1999 acf nationals Tossups by Georgia Tech

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1999 ACF Nationals

Tossups by Georgia Tech (Hing Chan, Kevin Crawford, Dan Nguyen)
1. Similar to the Stark effect, calculations in the weak-field limit yield Lande's formula for the energy shift. The strong field, or Paschen-Back limit, gives an energy shift proportional to the Bohr magneton and the spin quantum numbers. For ten points, what effect describes the splitting of spectral lines under the influence of a magnetic field.

Answer: Zeeman effect

2. It is believed that his fanatical and violent temperament was due to brain damage caused at birth. He succeeded his father, who had ruled for only three months, but, unlike his grandfather, he sought to rule personally, dismissing his chief minister in 1890. Intent on making his nation a world power, he entered into a naval arms race with Great Britain, thus helping to cause World War I. FTP name this grandson of Victoria and third kaiser of Germany.

Answer: William II or Wilhelm II

3. In 1873, this man was named first flutist of the Peabody Orchestra in Maryland. In 1879, he became a lecturer at Johns Hopkins, though his subject was literature, not music. His lectures became the basis for such books as The Science of English Verse and Shakespeare and His Forerunners. He also wrote the novels Corn, about southern agriculture, and The Symphony, about northern industry. He is best known, however, as the poet of such works as The Marshes of Glynn. FTP, who is this Georgia-born poet of The Song of the Chattahoochee.

Answer: Sidney Lanier

4. This country has 17 national parks and reserves, among them the Selous, the largest game reserve in the world. Also featuring the Ngorongoro crater and its famous lions, this country is bordered by the former Zaire, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi. For 10 points, name this home to the Serengeti and Olduvai Gorge, whose cities include Dodoma and Dar-es-Salaam.

Answer: Tanzania

5. It is featured prominently on the cover of Murmur, the first full-length album by R.E.M. A member of the bean family, the bacteria in the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen and thus help increase soil fertility. It is a weed, however, and wraps itself completely around a tree, choking it to death. FTP, what is this invader from the Orient which kills hogs and cows, hides snakes, and threatens humans in a James Dickey poem?

Answer: kudzu

6. Water, salts, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatine are filtered into this small sack which encloses the glomerulus. About one hundredth of the amount of fluid that enters it is transformed into urine; the rest is reabsorbed by the body. FTP, what is this nephronic structure, a part of the kidney?

Answer: Bowman’s capsule

7. Father Cayetano Delaura, a librarian awaiting appointment as curator of the Sephardic collection at the Vatican Library, is put in charge of the exorcism of a young girl, Sierva Maria, who calls herself Maria Mandinga and who is assumed possessed due in part to her embrace of African culture. Delaura falls in love with her, but his religious duty prevents them from being together, and he eventually is sentenced to care for lepers. FTP, this action comes from what 1994 work by the author of The General in His Labyrinth?

Answer: Of Love and Other Demons

8. This thinker spent most of her adult life in exile, finally spending the three years before her 1817 death in Paris. Her principal philosophical work was the 1796 A Treatise on the Influence of the Passions on the Happiness of

Individuals and of Nations in which she developed the theme of the inseparable connection between thought and feeling. Closely associated with Romanticism, her 1813 De l'Allemagne, published in London, was an important instrument for introducing German Romanticism to the French and English. For 10 points, who was this French thinker who had to live in exile because of her disfavored political father, Jacques Necker?

Answer: Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker or Mme de Sta‘l

9. His leg was amputated below the knee after he was wounded during a battle with French troops in December 1838. He kept the leg at his hacienda for 4 years, until 1842, when his supporters paraded his leg to the music of bands and laid it to rest in a shrine known as the Pantheon of Santa Paula. 2 years later, his leg was stolen during the riots that accompanied his fall from power. FTP who was this Mexican general at the battle of the Alamo?

Answer: Antonio de Santa Anna

10. The last sentence begins "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one". Six editions were published by the author and its fourteen chapters include "Instinct", "Hybridism", and "On the Imperfection of the Geological Record". For ten points, name this 1859 work influenced by Thomas Malthus and written by Charles Darwin.

