2. What Is Knowledge? Martin Kozloff 2012

It seems that knowledge is constructed---Reality is represented---like this

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It seems that knowledge is constructed---Reality is represented---like this.

Reality  Energy  Sense organs  Human Learning Mechanism Knowledge: Four and only four kinds/forms

Uses Logic (Reasoning) to can be known and communicated.
Transform Sensory Experience 1. Concepts: there are kinds of things (“raw data”) into a. Sensory, or basic concepts: red, straight

b. Abstract, or higher-order concepts:

furniture, democracy, canine

2. Facts: Things (subjects) have features (predicate).

3. Rule-relationships, or Propositions: Classes of things (concepts) are
a. Categorical relationships: Some classes are, or are not, INSIDE other classes.
(1) “All (things in the class of) pine trees are (in the class of evergreens.” (2) “Some (things in the class of) bacteria are (in the class of things that are) harmless.”
(3) “No (things in the class of) dogs are (in the class of) felines.”
b. Some classes cause or are predicted by other classes:
“If things in class X increase, things in class Y will increase.”
“Whenever things in class X happen, things in class Y happen.”
4. Cognitive routines: sequences of steps
for producing an outcome. Solving problems, describing, explaining,
analyzing, evaluating, organizing
Of course, each person constructs knowledge (represents Reality). But persons usually do this together, slowly but surely within a group and across the whole history of our species. The shared construction of reality (all of the beliefs---both valid (as knowledge), as well as myths, superstitions, nonsense, falsehood, lies, and baloney) is part of the CULTURE of a group—family, community, social class, nation, civilization, human kind.

To the infant, the world is a buzzing confusion of changing light, sound, touch, and feelings. There are no objects. There is no idea that there are kinds (classes) of objects and activities that are the same in some way. There are no relationships or connections. However, spoken and written language enable human beings to---in a way---STOP the ever-changing stream of light and sound and feeling (sensations) , and to GET that (1) there is a world “out there” and that (2) this world has:

1. Kinds or classes of things (concepts) that have similar features. family, blue, on, food.

2. Individual things, and these things have features. Kitty (subject)is eating. This (subject) is Mommy.

3. Relationships or connections among classes of things (concepts), stated as rules or propositions. All (things in the class of) cats (are in the class of things that) say meow. When water gets real hot, it boils.

If you run fast in the house, you will break something.

4. Sequences of steps (routines by which things happen or can be accomplished. Solving math problems. Getting dressed. Analyzing a document to identify the propositions in a theory.

The diagram, below, represents the development of personal and collective (shared) knowledge, or representation of reality.

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