2011 lupercalia certamen tournament



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2011 LUPERCALIA CERTAMEN TOURNAMENT

UPPER LEVEL

ROUND 1
1. Which of the following words does not belong with the others? aer, aequor, aura, aether, ventus. VENTUS

B1. Which of the following words does not belong with the others? aedes, regia, tectum, nemus, domus.

NEMUS


B2. Which of the following words does not belong with the others? ager, arva, pontus, campus, pratum.

PONTUS
2. In 59 BC, this man married a woman named Julia. He also had a son whom history remembers as a pirate, and was killed in Egypt after being defeated in battle by Julius Caesar. What man gave himself the name Magnus? Gn. POMPEIUS (POMPEY) Magnus

B2. Caesar was married three times, but which of those was Julia’s mother? CORNELIA

B1. Give the name of Pompey’s son who harassed Italy’s grain supply from Sicily.

SEXTUS POMPEIUS (POMPEY)
3. The oldest Latin inscription of substantial length outlawed the worship of this Roman deity in Italy except by decree of the senate. Who was this god known to carry the thyrsus and responsible for ritual madness and wine? BACCHUS, LIBER

B1. In Greek mythology, Dionysus is the son of Zeus and what mortal who was incinerated when she tricked Zeus into revealing himself to her? SEMELE

B2. Bacchus' tutor was Silenus, the chief of what mythological creatures known as bearded, pipe-playing, companions of Bacchus and Pan? SATYRS
4. Given the name Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, which is the man’s nomen? CORNELIUS

B1. According to Roman customs of naming, what would his daughter’s name be? CORNELIA

B2. If Cornelius is his nomen, what is Africanus? AGNOMEN
5. The ancient biographer Suetonius gives us quite a few famous quotes from his subjects. What Roman emperor apparently said, at the moment of his death, “Qualis artifex pereo,” which translates to “Oh what an artist dies in me”? So too did his dynasty, because he was the last Julio-Claudian emperor. NERO

B1. Which other Julio-Claudian is quoted on his deathbed as saying, “Acta est fabula. Plaudite”? AUGUSTUS

B2. What other Julio-Claudian couldn’t believe he was actually dying and said, “Adhuc vivo!” This is probably because he thought he was Jupiter reincarnate. CALIGULA
6. This Roman king ruled from 673-642 BC and oversaw the destruction of Alba Longa. He also is credited with building the first curia, which bore his name until it burned down and was rebuilt by Julius Caesar and Augustus. Name Rome’s third king. TULLUS HOSTILIUS

B1 and B2. Name both Tullus’ predecessor and successor. NUMA POMPILIUS, ANCUS MARCIUS


7. Translate the following Latin sentence into English: Caesar quam fortissimē in Galliā pugnavit.

CAESAR FOUGHT AS BRAVELY AS POSSIBLE IN GAUL.

B1. Translate this Latin sentence into English: Cicero semper multō eloquentius Hortensiō orationem capit.

CICERO ALWAYS MAKES A SPEECH/ORATES/CAPTURES AN ORATION MUCH MORE ELOQUENTLY THAN HORTENSIUS

B2. Rewrite the following sentence using another method to express the comparison: Senatus Traianum meliōrem Augustō declarāvit. SENATUS TRAIANUM MELIŌREM QUAM AUGUSTUM DECLARĀVIT
8. Name the father of these mythical sons: Polydorus, Polites, Helenus, Troilus, Paris, and Hector. PRIAM

B1. Speaking of fathers and sons, who was Priam’s father? LAOMEDON

B2. Which two gods did Laomedon cheat of the payment after they built Troy’s walls? APOLLO, POSEIDON
9. What English noun, meaning “to kneel,” is derived from the Latin words for “knee” and “bend”?

GENUFLECT

B1. Judging from its etymology, from what were pens originally made? FEATHER (penna)

B2. Related in part to the Latin word nummus, what is the study of coins called? NUMISMATICS

10. This city took six years to build and was fully settled in 330 AD. It was modeled on the city of Rome and its name persisted all the way into the twentieth century, when Turkish leaders renamed it Istanbul. Name this capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. CONSTANTINOPLE

B1. Before Constantine seized power, what emperor divided the Roman world under the rule of a tetrarchy made up of Augustī and Caesarēs? DIOCLETIAN

B2. After Diocletian’s retirement, the tetrarchy broke down as no less than seven leaders claimed their authority as Augustī. After a brief battle with Maxentius, what other claimant was defeated by Constantine in 324? LICINIUS
11. This meal replaced the cena in later times as the main meal eaten at mid-day for many Romans. Name the meal that often consisted of breads, cheeses, and (if you were lucky) cured meat. Today, we define the Latin term as “lunch.” PRANDIUM

