Tossups by Iowa 1. It is told by a womanly man with long, blond hair who inspires comparison to a gelding. Three men seek death and are directed to a trove of gold. While the third goes for food, the other two plot to kill him and are then poisoned by the food he brings them. At the conclusion of this tale about the unnatural love of money, its teller makes a pitch for money in return for forgiveness. FTP name this Canterbury tale.
Answer: the Pardoner’s Tale
2. In the nematic phase of these substances, molecules have a preferred orientation while their positions are distributed at random. Some exhibit a cholesteric phase in which the application of a pressed hand on a black surface shows temperature variations through color patterns. For 10 points, identify these substances, used in the displays of watches and calculators.
Answer: liquid crystals
3. Its successor states were the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and the Crimea. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate, it was founded by a grandson of Genhis Khan, Batu Khan. Ruling over southern Russia for nearly two centuries, it was established following the sack of Kiev in 1240. FTP name this Central Asian empire eventually overcome by Timur.
Answer: Golden Horde
4. The first part consists of a social critique of contemporary conditions and criticizes the practice of enclosure and the excessive use of the death penalty. In the second part, Hythloday describes a six-hour workday, communal ownership of goods, and voluntary euthanasia. The kingdom is divided into fifty-four shires and ruled by a benevolent prince chosen by the island council. FTP name this 1516 work about an ideal society by Sir Thomas More.
5. Some of the figures in this painting are seemingly superfluous: Mercury stands at the far left, dispelling clouds from above trees laden with golden fruit. A Cupid on the wing aims his little bow, but is probably only there by grace of his mother Venus, above whom he hovers. The action takes place on the right. The West Wind, Zephyrus, pursues a virginal Chloris whom he will rape. Chloris is then shown transformed, bedecked with flowers, as the title character. For 10 points, name this Botticelli allegorical work.
Answer: Primavera (accept The Allegory of Spring)
6. Their cranial volume averaged one thousand cubic centimeters. With jutting brow ridges and receding foreheads, they were the first hominids to master fire and inhabit caves. Arising about 1.6 million years ago, it was also the first to leave the African savanna as evidenced by notable fossils from Indonesia and China. What hominid species, for 10 points, is thought to descend from Homo habilis and be an ancestor of Homo sapiens.
Answer: Homo erectus (prompt on Java man or Peking man)
7. In 1881, he and a tennis partner won the National Doubles Championship. Three years later, he became chief engineer at the Midvale Steel Company, where he introduced the concept of time study. Later as general manager of the Manufacturing Investment Company, he developed the principles of efficiency that became known as scientific management. FTP name this management reformer whose innovative design for a Y-shaped putter was banned by the USGA.
Answer: Samuel W. Taylor
8. The pope is a victim of this title character’s trickery, and Charles V is entertained by his magical tricks. The beauty of Helen, “the face that launched a thousand ships,” causes him to continue his assoication with evil forces. His comical and impudent servant is Wagner. FTP name this learned scholar and theologian, the subject of a 1588 Marlowe play.
Answer: Dr. Faustus
9. In the eighteenth century, his name was invoked by Adam Weishaupt, and in the twentieth century he inspired German socialists. A Thracian by birth, he deserted from the Roman army, but was recaptured. Along with his companions, he sought refuge on Mount Vesuvius and later they defeated the two consuls in 72. His goal was to cross the Alps and have the slaves disperse to their homelands, but they balked at leaving Italy. In 71 BC, he was defeated and killed by Crassus. FTP name this former gladiator.
10. He discovered orbital electron capture and, with Felix Bloch, measured the nautron's magnetic moment. While working at Los Alamos, he worked on atomic detonators; after the war he developed the liquid hydrogen bubble chamber with which he discovered many resonance particles. For 10 points, name this physicist, also known for his work with his geologist son Walter on the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Answer: Luis Alvarez
11. After the Tropical Belt Coal Company went into liquidation, Axel Heyst continued to live on Samurban. Heyst is unaware of Mr. Schomberg's hatred for him until he meets Lena. Heyst, in deep with gamblers, attempts to stave off Schomberg's evil plans, but Lena is shot accidentally as the gamblers turn on each other. Lena's knife becomes a symbol of triumph in this 1915 story subtitled "An Island Tale." For 10 points, name this Joseph Conrad work.
12. Caused by a Corynebacterium bacillus, it infects humans by lodging in the throat or through flesh wounds. Danger occurs when infection swells throat tissues and blocks respiratory airways. Toxins secreted by the bacteria may also lead to heart failure. For 10 points, name this vector, detected with the Schick test and one of the diseases prevented by the DPT vaccine.
