2 History. The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to

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(1)  History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects;

(C)  explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.

(2)  History. The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify reasons for European exploration and colonization of North America; and

See (B)

(B)  compare political, economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies.

Freedom from tyranny and persecution – ability to run life, business, religion as they wished

(3)  History. The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period;

Too many people to count individual votes – King too far away, need a representative to take concerns to him

(B)  analyze the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative government; and

Mayflower Compact – first self-government in colonies, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut-written self-government including representation, Virginia House of Burgesses-first elected representative house in colonies

(C)  describe how religion and virtue contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.

Churches were accustomed to a leader representing their interests and it transferred to government

(4)  History. The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War;

American colonists felt limited and taxed by a government in which they had no representation, no say

(B)  explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Bernardo de Gálvez, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Haym Salomon, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington;

Abigail Adams advised her husband John to “not forget women;” John Adams-founding father, leader of sons of liberty; Wentworth Cheswell-first African American elected to public office 1768; Samuel Adams-makes good beer, leader of sons of liberty, pro-war; Mercy Otis Warren-wrote plays (propaganda) about British; James Armistead-fought in Revolution and was a spy for patriots; Ben Franklin-founding father, helped write DoI and Const;

(C)  explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; writing the Articles of Confederation; fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783;

Articles of Confed-1st written gov’t with many weaknesses, Lexington & Concord-1st battle of revolution, Saratoga-turning point battle (French assisted after this battle), Valley Forge-miserable winter/people deserting/The Crisis read to troops, Yorktown-Final battle, Treaty of Paris 1783-ended war, gave land to Mississippi River to colonists/required US to treat Loyalists fairly/Britain recognize US as independent

(D)  analyze the issues of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, including the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise; and

Great Compromise-representation/Senate=2 reps/House of Reps=population based, 3/5 Compromise=slaves count as 3/5 of a person for taxation & representation

(E)  analyze the arguments for and against ratification.

For-need strong national government to protect from other countries, Against-no bill of rights

(5)  History. The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic such as maintaining national security, building a military, creating a stable economic system, setting up the court system, and defining the authority of the central government;

George- had to create military, banks, court system, Jefferson-start of political parties,

(B)  summarize arguments regarding protective tariffs, taxation, and the banking system;

Protective Tariffs-help manufacturing in North/higher prices for South, Banking system-too much gov’t control, support rich

(C)  explain the origin and development of American political parties;

Jefferson (Democratic Republican) & Hamilton (Federalist) – both on Washington’s cabinet/disagree about most everything DR-rural, strict constitutional interpretation, Pro British, agriculture F-urban, loose const. interpretation, Pro French, manufacturing

(D)  explain the causes, important events, and effects of the War of 1812;

British didn’t like us trading with France, British kidnapping our sailors (impressment) and interfering with our shipping, we won giving us more world respect and increased patriotism and increased manufacturing economy

(E)  identify the foreign policies of presidents Washington through Monroe and explain the impact of Washington's Farewell Address and the Monroe Doctrine;

Washington said no political alliances/Madison war of 1812/

(F)  explain the impact of the election of Andrew Jackson, including expanded suffrage; and

Jackson included common man in election process/Spoils system-brought in own cabinet/stronger presidential branch

(G)  analyze the reasons for the removal and resettlement of Cherokee Indians during the Jacksonian era, including the Indian Removal Act, Worcester v. Georgia, and the Trail of Tears.

Whites wanted land in Georgia for farming and gold was found/Indian Removal Act-Jackson proposes Natives should be moved East of the Mississippi/Worcester v. Georgia finds Georgia law does not affect Cherokee Nation, Jackson moves them anyway

(6)  History. The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain how the Northwest Ordinance established principles and procedures for orderly expansion of the United States;

5,000 ppl=elected assembly 60,000 ppl = apply for statehood

(B)  explain the political, economic, and social roots of Manifest Destiny;

Gov’t wants more land, more money with more land, more land for people

(C)  analyze the relationship between the concept of Manifest Destiny and the westward growth of the nation;

Manifest Destiny-belief we will rule from coast to coast/opens up west for settlement

(D)  explain the causes and effects of the U.S.-Mexican War and their impact on the United States; and

War started because of disagreement over Texas border, we won and Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave us Mexican Cession

(E)  identify areas that were acquired to form the United States, including the Louisiana Purchase.