B1. What did Romans call breakfast? IENTACULUM

B2. In early Rome, cena was the mid-day meal and not the nighttime dinner we might now consider it to be. What is the Roman meal that derives its name from the Latin word for “evening”? VESPERNA
12. Give the full Latin name of the author who wrote, among other things, Epistulae ex ponto, Tristia, Heroides, Ars Amatoria, and Metamorphoses. PUBLIUS OVIDIUS NASO

B1. In what town, southeast of Rome, was Ovid born in 63 B.C.? SULMO

B2. In what poetic meter did Ovid write The Amores? ELEGAIC
13. Cadmus was sent by his father King Agenor to look for this sister, and in doing so founded Thebes.

Name this young girl who was abducted by Zeus in the guise of a white bull. EUROPA

B1. What constellation did Zeus create in the shape of that white bull? TAURUS

B2. In addition to turning himself into a bull, Zeus also turned which other of his love affairs into a bull

to hide her from Hera? IO
14. This author, who made a translation of The Odyssey into Saturnian verse, had his first play staged in Rome in 240 BC. He wrote many tragedies, including Achilles, Andromeda, Danae, and Equus Trojanus. Additionally, he wrote many comedies, modeled upon Greek New Comedy. Who is this author, captured at the fall of Tarentum in 272 BC, bought by Marcus Livius Salinator, and considered the father of Latin Literature?

Lucius Livius ANDRONICUS

B1. What is the Latin term for adaptations of Greek New Comedy, named in part for the short cloak worn by the actors? FABULAE PALLIATAE (or comoedia palliata)

B2. What was the Latin name given to the area of southern Italy which became part of the Roman Empire as a result of the fall of Tarentum in 272 BC? MAGNA GRAECIA


15. It is the tense used in secondary sequence for the subjunctive if the action is before the main verb. Also used in past contrary-to-fact conditions, examples of its subjunctive form include amavisset and fuisset. What is this verb tense indicating past past action, usually rendered in English with the helping verb “had”?

PLUPERFECT

B1. What tense subjunctive is used in present contrary to fact conditionals? IMPERFECT

B2. Which tenses have no forms in the subjunctive mood? FUTURE AND FUTUREPERFECT


UPPER LEVEL

ROUND 2
1. What famous Roman was consul when Gaius Octavius, later to be known as Augustus, was born? Name this famous ego-maniac who later spoke frequently about how he saved Rome from certain destruction.

Marcus Tullius CICERO

B1. In what year was Cicero consul and Octavian born? 63 BC

B2. What man attempted to overthrow the state and have Cicero killed during his consulship?

Lucius Sergius CATILINA (CATILINE)
2. Clearly, this author was not just a man of letters, since he joined Brutus’ army after Caesar’s assassination. Who is this masterful lyric poet, born in Venusia in 65 BC, and famous for sayings such as Dulce et decorum est prō patriā morī and Carpe diem? Quintus HORATIUS Flaccus (HORACE)

B1. Translate Dulce et decorum est prō patriā morī.

IT IS SWEET AND FITTING TO DIE FOR ONE’S COUNTRY (or a grammatically correct equivalent)

B2. Who was Augustus’ patron of the arts and sponsor of so many of the poets of the Augustan age, to whom Horace wrote so gratefully, humbly, and glowingly? Gaius Clinius MAECENAS


3. From Roman history, in what city would you have found the following figures: Gaius Clulius, Mettius Fufetius, Numitor, Amulius, and Rhea Silvia? ALBA LONGA

B1. Who is credited by Livy as the founder of Alba Longa? ASCANIUS

B2. How were the kings Numitor and Amulius related? They were BROTHERS
4. Originally, these ludī only took place during the Consualia, an agricultural celebration. Quickly though, Romans became captivated by their loyalties to the different factionēs. Name this popular Roman pastime that took place in the Circus Maximus. LUDĪ CIRCENSES/CHARIOT RACING

B1. Give the Latin term and its English meaning for the item used to signal the start of a chariot race?

MAPPA, NAPKIN/HANDKERCHIEF

B2. Which emperor tried to add two additional chariot factions, purple and gold? DOMITIAN

5. This woman was the daughter of Ares and an item which signified her status as ruler of her people was stolen from her by Hercules in his ninth labor. Name this famous queen of the Amazons, whose girdle Hercules took.