13. He rather liked things from the gods. For example, he ruled over Argos with a scepter that had been made by Hephaestus. The god Hermes gave him a horned lamb that had a golden fleece. The only catch was he had to sacrifice the lamb to Artemis. He didn't like giving back to the gods so well, though. He sacrificed the meat and bones to Artemis, but saved the golden fleece for himself. His declaration that whoever owned the fleece would rule the realm eventually set his own brother against him. For 10 points, who was the character from Greek myth who fed his brother, Thyestes, one of his sons, but paid for it with his own life?
14. Blanik is a mountain in southern Bohemia which was considered the Valhalla of the Hussite heroes, while Tabor was a stronghold of the Hussites. Arka was the leader of a band of Bohemian Amazons, while Vltava is the native name for the Moldau River. The four also name symphonic poems that together with Vy ehrad, or The High Citadel, and Z Ceskych luho a haju, or From Bohemia's Woods and Fields, round out this cycle of six. Composed in the 1870's, for 10 points, what is this Smetana homage to his homeland?
15. It began in Honan and soon spread to the entire country. Communal kitchens were established so women could fully participate in production, and ideological purity was emphasized over technical expertise. Small backyard steel furnaces were set up in thousands of villages, although in their zeal peasants often melted down their tools to make more steel. By 1960, it was clear that this plan to industrialize China through mass manpower had failed miserably. FTP name this event.
Answer: Great Leap Forward
16. When it was founded in 1880 as the western terminus of the Chicago and North Western Railway, it was named Mahto, the Sioux word for "bear". Five years later, it would have become territory capital had it not been for a governor's veto. For the 400 years before 1800, however, it was the site of the capital of the Arikara Indian nation. For 10 points, name this U.S. city on the Missouri River, which is now named for an early fur trader and which is the capital of South Dakota?
Answer: Pierre ("peer")
17. Born of peasant stock in the village of Hobitza, naturally he was a shepherd in the Carpathian Mountains as a youth. In 1904 he landed in Paris where he would work the rest of his life. With his famous comment "No other trees can grow in the shadow of an oak," he refused an apprenticeship with Rodin. He thus began creating a distinctive style, based on his feeling that "what is real is not the external form but the essence of things." For 10 points, name this sculptor of Table of Silence and Bird in Space.
Answer: Constantin Brancusi
18. Although not thought of as an artist, he is credited with introducing the mezzotint into England. Although not thought of as a naval figure, he commanded the remnants of his slain uncle’s fleet, losing to Blake in the Mediterranean and turning to piracy in the Azores. He is thought of, however, as a military leader on land, leading the Royalist cavalry at Marston Moor and Naseby. FTP name this prince and noted figure of the English Civil Wars.
Answer: Prince Rupert of the Rhine or the Palatinate
19. Found on the ventral side abdomen, they number from one to four pairs and house minute tubes which open onto spigot structures. A mixture of proteins, including fibroin, harden in these organs and are released as solid strands which can be used for, among other things, wrapping prey and making egg cases. For 10 points, name these arachnid organs which conduct and hold silk.
20. It principally developed from the rustic elements of sarugaku, but the adaptations made by Kanami from Genji Monogatari and the Heike inspired his son Zeami to create plays suffused with a delicacy and spirituality descended from Zen. FTP, name this form of Japanese drama in which the figures are masked and the narrative is performed by actors and a chorus.
T1. The probable progenitors of Type 1a supernovae, these objects remain at the centers of planetary nebulae after the outer layers of a star are dispersed. Nearby examples include Procyon B and Sirius B, both about the size of the Earth and mass of the Sun. What class of stellar objects, for ten points, will our Sun likely join in 5 billion years.
Answer: white dwarfs
T2. In 1605, he visited Bristol, England, as a house guest of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. Nine years later, he accompanied John Smith on two expeditionary voyages to the New World and was captured by the Spanish. He later escaped with John Slany, the treasurer of Newfoundland Company. He returned home in 1619 to the Patuxet tribe, only to witness them die of plague. FTP, name this Native American who went on to help the Pilgrims.
Answer: Tisquantum or Squanto
T3. Belgian biochemist Christian de Duve identified them in 1955 with the aid of an electron microscope. Originating as buds on the trans-Golgi network, they have an acidic interior which can destroy other worn out organelles and cellular invaders. For 10 points, name these organelles which take in extracellular molecules by fusing with endosomes.
While a member of Parliament, he composed 'Bermuda' in honor of colonial power. He also composed a 'Horatian Ode' in honor of Oliver Cromwell. A metaphysical poet, he is best remembered for 'The Garden' and for 'To His Coy Mistress.' FTP, name him.