Answer: On the Origin of Species

11. In 1993 it imaged the asteroid 243 Ida and discovered its moon. The only observer able to view directly the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy, it also bolstered evidence of an ocean on Europa and released a probe that descended into the Jovian atmosphere. For ten points, what space mission was named after the scientist who first observed Jupiter with a telescope?

Answer: Galileo

12. A month after the death of its composer, La Scala's orchestra and chorus led thousands of mourners in singing this opera's “Va, Pensiero”, the chorus of the Hebrew slaves, which became a national anthem for Italian independence. The story centers around the title character, the King of Babylon, who with the slave girl Abigaille has defeated the Hebrews. FTP identify the opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi.

Answer: Nabucco

13. Judge Joseph Gary, arguing that those who supported the events were equally as guilty as those who committed them, sentenced seven participants to death. Of these, four men were hanged, one committed suicide, and two had their sentences commuted to life imprisonment. In 1893, Governor Altgeld pardoned the two survivors, claiming that they had been wrongfully convicted for the deaths of seven policeman at an 1886 labor demonstration. FTP name this famous Chicago event.

Answer: Haymarket Riot or Massacre

14. After withdrawing from the University of Zurich in 1933, this man pursued a career in architecture. In the 40's, while still working as an architect, he completed the plays Now They're Singing Again and When the War Was Over, in addition to several other plays on the theme of war. A novel about a man who denies being a sculptor wanted by the police, entitled I'm Not Stiller, appeared in 1954. FTP, who is this Swiss playwright, whose best known work is The Firebugs?

Answer: Max Frisch

15. Until 1892, they were based at an abbey in northwest France, the name of which gave this group its common name. Today, they are scattered throughout the world and can be recognized by their habit: white with a black scapular. Their proper name is the Cistercians of the Strict Observance. FTP name this order, the most famous latter day member of which was Thomas Merton, who before the 1960s spent their lives in perpetual silence.

Answer: Trappists (prompt on early buzz of Cistercians of the Strict Observance)

16. Officially created by Charles II, the 17 occupants include a Nobel Prize winner and 3 presidents of the Royal Society. George Stokes held the post the longest, 54 years, Charles Babbage for 10 and Paul Dirac for 37. Its most famous occupant lasted from 1669 to 1702. For ten points, name this Cambridge professorship now held by Stephen Hawking.

Answer: Lucasian chair

17. One was an inconclusive battle in which Napoleon forced the allies to withdraw but did so at a cost of 20,000 casualties on May 2, 1813. The other looked to be a victory for the imperial forces of Wallenstein until the royal commander of the enemy forces was killed. Then Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar took coomand, rallied the Swedish troops, and captured the entire imperial artillery. FTP name this November 16, 1632 battle in which Gustavus Adolphus was killed.

Answer: Battle of Lutzen

18. In writing this work, the author was inspired by Harriet Beecher Stowe's The Pearl of Orr's Island. Set in the town of Dunnet Landing, it is told by an anonymous narrator who stays with the landlady Mrs. Almira Todd. Other characters include Captain Littlepage and Elijah Tilley, a fisherman. The book won admiration from many feminists, and Willa Cather called it one of

America's great books. FTP, identify this novel about small-town life on the coast of Maine, written by Sarah Orne Jewett.

Answer: The Country of the Pointed Firs
19. Born in New York City in 1936, this psychologist and philosopher is one of the foremost voices of feminist thought. She gained widespread acclaim in 1982 when she published Different Voice in which she points out the biases in studies that establish male behavior as normal and female behavior as different or abnormal. In 1987 she founded the Harvard Project on Women's Psychology and the Development of Girls, three years after having been named Woman of the Year by MS. Magazine. For 10 points, who is this author of Mapping the Moral Domain and Meeting at the Crossroads, who is no man's "little buddy"?

Answer: Carol Gilligan

20. He loved animals so much that he kept a brood of white mice in a drawer in his first Paris studio. The artist had a billy goat in southern France, but it lost favor after developing a penchant for butting his son Claude. Despite this, animals were not frequently depicted in his early oeuvre, but did become more prevalent in such later works as 1944’s Man with Sheep and 1950’s She-Goat. FTP, name this eventually Cubist painter, who depicted at least parts of animals in his most famous painting, 1937’s Guernica.