HIPPOLYTA/E

B1. Give the answer to this math problem in Latin: Take the number of Hercules’ labors, subtract number of legs on which the Sphinx’s riddle says we’ll all end our life, and subtract again the number of heads on the hydra. NIHIL/NĪL

B2. Hera also tried to attack Heracles while he was fighting the Lernaean Hydra. Give the Latin for the name of the creature Hera sent, which was later a constellation after Hercules crushed it. CANCER


6. Translate this Latin sentence into English: Romanī militēs Carthaginem mīsērunt ut pacem rogārent.

THE ROMANS SENT SOLDIERS TO CARTHAGE TO ASK (SO THAT THEY MIGHT ASK) FOR PEACE

B1. Translate the following Latin sentence into English: Romanī tot militēs Carthaginem mittunt ut Carthaginiensēs portās omnēs claudant. THE ROMANS SEND SO MANY SOLDIERS TO CARTHAGE

THAT THE CARTHIGINIANS CLOSE ALL THE GATES.

B2. Translate the following Latin sentence into English: Romanī militēs hortātī essent ut Carthaginem statim proficiscerent. THE ROMANS HAD ENCOURAGED THE SOLDIERS THAT THEY SET OUT

IMMEDIATELY FOR CARTHAGE.

7. This Roman god was known as Sethlans by the Etruscans, but to the Romans sometimes as Mulciber. His more common Latin name is thought possibly to derive from the Latin noun fulmen. The Greeks call him Hephaestos. What deity was the focus of the August 23rd celebration the Vulcanalia? VULCANus

B1. What does the Latin noun fulmen mean in English? LIGHTNING

B1. All major gods in the Roman pantheon had priests to look after them. What Latin noun, similar to fulmen, is used for this priestly position? FLAMEN
8. Give the accusative singular for the noun mare. MARE

B1. Make mare ablative. MARI

B2. Make mari genitive plural. MARIUM
9. In 33 BC, Octavian had his ally Agrippa elected to this position so he could do things like build five hundred water fountains, construct a new aqueduct, and give free games to the people of Rome. What government position was in charge of public works and putting on games? AEDILE

B1. The aedileship was not considered a true part of the standard course of offices in the Roman world. How did the Romans refer to this sequence of positions in the government? CURSUS HONŌRUM

B2. Name the three positions of the cursus honōrum in order from lowest to highest.

QUAESTOR, PRAETOR, CONSUL


10. When it came to naming ad hoc commissions, the Romans were not very creative. For instance, we know Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus called themselves the triumvirī because, after all, there were three of them. What was the Latin name of the group of twenty men, which served as an entry level position to the governmental service from the time of Augustus onward? VIGINTIVIRĪ (accept VIGINTIVIR)

B1. A group of ten men codified the Twelve Tables in 451 BC. What was that group called? DECEMVIRĪ

B2. In the toss-up, I referred to ad hoc committees. What is the translation of this Latin term commonly found in western society? FOR/TO THIS purpose
11. Listen carefully to the following passage from Cicero’s Pro Milone, which I will read twice. Then answer the question about the passage in English.

<Pompeius > Comprehensus est in templō Castōris servus Publī Clodī, quem ille ad Gnaeum Pompeium interficiendum collocarat: extorta est eī confitentī sica dē mānibus: caruit forō posteā Pompeius, caruit senātū, caruit publicō: ianuā sē ac pariētibus, nōn iure legum iudiciōrumque texit.

Whose slave tried to murder Pompey? CLODIUS

B1. Where did this attempted assassination take place? TEMPLE OF CASTOR and Pollux

B2. Name two places Pompey avoided after the incident. FORUM, SENATE, AND PUBLIC (PLACES)


12. In what two cases do adjectives such as neuter, nullus, unus, solus and alter form differently than normal first and second declension adjectives? GENITIVE AND DATIVE

B1. Give an example of the genitive for two different pronouns which also demonstrate this variation.

HUIUS, ILLIUS, EIUS (and compounds), CUIUS (and compounds), ISTIUS

B2. Give two additional pronoun examples of this genitive form? SEE ABOVE

13. Cenābis bene, mī Fabulle, apud mē is the first line of this author’s poem 13. He was born around Verona, but lived most of his life in Rome. He did serve a small, governmental post in the province of Bithynia and then died at the young age of 30, in 54 BC. Who was this lyrical poet who once openly attacked the powerful politician Julius Caesar but is more famous for his tortured love affair with a woman whom he named Lesbia.

Gaius Valerius CATULLUS

B1. In Catullus 2, Catullus laments the death of Lesbia’s passer. What kind of animal is this customarily said definition for passer? SPARROW (prompt at “bird”)

B2. Catullus 101 is a rare poem for Catullus in that he puts sarcasm aside and mournfully laments the death of someone close to him. He says, presumably in front of the tomb of this person, that he has no more fitting gift than his poem. To whom was written this poem, which ends with the famous words, Ave atque vale?

