1. French and Indian War—A war fought from 1754–1763 between the French and British over North American land holdings. Native Americans were drawn into the conflict and sided mainly with the French, who had encroached less upon their lands and seemed more likely to continue to honor their land claims. British soldiers and colonial militiamen conquered New France which, in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, ceded its vast lands in North America to the British. Now claiming all territory east of the Mississippi River and hoping to avoid further clashes between settlers and Native Americans, the British closed to settlement the land west of the Appalachians via the Proclamation of 1763, causing resentment among the colonists. From this point on Britain attempted to exert more fiscal and administrative control over the American colonies.