Answer: Pablo Picasso

T1. It's a result of half-integer spin particles having permutationally antisymmetric wavefunctions. Quark colors were proposed to avoid its violation and it explains why cold electrons don't cascade into the atomic ground state. For ten points, what rule holds that no two fermions can simultaneously occupy the same quantum-mechanical state.

Answer: Pauli exclusion principle

T2. Born in Konigsberg, Prussia, in 1776, this man changed part of his name from Wilhelm in admiration of Mozart. He supported himself as a lawyer, his primary interest was music, and he is best known as an author. His two novels are The Devil's Elixir and Tom-Cat Murr, but the works he wrote in a modified style based on traditional German fairy tales were more successful.

This author's collections include Fantasy-Pieces, Night-Pieces, and The Serapion Brethren. FTP name this writer whose 'Tales' were composed by Offenbach.

Answer: Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann
T3. Equivalent to Leilah in the Middle East and the Hindu Shakti, she is symbolized by the butterfly. The most beautiful daughter of the king and queen of Sicily, her eventual coupling with an immortal produced Volupta, the Roman goddess of Pleasure. Apuleius' version of her myth may be an artifact of the Spartan custom of young husbands visiting their wives only by night. For 10 points, who was this heroine of Roman myth who was granted immortality by Jupiter, despite the murderous intent of Venus aroused because she gazed upon the face of Cupid, whom she was eventually able to marry?

Answer: Psyche

Their proposed coup was inspired by the example of the Carbonari and Tugendbund. Most of the participants were Army veterans, Freemasons, or members of secret societies such as the Union of Salvation. They demanded the accession of Constantine, but they were quickly suppressed and Nicholas I became tsar. FTP name this 1825 event in Russian history.

Answer: Decembrists or Dekabrists

Its core is the cluster Abell 3627 and it lies in the opposite direction of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster. Measurements suggest the Local Supercluster is moving towards this region on the opposite side of the Milky Way at 600 kilomters per second. For ten points, what is this exceptionally massive part of space, named for its apparent effect on other galaxies.

Answer: Great Attractor

1999 ACF Nationals

Boni by Georgia Tech
1. FTSNOP identify the following works by John Ruskin, considered during his time to be the most influential 19th century English thinker.

1. (5 points) Largely a defense and elucidation of the art of J.M.W. Turner, this work in five volumes also expressed Ruskin's intellectual debt to Thomas Carlyle.

Answer: Modern Painters

2. (10 points) In this 1849 work he said, "We want no new style; the forms of architecture already known are good enough for us", and went on to enumerate the exemplary styles: Pisan Romanesque, West Italian Early Gothic, Venetian Gothic, and English Decorated.

Answer: The Seven Lamps of Architecture

3. (5 points) Containing the celebrated chapter “On the Nature of Gothic,” this work for the first time equated the beauties of medieval architecture and decoration with the pleasure taken by the worker in producing them.

Answer: The Stones of Venice

4. (10 points) This monthly mouthpiece of Ruskin's Guild of St. George was subtitled “Letters to the Workmen and Laborers of Great Britain.” Ruskin used it both to challenge the apologists for a capitalist economy--and to excoriate his enemies; among them only James McNeill Whistler sued him for libel.

Answer: Fors Clavigera
2. Name the presidential adviser FTP each.

1. This Texas banker and cotton planter was Woodrow Wilson’s key adviser on all important matters.

Answer: Colonel Edward House

2. This man who orchestrated William McKinley’s 1896 election served as an U.S. Senator from 1897 to 1904.

Answer: Mark Hanna

3. This FDR aide became Secretary of Commerce in 1938 and head of Lend-Lease in 1941.

Answer: Harry Hopkins
3. Helen's face may have launched a thousand ships, but it took warriors from several Bronze Age Greek cities to fill them. For 5 points apiece, given a legendary Greek hero of the Trojan War, tell me whence he came.

1. Nestor

Answer: Pylos

2. Achilles

Answer: Phthia

3. Ajax the Greater

Answer: Salamis

4. Menelaus

Answer: Sparta

5. Odysseus

Answer: Ithaca

6. Ajax the Lesser

Answer: Locris
4. For the stated number of points each, identify the Italian authors given clues:

1. (5 points) His characters include Roberto della Griva, Belbo, and William of Baskerville

Answer: Umberto Eco

2. (10 points) He was cofounder of Primo tempo, a literary journal, and won the Nobel Prize for Literature for writing such books of poetry as The Occasions, The Storm and Other Things, Satura, and Diario del '71 e del '72.