HIS BROTHER
14. What crew member of the Argo and mythological musician was so talented he could make rocks weep and animals followed him to hear his music? ORPHEUS

B1. According to Vergil and Ovid, the women of what country slaughtered Orpheus after he failed to bring his girlfriend back to life? THEBES

B2. Another tradition says that Dionysus sent these followers to tear Orpheus to pieces because his devotion to Apollo prevented Dionysus from converting the people of Thebes MAENADS
15. Cincinnatus was appointed dictator in 458 BC to rescue a Roman army at Mons Algidus desperately fighting what people, whose name is similar to the Latin for “fair” or “just,” although I doubt the Romans felt this way about them? AEQUĪans

B1. Despite Cincinnatus’ efforts, the Aequī persisted as an independent people until they were enfranchised after this war that lasted until 304 BC and included a humiliating Roman defeat at the Caudine Forks.

SECOND SAMNITE WAR (prompt if SECOND is not given)

B2. What battle of the Second Samnite War ended as a humiliating defeat for the Romans because the were forced to pass under the yoke of Gaius Pontius. CAUDINE FORKS

UPPER LEVEL

ROUND 3
1. Uttered when someone has reached a point of no return, what phrase did Caesar indicate that the “die is cast?” ALEA IACTA EST

B1. What phrase from Juvenal’s tenth Satire and also butchered by the shoe company ASICS, encourages men to pay attention to the health of both their minds and their bodies? MENS SANA IN CORPORE SANŌ

B2. What other phrase by Horace upon the victory of Cleopatra indicates that now is the time for drinking?

NUNC EST BIBENDUM
2. What Roman emperor built the last of the imperial fora, part of which is sometimes compared to a shopping mall? He is also known for extending the boundaries of the Roman world to its furthest extent during his reign of 98-117 AD? Marcus Ulpius TRAJANus

B1. What emperor succeeded Trajan and decided to relinquish the new provinces of Mesopotamia because he thought the empire was too big? Publius Aelius HADRIANus

B2. What two countries did Hadrian’s wall roughly separate? BRITANNIA/BRITAIN, SCOTIA/SCOTLAND
3. Most people know that Homer’s Iliad is the story of the sack of Troy, but many forget that the main focus of the poem is the rage of Achilles. What is the name of the girl Agamemnon stole from Achilles to make him angry and withdraw from the war? BRISEIS

B1. What other captive was Agamemnon forced to give up, prompting him to go after Achilles’ war prize? CHRYSEIS

B2. What is the name of Achilles’ friend whom Hector erroneously killed because the boy was dressed in Achilles’ armor? PATROCLUS/PATROKLOS
4. Listen carefully to the following passage from the Vulgate Bible, which I will read twice. Then answer the question about the passage in English.

Ībat autem Philistheus incedēns et appropinquāns adversum David et armiger eius ante eum cumque inspexisset Philistheus et vīdisset David dēspexit eum erat enim adulescēns rufus et pulcher aspectū et dixit Philistheus ad David, “Numquid ego canis sum quod tu venis ad me cum baculō.” Et maledixit Philistheus David in diis suis dixitque ad David, “Venī ad me et dabō carnes tuas volatilibus caelī et bestiīs terrae.” Dixit autem David ad Philistheum, “Tū venis ad me cum gladio et hasta et clypeo. Ego autem veniō ad te in nomine Dominī exercituum Deī agminum Israhel quibus exprobrāstī.”

The Philisthene was insulted that David had approached him armed only with what? A STICK/STAFF

B1. The Philisthene claims he will give David’s meat to what creatures? BIRDS or BEASTS

B2. Name two of the three things that David claims the Philistene has been armed with.

SWORD, SHIELD, HELMET
5. King Thyestes was driven out by this future king of Sparta. In the Odyssey, Telemachus visited him when he was searching for his father. Who was with man from whom Helen was taken? MENELAUS

B1. Telemachus also visited what king of Pylos, who was a member of the Argonauts and the famous advisor to Agamemnon and Achilles? NESTOR

B2. How did Telemachus' mother try to buy time and fend off the suitors in order to wait for Odysseus to come home? SHE WOVE AND UNWOVE A TAPESTRY
6. Although we just call it gladiatorial games, by what Latin funereal term did the Romans refer to this aspect of entertainment? MUNERA

B1. According to tradition, the first Roman gladiators fought as munera, or offerings, at the funeral for a member of what famous Roman family? BRUTUS/BRUTĪ

B2. This funeral offering of three pairs of gladiators occurred in what area of Rome, known as a cattle market?