To Mississippi River – Treaty of Paris 1783, Louisiana Purchase – 1803, Florida –Adams Onis Treaty, Texas – annexation, Oregon Territory – treaty with Great Britain, Mexican Cession- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Gadsden purchase

(7)  History. The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil War. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil War;.

Good for North economy, South did not like them

(B)  compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks;

Northern blacks had more freedom could work while Southern slaves had no freedom; however no blacks could vote before the 15th amendment 1869.

(C)  analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States; and

North economy based on industry; South was agriculture where slavery was used

(D)  identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the roles of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster.

John Q Adams-predicted slavery (MO compromise) would lead to tragic era; Calhoun-S.C. congressman for secession and states’ rights; Clay-great compromiser, MO, 1850; Webster-strong federal govt. no secession allowed debated with Calhoun 1850

(8)  History. The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln, and heroes such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients William Carney and Philip Bazaar;

Davis-Pres of CSA; Grant-Northern General that defeated Lee; Lee-Southern General surrendered to Grant to end war; Lincoln-President during war, Republican, election catalyst for war; Carney-first black to receive MoH; Bazaar-hispanic sailor for north awarded MoH

(B)  explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln; and

Causes: MO Comp-MO Slave/Maine Free/No more slavery in the north Comp 1850-California Free KS/NE Act-Vote on free or slave States’ rights-south believe fed gov’t can’t determine legality of slavery Fort Sumter-1st Battle, Antietam-Bloodiest battle, Gettysburg-Turning point/all battles in South after, Vicksburg-Union gets control of Mississippi River, Emancipation Proclamation-Lincoln makes slavery illegal, Appomattox Court House-Lee surrenders to end war, Lincoln assassinated after end of war

(C)  analyze Abraham Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg Address and contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis's inaugural address.

1st Inaugural: keep union together, don’t do anything about slavery Gettysburg address: these soldiers will not have died in vain, we will win the war and slavery 2nd Inaugural: let’s all play nice and put the country back together

(9)  History. The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The student is expected to:

(A)  evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments;

Designed to give freed slaves more civil rights and citizenship

(B)  evaluate the impact of the election of Hiram Rhodes Revels;

1st African American to serve in Congress

(C)  explain the economic, political, and social problems during Reconstruction and evaluate their impact on different groups; and

Kept freed black powerless and poor, Southern whites attempted to maintain power through preventing voting and segregation

(D)  identify the effects of legislative acts such as the Homestead Act, the Dawes Act, and the Morrill Act.

Dawes Act-Each Indian family gets 160 acres of land, all other land open to white settlement Homestead Act-any citizen can occupy 160 acres of land, if they improve the land, it is theirs after 5 years Morrill Act –States with a certain amount of federal land and representatives could, the state could sell the land to fund colleges

(12)  Economics. The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify economic differences among different regions of the United States;

North-manufacturing and non-slavery South-agriculture & slavery West-farming & some slavery

(B)  explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery;

Southern agriculture led itself to slave labor, needed slaves from Africa, plantations developed as wealthy Southern owners obtained more land and slaves

(C)  explain the reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization; and

Industrial Revolution-many inventions to help with production and factories

(D)  analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. history.

Created strain between the regions because of different needs and beliefs

(13)  Economics. The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the War of 1812 as a cause of economic changes in the nation; and

Shipping problems required dependence on US manufacturing and supplies were needed to fight the war, both led to increased production in the North

(B)  identify the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization.