Answer: Eugenio Montale

3. (15 points) He became the creator of the modern Italian comedy, with his works written in Italian and the Venetian dialect. He dispensed with masked characters in plays such as La Pamela. This 18th century's writer's comedies include "Women's Gossip", The Liar, and "The True Friend".

Answer: Carlo Goldoni
5. For ten points each, identify the following programming languages.

1. A typical program in this language would include an Identification Division, an Environment Division, a Data Division, and a Procedure Division.

Answer: COBOL

2. One dialect of this language is Scheme.

Answer: LISP

3. Designed by Bertrand Meyer and named for a Frenchman, the most distinguishing feature of this object-oriented language is the integrated use of assertions to enforce the contract between subprograms and their callers.

Answer: Eiffel
6. You didn’t like the last bonus on computer languages? Then how’s about one on the Uralic languages, which occur mainly in a broad band extending across northern Europe and Siberia, on either side of--you guessed it--the Ural Mountains. Answer the following questions about them for the stated number of points.

1. (10 points) The first split in the proto-Uralic language has been tentatively dated to the middle of the third millennium B.C.E. One of these first two branches is the Samoyedic group. For 10 points, what name is given to the other branch?

Answer: Finno-Ugric

2. (5 points) The Balto-Finnic sub-group of Finno-Ugric naturally has Finnish as one of its member languages. For 5 points, name another.

Answer: Estonian, Karelian, Ingrian, Veps, Vot, or Liv

3. (5 points) The Ugric sub-group of Finno-Ugric survives in a lone, linguistically insular tongue. Name it for 5 points.

Answer: Hungarian

4. (10 points) This sub-group of Finno-Ugric is a single language. It is spoken by only about 30,000 individuals in a 400,000 square-kilometer arc that extends from Dalecarlia in Sweden to Russia’s Kola Peninsula. Name it for 10 points.

Answer: Lappish
7. Are you in the big Leagues? Name the following FTSNOP.

1. (5 points) Including the towns of Bremen, Lubeck, and around 150 others, it facilitated the exchange of raw materials from the east and manufactured goods from the West, dominated trade from the Atlantic to the Baltic, and fought successful wars against neighbors between 1350 and 1450.

Answer: Hanseatic League or Hansa

2. (10 points) Lutheran rulers, to protect themselves against the efforts of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, to re-establish Catholicism in Germany, formed this defensive alliance in 1531 named after where it was formed.

Answer: Schmalkaldic League

3. (15 points) It was formed in 1167 by Northern Italian cities striving to assert their autonomy against the power of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.

Answer: Lombard League
8. 30-20-10-5. Identify the thing.

1. (30 points) Edward L. Trudeau founded the first research lab in the US for the study of it in 1884 at Saranac Lake.

2. (20 points) An effective vaccine, named BCG after the French scientists Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin, was first given to children to combat it in 1922.

3. (10 points) The causal bacillus was discovered by Robert Koch. During the 19th century it was the leading cause of death in the Western world.

4. (5 points) Notable sufferers include Mimi in La Boheme and John Keats.

Answer: tuberculosis or consumption

9. Name these short-story collections for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) The title of this collection was inspired by the comment that there were only about 400 people in New York society, and it contains everyone's favorite ironic tale, “The Gift of the Magi”.

Answer: The Four Million

2. (10 points) This 13 story collection won the National Book Award in 1959, and the stories deal primarily with Jews in New York. Name this collection, the title story of which is considered Bernard Malamud's best.

Answer: The Magic Barrel

3. (15 points) This Ring Lardner collection was written after he moved to New York in 1919. Name this collection, which includes "My Roomy," "Some Like Them Cold," "Champion," and "The Golden Honeymoon."

Answer: How to Write Short Stories (With Samples)
10. FTSNOP identify these German religious leaders.

1. (5 points) He wrote “A Mighty Fortress is Our God” and Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants.