FORUM BOARIUM


7. Which family was the next dynasty to rule imperial Rome after the Julio-Claudians? FLAVIANS

B1. Name the three Flavian emperors in order. VESPASIAN, TITUS, DOMITIAN

B2. Name all of the Antonine emperors in order.

NERVA, TRAJAN, HADRIAN, ANTONINUS PIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS (Lucius Verus) COMMODUS


8. Some emperors were also men of letters. Tell me which Roman emperor wrote histories of both the Etruscans and Carthaginians, was reportedly the last person in Rome fluent in the Etruscan language, and, coincidentally, had a nomen that, in Latin, indicates a physical deformity. CLAUDIUS

B1. This Roman emperor took time while campaigning in Germania/Pannonia to write a stoic philosophical treatise in 12 books called Meditationes. Name him. MARCUS AURELIUS

B2. This Roman emperor’s main contribution to Latin literature was preserved on the temple walls in Ancyra. Hence, it is called the Monumentum Ancyranum. Name this Roman emperor who told us of his “things done”.

AUGUSTUS
9. Using a future passive periphrastic, say in Latin: “The Romans must win the war.”

BELLUM ROMANIS VINCENDUM EST

B1. Using a future active periphrastic, say in Latin: “The Romans are about to win the war.”

ROMANI BELLUM VICTURI SUNT.

B2. Using a future passive periphrastic, say in Latin: “The Romans had to win the war.”

BELLUM ROMANIS VINCENDUM ERAT.
10. This Roman goddess was, by various traditions, known by several names such as Hecate, Trivia, and Phoebe, due to her relationship to her twin brother Phoebus Apollo. Name this goddess of the hunt. DIANA

B1. Although more often associated with her brother, Diana is of course also from this island in the Aegean known to be their birthplace. DELOS

B2. Who was the mother of Apollo and Diana? LETO
11. Which word has a different derivation than the others: ponder, pendulum, appendix, penance? APPENDIX

B1. Which word has a different derivation than the others: virile, virulent, virtual, virtuous? VIRTUAL

B2. Which word has a different derivation than the others: polity, propulsion, compulsory, repellant? POLITY
12. What two Greek heroes went on a night raid in Book X of the Iliad? ODYSSEUS, DIOMEDES

B1. Homer’s night raid served as a model for Vergil’s night raid in Book 9 of the Aeneid. What two Trojans volunteered to take a message to Aeneas in Pallanteum? NISUS & EURYALUS

B2. Who promised to take care of Euryalus’s mother, should anything happen to him, saying: “Your mother shall be my mother, lacking only Creusa’s name”? ASCANIUS/IULUS
13. Along the northern end of what lake did the Carthaginians ambush and slaughter 15,000 legionary soldiers

in 217 B.C.? TRASIMENE

B1. Who was then elected dictator to pursue a policy of harassment and delay but no pitched battles?

FABIUS MAXIMUS

B2. In what battle in 216 B.C. did Hannibal use a pincer movement to surround and annihilate a Roman army double the size of the Carthaginian troops? CANNAE

14. Keeping the same case and number, make the adjective magnum comparative. MAIOREM or MAIUS

B1. Keeping the same case and number, make the adverb magnopere comparative. MAGIS

B2. Keeping the same case and number, make the adjective multus comparative. PLUS


15. What metrical device, discounting alliteration, exists in the following Vergilian line:

quōs ego---sed mōtōs praestat componere fluctūs” APOSIOPESIS

B1. What poetic device is used when one takes a phrase, such as vulgus et multitudo, and translates it, instead of the “common and crowd”, as “the common crowd”? HENDIADYS

B2. What poetic device is found in this Vergilian line: “O patria, O divum domus”, whereby Aeneas addresses his homeland though it is not present, since he was in Carthage? epic APOSTROPHE

UPPER LEVEL

ROUND 4
1. What was the Latin term for the head of the family? PATERFAMILIAS

B1. Familias is an archaic form of what case? GENITIVE

B2. How would you refer to more than one father of the family in Latin? PATRĒSFAMILIAS


2. Seen on prescriptions to indicate that the medicine must be taken with food, what abbreviation literally means “after food?” P.C.

B1. What abbreviation, which means namely, or that is to say comes from the Latin videlicet? VIZ.

