2. What Is Knowledge? Martin Kozloff 2012

Personal knowledge/reality and Collective knowledge/reality

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Personal knowledge/reality and Collective knowledge/reality

A developing conception of reality (stock of knowledge) for each person, and for the social groups of which the person is a member, consists of four kinds of things that are known, stored, used, taught, and shared/communicated, in the form of language music, dance, and graphic arts.

Concepts = The kinds of thing there are. Colors, shapes, objects, actions, places, times, groups.
Facts =The features of individual things.

Rules or propositions = The way things are connected. Sequences, causation, parts and wholes, processes.

Cognitive routines = The way to get things done. Solving, analyzing, predicting, explaining, theorizing, organizing, fixing.

We call our representation of Reality, or Nature, knowledge. However, we SHOULD call it knowledge ONLY when beliefs are valid (that is, are logical, reasonable, supported by strong evidence). Beliefs and statements that are NOT logical, reasonable, supported by strong evidence are not knowledge. They are just baloney, speculation, rumor, bias, bunk, nonsense, false, and flapdoodle. How can we tell if beliefs and statements are knowledge (valid) or are false (invalid)? The answer is, we use principles of sound reasoning---called logic.

Now, Dear Reader, all your pals are waiting for you here.
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