Answer: Martin Luther

2. (10 points) The great devotional work The Imitation of Christ has been traditionally ascribed to this German monk.

Answer: Thomas a Kempis or Thomas Hammerken von Kempen

3. (15 points) Living from 1260-1327, he was a German mystic who sought direct knowledge of God through the realm of inner feelings, not observance of church rituals. He was perhaps the first writer of speculative prose in German.

Answer: Meister or Johannes Eckhart
11. Name these wars of the first century BCE FTPE.

1. This series of wars began in 88, and ended in 64. The third was waged by Tigranes I of Armenia, but the first was the most important. It ended when Sulla forced the surrender of 80 warships and a fine of 80 talents.

Answer: Mithridatic Wars

2. What is the name for a series of wars fought in the late 2nd and early 1st centuries BCE to suppress slave rebellions in southern Italy and Sicily? Spartacus’s revolt was the third.

Answer: Servile Wars

3. Around 91, Cornifium became the capital of a new republic, composed of dissatisfied Italians. This prompted what war, in which Marius had great success?

Answer: Social War or Italic Wars or War of the Allies
12. FTPE answer the following about a famous novel.

1. Yevdoksya Nikitishna Kukshina (yehv-doks'-ya nee-kee'teesh na kook-shee-nah') or less elegantly Avdotya Nikitishna (ahv-dawt'ya nee-kee'teesh na) is an "emancipated" woman in this novel. Her friend Victor Sitnikov calls her Eudoxie (eh-doks-ee'), the French form of her name.

Answer: Fathers and Sons

2. Called Yenyusha by his mother and Yevgeny by his friend Arkady and his father, he is a young medical student with "nihilistic" views in Fathers and Sons.

Answer: Yevgeny Vassilevitch Bazarov

3. Give the surname of Arkady and Nikolai, the other father-son pair of the title.

Answer: Kirsanov
13. You like physics? I hope so. If not, tough.

1. (10 points) Named for 3 physicists, this quantum-mechanical explanation of superconductivity was proposed in 1957.

Answer: BCS theory

2. (10 points) In the superconducting state, electrons are not free to move independently and form these dynamic pairs which interact through lattice vibrations.

Answer: Cooper pairs

3. (10 points) For five points each name the other 2 men, besides Leon Cooper, who shared the Nobel Prize for the BCS theory of superconductivity.

Answer: John Bardeen and John Schrieffer
14. Answer these questions about Robert E. Lee for 10 points apiece.

1. In June 1862, Lee replaced this wounded general as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia.

Answer: Joseph E. Johnston

2. Lee’s first major fight with Grant was this bloody battle fought in tangled woods on May 5-6, 1864.

Answer: the Wilderness

3. After the war, Lee served as president of this college.

Answer: Washington College or Washington and Lee
15. Identify these musical instruments for 10 points each.

1. From the Italian for "large trumpet", the Tenor is most commonly recognized, but it also comes in Treble, Alto, Bass, Tenor-Bass, Double-Bass, and Contrabass varieties.

Answer: trombone

2. J. C. Denner of Nuremberg invented it in about 1690 by adding two keys to the chalumeau, but it wasn't until the 18th century that Mozart became the first composer to use one in a symphony.

Answer: clarinet

3. Its distinct nasal ring derives from its unique bridge, which is a broad plate of bone or horn with its top surface very carefully sloped down in the direction of the frets. Its metal strings are plucked with a plectrum--a loop of fine wire worn on the right index finger. And, its two chikari strings are not stopped, but struck together to produce a rhythmic drone.

Answer: sitar
16. Answer the following concerning DNA for the stated number of points.

1. (15 points) This Austrian-American biochemist discovered that in any DNA sample, the number of adenines equals the number of thymines while the guanines equal the cytosines.

Answer: Erwin Chargaff

2. (5 points) Cytosine and thymine are members of this class of compunds characterized by a ring structure of four carbons and two nitrogens.

Answer: pyrimidines

3. (10 points) Deoxyribose is the sugar component. For five points each, name how many carbon atoms it contains and, in the traditional numbering system, to which carbon atom the nitrogenous bases are linked.

Answer: five carbons, 1 (accept 1' “one prime”)
17. Given a snippet from a 19th century poem, identify it for 10, if you need more information, you'll get 5.