B2. What abbreviation indicates a reference literally in the “work cited?” OP. CIT.
3. Verbs of accusation take this case, as do verb of remembering. With some deponents like potior, it can replace the ablative. Used to show indefinite value, quality, and part of a whole, what case is commonly used to show possession? GENITIVE

B1. Which case would you use to employ the subject of an infinitive? ACCUSATIVE

B2. Which case do gerunds and reflexive pronouns lack? NOMINATIVE
4. Who was Octavian’s general at the Battle of Actium? Marcus Vipsanius AGRIPPA

B1. In what year was the Battle of Actium? 31 BC

B2. What two leaders were defeated at that battle? ANTONY & CLEOPATRA
5. A plague in 293 BC convinced the Romans to adopt the cult of what god who shares with his father Apollo the nickname Paean, which means “healer.” ASCLEPIUS

B1. Where in Rome was Aesculapius' temple? TIBER ISLAND

B2. Asclepius learned his medicinal skills from what centaur famous for his teaching? CHIRON
6. Marcus Licinius Crassus, the member of the first triumvirate, died at Carrhae at the hands of what people? PARTHIANS

B1. In what year, following his consulship, did Caesar become governor of Gaul? 59 BC

B2. Pompey married Caesar’s daughter Julia to cement his partnership in the first triumvirate. Since history has a way of repeating itself, whom did Antony marry in order to ally himself with Octavian as part of the second triumvirate? OCTAVIA
7. Differentiate in meaning between the words labor, laboris and labor, labi, lapsus sum.

LABOR, LABORIS = WORK; LABOR, LABI = SLIP

B1. Differentiate in meaning between the words quidam and quidem.

QUIDAM = A CERTAIN; QUIDEM = INDEED

B2. Differentiate in meaning between the words foedus, foederis and foedus, a, um.

FOEDUS, FOEDERIS = TREATY/AGREEMENT; FOEDUS, A, UM = FOUL/UGLY


8. Give the name of the Roman historian who held various public positions under several emperors, yet is most famous for his annalistic look at history following the death of Augustus, and for his panegyric history concerning his father-in-law. TACITUS

B1. Name this father-in-law of Tacitus. Gnaeus Iulius AGRICOLA

B2. Name the Roman lawyer, government administrator, and letter writer famous for his governorship of Bithynia from where he sent letters to the Emperor Trajan asking for advice about how best to deal with the Christians and also letters to Tacitus about the eruption of Vesuvius.

Gaius PLINIUS SECUNDUS/PLINY THE YOUNGER (prompt on “Plinius” or “Pliny”)

9. What woman was the daughter of Helios, the sister of Pasiphae, lived on the island Aeaea, and turned Odysseus' men into pigs? CIRCE

B1. Circe suggested one way back to Ithaca for Odysseus is between these two infamous dangers for sailors, a classical “rock and a hard place.” SCYLLA and CHARYBDIS

B2. What body of water between Sicily and Italy, which led to the dispute that started the Punic Wars, does Vergil say is the location of the Scylla and Charydis in his Aeneid? STRAIT OF MESSINA
10. Differentiate in meaning between the words moror, morārī and morior, morī.

MORARI = DELAY; MORI = DIE

B1. Differentiate in meaning between the words aestas, aestatis and aetas, aetātis.

AESTAS = SUMMER; AETAS = AGE

B2. Differentiate in meaning between the words tellūs, tellūris and tēlum, tēlī.

TELLUS = LAND; TELUM = WEAPON


11. What do all of the following years have in common: 64 AD, 69 AD, 80 AD? FIRES IN ROME

B1. Who was emperor when Vesuvius erupted and buried Pompeii? TITUS Flavius Vespasianus

B2. Name the four emperors in order, who all ruled for at least part of the year 69 AD.

GALBA, OTHO, VITELLIUS, VESPASIAN


12. In which of Cicero’s speeches does he depict Clodia Metella as a promiscuous and licentious woman and go as far as accusing her of having an illicit relationship with her own brother, Clodius? PRŌ CAELIŌ

B1. How many Philippics did Cicero write against Marcus Antonius? FOURTEEN

B2. In what year did Cicero die? 43 BC
13. What woman was so fleet on foot that she challenged her suitors to race her, but they were to lose their heads if she beat them? ATALANTA

B1. Who defeated Atalanta? HIPPOMENES or MELANION

B2. What goddess helped him by providing three gold apples? APHRODITE
14. Of the following English words, which derives from the Latin word civis, citation, receive, city, recidivist? CITY

B1. Of the following English words, which derives from the Latin word facere, fete, forfeit, felt, forfend?

FORFEIT

B2. Of the following English words, which derives from the Latin word solvere, absolute, sole, solar, solicit?