Increased efficiency of factories brought people to the cities

(14)  Economics. The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation, including minimal government intrusion, taxation, and property rights; and

People came looking for freedom from dominating governments and wanted the same freedom in business and property

(15)  Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the influence of ideas from historic documents, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Federalist Papers, and selected Anti-Federalist writings, on the U.S. system of government;

Magna Carta-1st document that limits kings rule in England English Bill of Rights-begin to see individual rights in government Mayflower Compact-brings self-rule to the colonies Federalist papers-promoted the Constitution and strong fed gov’t during ratification process Anti-Federalist writings-opposed Constitution citing lack of individual rights

(B)  summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation;

Won Revolution under them, formed the Northwest Ordinance BUT lacked power to enforce laws, collect taxes, regulate trade between states, required unanimous vote to make changes, no military, president or national court system

(C)  identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights; and

Declaration listed the issues the colonists had with the King’s treatment of them, the Bill of Rights include rights for the individual to prevent them from happening again

(D)  analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights.

(16)  Government. The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society. The student is expected to:

(A)  summarize the purposes for and process of amending the U.S. Constitution; and

Amending allows changes over time. Process – pass 2/3 of both houses of Congress + pass ¾ of state legislatures=amendment

(B)  describe the impact of 19th-century amendments, including the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, on life in the United States.

13th-end slavery (Free) 14th-make all races citizens (Citizens) 15th-gave right to vote to all colors (Vote)

(17)  Government. The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason; and

Federalist-Hamilton & Madison Anti-Federalist-Mason & Henry (See 15A for arguments)

(B)  explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.

Nullification Crisis-during Andrew Jackson presidency, SC threatens to secede because of a tariff placed on cloth, they argue that it is a state’s decision on what should be taxed and they don’t have to follow the federal tax, a compromise was reached and they secession threat averted Civil War-south argued it was a states’ decision to legalize slavery and federal gov’t didn’t have right to dictate, SC seceded due to fears of what Lincoln would do and the war began

(18)  Government. The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify the origin of judicial review and analyze examples of congressional and presidential responses;

Marbury v Madison-court determined that they had the right to review situations to see if they were within the guidelines of the constitution (Constitutional Review)

(B)  summarize the issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden; and

All were cases decided when John Marshall was Chief Justice, he was a federalist and always found cases in favor of the federal government

(C)  evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, on life in the United States.

Found that Scott was still a slave despite having travelled to free states with his master. Added to arguments about slavery issues between north and south

(20)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the role of significant individuals such as Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, John Locke, William Blackstone, and William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America;

All had philosophies that supported self-government and shaped the forming of our gov’t

(C)  analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.

Felt no other way to make their point, that traditional means would not work. Brought attention to the situation.

(22)  Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:

(B)  describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Frederick Douglas-Abolitionist, John Paul Jones-started US navy, James Monroe-Monroe Doctrine banned European interference in Western Hemisphere, Stonewall Jackson-Confederate military leader, Susan B. Anthony-fought for women’s rights, Elizabeth Cady Stanton-fought for women’s rights

(24)  Culture. The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century. The student is expected to:

(A)  describe the historical development of the abolitionist movement; and

Grew over time as thoughts in the north grew stronger about immorality of slavery

(B)  evaluate the impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance, the women's rights movement, prison reform, abolition, the labor reform movement, and care of the disabled.

Each improved a social situation for the specific reform group

(25)  Culture. The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:

(A)  trace the development of religious freedom in the United States;

People came for freedom of religion and it continued

(B)  describe religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements, including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings; and

Freedom to worship 1st Great awakening-powerful religious revival that led to people valuing equality and a sense of American unity before Revolution 2nd Great Awakening-religious revival increasing church membership and involvement in social reform movements

(C)  analyze the impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.

Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, petition, press

(27)  Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:

(A)  explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts;

Steamboat-cheaper & faster travel/shipping Cotton gin-separates cotton, leads to increased slavery & plantation system Interchangeable parts-leads to factory assembly line production

(B)  analyze the impact of transportation and communication systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United States;

Faster travel & communication increased movement to cities and spread of ideas

(C)  analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and marketed, nationally and internationally; and

Interchangeable parts and factory system produced goods faster and cheaper, better transportation made marketing goods in distant locations possible

(D)  explain how technological innovations brought about economic growth such as how the factory system contributed to rapid industrialization and the Transcontinental Railroad led to the opening of the west.

See above


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