1. (10 points) "I love thee to the depth and breadth and height/ My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight/ For the ends of Being and ideal Grace."

(5 points) It is Sonnet XLII (42) from Sonnets from the Portuguese by Elizabeth Barrett Browning

Answer: "How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways" or Sonnet 42 from Sonnets From the Portugeuse (on10 point clue)

2. (10 points) "And ever the stars above look down/ On thy stars below in Frederick town!"

(5 points) John Greenleaf Whittier wrote it.

Answer: "Barbara Frietchie"

3. (10 points) "The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won,/ The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,/ While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring”

(5 points) This poem about the Lincoln assassination is found in Leaves of Grass.

Answer: "O Captain! My Captain!"

18. FTPE answer these questions about the Chou dynasty.

1. The Chou dynasty followed this semi-legendary dynasty that lasted from 1766 to 1122 BCE.

Answer: Shang

2. During this period of the Chou dynasty from 481 to 221 BCE, central power broke down amid continual strife.

Answer: Warring States Period

3. This philosophy was developed by Han Fei and others during the period and became the rationale for the later efforts of the Chin dynasty.

Answer: Legalism
19. Identify the following related science terms for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points) This is the collective name for materials such as gallium arsenide which have resistivities between, for example, glass and copper.

Answer: semiconductors

2. (10 points) In this process, impurities introduced into a semiconductor can lower the resistivity by 4 orders of magnitude.

Answer: doping

3. (15 points) When donor- and acceptor-doped semiconductors are placed next to each other, this type of rectifying junction is formed.

Answer: p-n junction
20. Identify the following German lander, or states, FTPE:

1. This state’s capital is Wiesbaden, but its major city is Frankfurt-am-Main

Answer: Hesse (accept Hessen)

2. Formerly part of East Germany, this Baltic sea-coast state has its capital at Schwerin

Answer: Mecklenburg-West Pomerania (accept Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)

3. Occupying the lower half of the Jutland Peninsula, its capital is Kiel.

Answer: Schleswig-Holstein
For 5 points each and a 5 point bonus for all correct, identify the writer of the following works found on my roommate's bookshelf.

1. Lincoln the Unknown

Answer: Dale Carnegie

2. Decline and Fall

Answer: Evelyn Waugh

3. North to the Orient

Answer: Anne Lindbergh

4. Guerilla Dating Tactics

Answer: Sharon Wolf

5. Murder in Brentwood

Answer: Mark Fuhrman
Identify these amino acids from a description for ten points each. If you need the three-letter abbreviation, you'll get 5.

1. (10 points) This essential amino acid insures the adequate absorption of calcium and suppresses the herpes simplex virus.

(5 points) Lys

Answer: lysine

2. (10 points) This essential amino acid helps produce norepinephrine and reduce hunger pains. Sufferers of phenylketonuria cannot metabolize it.

(5 points) Phe

Answer: phenylalanine

3. (10 points) This nonessential acid speeds the healing of ulcers, gives a "lift" from fatigue and is used to treat hypoglycemia.

(5 points) Glu

Answer: glutamic acid

Identify each of the following thinkers important in the development of modern mathematical logic for the stated number of points.

1. (15 points) Considered the father of modern mathematical logic, this German was infamous for using notation that was very difficult to read. He presented his logic in the work Conceptual Notation, and in The Foundations of Arithmetic he reduces arithmetic to logic, going on to provide the reduction with a philosophical rationale.

Answer: Gottlob Frege

2. (10 points) Frege abandoned the Arithmetic while its second volume was on the presses in 1903, because this English mathematician and philosopher showed that its fifth axiom led to a paradox now named for him. The axiom permitted the formation of the class of all classes that are not members of themselves, which led to the paradox that if the class is a member of itself then it is not a member of itself; if it is not a member of itself, then it is a member of itself.

Answer: Bertrand Russell

3. (5 points) Frege's fragile set theory was inconsistent with itself--as is, in fact, any attempt to provide arithmetic with a complete and consistent axiomatization, as this man showed. Who was this mathematician famous for his incompleteness theorem which holds that it is impossible to give arithmetic such a complete axiomatic basis?

Answer: Kurt Godel

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