorable… “
Capt. F. D. Lugard, African Explorer and Colonial Administrator, 1893:
“Throughout Africa the ideas of the cure of the body and of the soul are closely allied. The "medicine man" is credited, not only with a knowledge of the simples and drugs which may avert or cure disease, but owing to the superstitions of the people, he is also supposed to have a knowledge of…witchcraft and magic…As the skill of the European in medicine asserts its superiority over the crude methods of the medicine man, so does he in proportion gain an influence in his teaching of the great truths of Christianity…The [British] medical missionary, moreover, gains an admission to the houses and homes of the [African] natives by virtue of his art…He becomes [the savages’] adviser and referee, and his counsels are substituted for the magic and witchcraft which [inhibit] development. “
Capt. F. D. Lugard, African Explorer and Colonial Administrator, 1893:
“The essential point in dealing with Africans is to establish a respect for the European. Upon this, the prestige of the white man depends his influence…in Africa. If he shows by his surroundings, by his assumption of superiority that he is far above the native, he will be respected, and his influence will be proportionate to the superiority he assumes and bears out by his higher accomplishments and mode of life. In my opinion, at any rate with reference to Africa, it is the greatest possible mistake to suppose that a European can acquire a greater influence by adopting the mode of life of the natives. In effect, it is to lower himself to their plane, instead of elevating them to his.”
Rule, Britannia! By Thomas Arne, 1740:
* (Rule, Britannia was a popular British song celebrating the British Navy and contributed to the mindset of British imperialism)
When Britain first, at heaven’s command,
Arose from out the azure main,
Arose, arose, arose from out the azure main.
This was the charter, the charter of the land,
And guardian angels sang the strain. Rule Britannia!
Britannia rule the waves.
Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.
To thee belongs the rural reign,
Thy cities shall with commerce shine,
Thy cities shall, thy cities shall
With commerce shine.
All thine shall be the subject main,
And every shore it circles thine.
The Standpoint of Science (1900) by Karl Pearson:
“How many centuries, how many thousands of years, have the Kaffir or the Negro held large districts in Africa undisturbed by the white man? Yet their intertribal struggles have not yet produced a civilization in the least comparable with the Aryan. Educate and nurture them as you will, I do not believe that you will succeed in modifying the stock. History shows me one way, and one way only, in which a high state of civilization has been produced, namely, the struggle of race with race, and the survival of the physically and mentally fitter race…
If you bring the white man into contact with the black, you too often suspend the very process of natural selection on which the evolution of a higher type depends. You get superior and inferior races living on the same soil, and that coexistence is demoralizing for both. They naturally sink into the position of master and servant, if not admittedly or covertly into that of slave-owner and slave.
That is the natural history view of mankind…Some of you may refuse to acknowledge it, but you cannot really study history and refuse to see its force. Some of you may realize it, and then despair of life…You may say: Let us cease to struggle; let us leave the lands of the world to the race that cannot profit by them to the full; let us cease to compete in the markets of the world. Well, we could do it…but then we should naturally give up progress as a good which comes through suffering.”
The Backward Peoples (1920) by SIR HARRY JOHNSTON:
This account is by Sir Harry Johnston, a British explorer and administrator in central and eastern Africa at the turn of the century, who actually calculated the percentage of “civilization” inherent in various cultures.
“Let us proceed to define who and what these backward or unprogressive peoples are and to what extent they may be considered to be retrograde and ineffective as compared with the dominating white race. The chief and obvious distinction between the backward and forward peoples is that the former, with the exception of about 20,000,000 in the Mediterranean basin and the Near East, are of coloured skin; while the latter are white-skinned, or, as in the case of the Japanese and the inhabitants of Northern China, nearly white.
I think if we took all the factors into consideration—religion, education (especially knowledge concerning the relations between this planet and the universe of which it is a minute speck…), standard of living, respect for sanitation, infant death rate, bodily strength, manner of government, regard for law and order, position in agriculture and manufactures,--we might appraise mathematically, according to the following ratio, the principal nations and peoples into which humanity is divided.
…This rough estimate of civilization and culture does not imply that the nations or peoples which are classed together resemble one another in all their stages of culture. Some will excel in one direction, some in another…
Obviously, the foremost nations of the world at the present day are Britain and the regions of the British Empire in which the white race predominates; the United States; France; and Germany…Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium, are on an equal footing.
It is the peoples of 95 per cent to 90 per cent that may be put in the unprogressive or retrograde class, unable at present to govern themselves in a manner conducive to progress; while those that are grade 80 to 75 percent still contain in their midst elements of sheer savagery. Such regions, if left alone by the controlling white men, might easily relapse into the unprofitable barbarism out of which they have been lifted with the white man’s efforts during the past fifty years. “
Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa, speech, 1910:
“We went to new territories. We went there by virtue of the right of a civilized, fully developed race to occupy territories which have been left fallow by backward peoples who are plunged into barbarism and unable to develop the wealth of their land. What we exercised is a right, and if anyone denies this, you should firmly maintain that it is a right. We are entitled to go out to these peoples and occupy their territories; but, when we exercise this right, we, at the same moment are charged with a duty towards these peoples, and this duty we must never for one instant forget. “
1 Principal: main
2 Minerals: natural resources in the earth, such as gold, salt, silver, and iron
3 Govern: rule
4 Misgovern: badly rule
5 Enrich: make rich
6 Operate: work
7 Impoverishment: to become extremely poor
8 Humanity – Quality or state of human life
9 Abolition – The act of doing away with; ending
10 Suttee – When a woman burns herself alive after her husband’s death.
11 Infanticide – The practice of killing newborn infants
12 Civilization - An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society; The act or process of civilizing
13 Resuscitation - To restore life to
14 Politically - Dealing with the structure or affairs of government, politics, or the state
15 Oppression – The act of keeping someone down by severe and unjust use of force or authority
16 Irrigation - An artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops
17 Development – Growth or progress, especially economically
18 Indigo – A blue dye obtained from various plants. It was popular for use in British textiles in the 1800s.
19 Exports – Items sent out of the country for sale
20 Telegraphs - A communications system. This was the first machine to enable nearly immediate communication with someone across the world.
21 Breach – Breaking a promise
22 Pledge - A solemn promise or agreement to do or refrain from doing something
23 Utter - Complete; total; absolute
24 Relations - The various connections between peoples, countries.