ABSOLUTE
15. Which is the only state whose motto has a conditional? It’s motto is Sī quaeris paeninsulam amoenam, circumspice. MICHIGAN

B2. Which state employs the motto, esse quam vidērī, “to be rather than to seem?” NORTH CAROLINA

B2. Which state’s motto features a gerund in the statement crescit eundō? NEW MEXICO

UPPER LEVEL

FINAL ROUND
1. Complete the following analogy: amare :: amari :: mittere :: MITTI

B1. Complete the following analogy: amo :: amor :: facio :: FIO

B2. Complete the following analogy: amo :: amem :: volo :: VELIM
2. What Latin noun is at the root of English derivatives such as genuine, generous and generation? It also comes directly into the language of science and taxonomy to classify organisms. GENUS

B1. (Emphasize the underlined word) Give the positive degree of the Latin adjective from whose other

degrees we get words like ameliorate and optimism. BONUS

B2. Taking into account the Latin noun at its root, the English adjective lachrymose describes something

that would induce what? TEARS
3. Translate the following sentence into English: Multī senatōrēs ad Curiam contendērunt ut oratiōnem audīrent. MANY SENATORS HURRIED TO THE CURIA/SENATE HOUSE TO HEAR A SPEECH.

B1. Give the same Latin sentence using the supine to express purpose.

MULTĪ SENATŌRĒS AD CURIAM AUDITUM ORATIŌNEM CONTENDĒRUNT.

B2. Now, give the same Latin sentence using a gerundive to express purpose.

MULTĪ SENATŌRĒS AD CURIAM AD AUDIENDAM ORATIŌNEM CONTENDĒRUNT or CAUSĀ/GRATIĀ AUDIENDĪ ORATIŌNIS.
4. The story of the legendary beginnings of Rome, including the Rape of the Sabine Women and the fratricide committed by Romulus in beginning the city, can be found in the writings of what Augustan historian?

Titus LIVIUS/LIVY

B1. What is the normal title given to this work which began roughly with the founding of the city?

AB URBE CONDITĀ

B2. Of 131, 142, 153, 164, how many books comprise the Ab urbe conditā? 142
5. In Latin, the two little letters “N-E” can mean a lot. Give two possible uses or meanings of ne in Latin.

INDICATES A YES/NO QUESTION, A NEGATIVE PURPOSE CLAUSE, A NEGATIVE RESULT CLAUSE, A POSITIVE FEAR CLAUSE, INDICATES (politely) A NEGATIVE COMMAND, (as “or”) AN ALTERNATIVE IN A QUESTION, “WHETHER” IN INDIRECT QUESTION, or “CERTAINLY, SURELY, INDEED.”

B1. Provide another use or meaning. SEE ABOVE

B2. Provide another use or meaning. SEE ABOVE


6. What mute nymph could only reply to others and was unable to speak on her own? ECHO

B1. Who took away Echo's normal speech? HERA (JUNO)

B2. Echo fell in love with a vain youth, but when he did not return her love, she wasted away until only her voice remained. Who was this youth who also wasted away while admiring himself? NARCISSUS
7. On the first day of what month did the dancing priests of Mars Gradivus perform a war dance? It is the first day of the old calendar. MARCH

B1: Who were these priests of Mars, whose name derives from their leaping about? SALIĪ

B2: What object, said to have fallen from the heavens during the reign of Numa, was carried in solemn procession each March by the Saliī? SHIELD (ancile)

8. Listen to this selection from the beginning of Caesar’s de bellō civilī, which narrates a meeting of the senate and Scipio is speaking. I’ll say the Latin twice and then ask you a question. In eandem sententiam loquitur Scipio: Pompeiō esse in animō reī publicae nōn dēesse, sī senatus sequātur; sī cunctētur atque agat lenius, nequīquam eius auxilium, sī postea velit, senatum imploratūrum. Haec Scipiōnis oratiō, quod senatus in urbe habēbātur Pompeiusque aderat, ex ipsius ore Pompeī mittī vidēbātur.

Here’s the question: On whose behalf is Scipio speaking? POMPEY/POMPEIUS MAGNUS

B1. On what condition does Scipio say Pompey will not fail the republic? IF THE SENATE FOLLOWS HIM

B2. According to the passage, where was this meeting of the senate held? IN THE CITY
9. What English noun derived from a Latin verb “to know” denotes an awareness of right and wrong combined with a sense of obligation to act accordingly? CONSCIENCE (< scio)

B1. What English noun derived from a Latin noun for “a small sharp stone” denotes a mental discomfort that inhibits action? SCRUPLE (< scrupulus < scrupus)

B2. What English noun derived from a Latin verb meaning “to prick, sting” denotes a twinge of misgiving, a feeling of anxiety about an anticipated action? COMPUNCTION (< pungo)
10. In which book of the Aeneid does Aeneas hold the funeral games for his father, Anchises? FIVE

B1. Besides purifying his fleet and offering sacrifices to the manēs, what other condition did the Sibyl of Cumae set before Aeneas could gain admission to the underworld? obtain the GOLDEN BOUGH

B2. Who addresses Aeneas in the underworld with these words: “sēdibus ut saltem placidīs in morte quiescam”? PALINURUS
11. Give the name of the Silver Age poet, who wrote a twelve book epic poem in dactylic hexameter entitled The Thebaid? Publius Papinius STATIUS

B1. What mythological story does The Thebaid concern? THE SEVEN AGAINST THEBES

B2. Statius was not born in the city of Rome. He was born south of Rome, in a city whose name means, from Greek, “new city”. What is it? NAPLES/NEOPOLIS
12. Which of the many Latin synonyms of mare can also, as a proper noun, denote the Black Sea as well as a region in central Asia Minor, parts of which, after the defeat of its ruler Mithridates VI by Pompey the Great, were added to Bithynia to form a new Roman province? PONTUS

B1. Which word for “bay” or “gulf” (as in Gulf of Tarentum) is a metaphorical extension of a word originally denoting a fold in a garment? SINUS

B2. Which Latin word denotes a narrow passage of water connecting two seas, that is, a strait, as the Straits of Messina or the Straits of Gibraltar? FRETUM
13. Name the satirical silver age poet who wrote sixteen poems, divided into 5 books, all in dactylic hexameter. He, to his own undoing, blamed the emperor of the time for the excesses of the time. Who is this Roman poet, most famous for his saying, panem et circensēs? Decimus Iunius IUVENALIS/JUVENAL

B1. Who is the Roman father of satire? LUCILIUS

B2. To what Roman province was Juvenal most likely exiled, since he displayed such knowledge of the area?

EGYPT
14. How are Tarquinius Priscus and Tarquinius Superbus related? FATHER and SON

B1. Who was Priscus’ wife and Superbus’ mother? TANAQUIL

B2. Give the names of Superbus’ own son and the woman his son raped.

SEXTUS TARQUINIUS, LUCRETIA

15. Which form of the adjective ille agrees with hominis? ILLIUS

B1. Which form of the adjective hic agrees with hominum? HŌRUM

B2. Which TWO forms of the adjective iste agree with viri? ISTIUS AND ISTĪ


16. Sometimes called Argeiphontes, what god wore the petasus, talaria, and carried a caduceus?

HERMES (MERCURY)

B1. What instrument did Hermes invent when he was just one day old? LYRE

B2. From whom did Hermes steal cattle on that very same day? APOLLO


17. Name the Roman comedic playwright, credited with such works as Amphitryo, Captivi, Menaechmi, Mostellaria, Miles Gloriosus, and Aulularia. Titus Maccius PLAUTUS

B1 and B2. Plautus’ comedies usually have four stock characters. Two of them are an old man, often the father of a rebellious/lascivious son. For 5 pts. each, name the other two stock characters.

LOW-CLASS GIRL (of mistaken identity); CLEVER SLAVE
18. Cassius Chaerea did all of Rome a tremendous favor when he assassinated what crazed third emperor?

GAIUS or CALIGULA

B1. Caligula made Incitatus a Senator for winning several races. Why did this appointment scandalize the Romans? INCITATUS WAS A HORSE

B2. What man succeeded Caligula when the Praetorian guard discovered him behind a curtain? CLAUDIUS


19. Which of the following words does not fit with the others because of its meaning: serpens, anguis, volucris,

coluber, draco, vipera, aspis, hydrus? VOLUCRIS (= bird; all other are kinds of snakes)

B1. Which of these does not belong: ovis, sus, aper, porcus, verres, scrofa?

OVIS (= sheep; all others are kinds of pig;)

B2: Which of these does not belong: caper, caballus, haedus, hircus?

CABALLUS (= horse; all others are kinds of goats)
20. What was the Latin word for the direct war tax paid by Roman citizens from 406 to 168 B.C. (our word “tribute” is derived from this term)? TRIBUTUM

B1. After 168 B.C. Roman citizens were no longer directly taxed; from that time the word tributum referred to payments made by inhabitants of lands conquered by the Romans. What Latin word was used to refer to such a tax payment from a province (the same word referred to military pay and is often seen on gravestones denoting one year’s pay, that is, one year’s service in the army)? STIPENDIUM (pl. stipendia)



B2. What was the Latin term commonly used for a tax collector? PUBLICANUS


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