Questions by Maryland II 1. In 1415, he took part in the capture from the Arabs of the North African port of Ceuta. A talented leader, this grandson of John of Gaunt was made governor of the Algarve by his father, John the First of Portugal. During his war against the Moors, his sailors reached previously unexplored parts of the ocean, discovering the Madeira Islands, the Azores, and Cape Verde. FTP, name this ruler who founded a school of sailing in order to further his oceanic expeditions.
Answer: Prince Henry the Navigator or Henry III
2. A liquid, often liquid hydrogen, is heated above its normal boiling point, becoming superheated if the applied pressure is suddenly released. Vapor is then formed on ions which are produced by the passage of charged particles. Then, under suitable illumination, the paths of the charged particles can be observed. FTP, this is a description of what device, whose invention won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1960 for Donald Glaser?
Answer: Bubble Chamber
3. H.L. Mencken once said, "None but the brave play chemin de fer," commenting on the gambling losses Robert Sherwood incurred when playing cards with this group of literati from various professions. The club met at a New York hotel, and included George Kaufman, Robert Benchley, Harpo Marx, and Dorothy Parker. FTP, name this mock‑chivalric society, led by Alexander Woollcott.
Answer: Algonquin Round Table 4. In 1937, he was elected district attorney for New York county and a year later ran for governor of New York, winning election in 1942, 1946 and 1950. For 10 points, identify this man who during that same period was twice defeated for the presidency by FDR in 1944 and Harry Truman in 1948.
Answer: Thomas Dewey 5. It was first performed on June 19, 1899 in London under Hans Richter. The piece makes use of the falling seventh, a trademark of its composer. Its movements are dedicated to the composer's friends, and titles of the movements include Ysobel, Troyte, Nimrod, and E.D.U. FTP, name this set of variations composed by Sir Edward Elgar, so named because Elgar refused to identify the central theme.
Answer: Enigma Variations or Variations on an Original Theme
6. Two answers required. Both were born in Nottingham. He was a policeman before taking up the sport; she met him in 1975. They received a record score of 136 for one performance, and won the British championship six times, as well as the World, Olympic, and European titles in 1984. Their personal relationship was a fascination in tabloid newspapers and their haunting interpretation of Ravel's "Bolero" is perhaps the finest routine of all time. FTP, name this British ice‑dancing pair.
Answer: Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean 7. Castor and Pollux participated. So did Jason, but not Heracles. Theseus, Peleus, Nestor, Telamon, Atalanta, and a host of other heroes all came to show their prowess by killing this monster. However, in the end, the glory belonged to Meleager for killing it and to Atalanta for being the first to wound it. FTP, name either the monster or the occasion for which all of these heroes gathered.
Answer: Calydonian Boar Hunt or Calydonian Boar
8. Scholars of this book are divided into two camps: those who believe that the main character dies at the hands of his uncle, and those who think he escapes. Other puzzles include: who is Datchery? Who is Princess Puffer? Why does she hate Jasper, and what did she hear him say while he was tripping on opium? These questions might have been answered in 1870, had not the author died halfway through the book's completion. FTP, name this unfinished novel of Charles Dickens.
Answer: The Mystery of Edwin Drood
9. His second book, The Mint, dealt with life in the barracks of the Royal Air Force, his last military service before he was killed in a motorcycle accident. Early in his career, he worked as an archaeologist at Carchemish, where he was possibly employed by the British Intelligence service. FTP, name this British liaison during the Arab Revolt who wrote of his experiences in Seven Pillars of Wisdom.
Answer: T(homas) E(dward) Lawrence of Arabia
10. In differential equations, a formula which gives the second solution to a second‑order differential equation in terms of the first bears his name. Independently of Jacobi, he developed the concept of elliptic functions and in 1823 proved that there was no algebraic formula for the solution of a general polynomial equation of the fifth degree. FTP, name this short‑lived Norwegian mathematician whose name is applied to commutative groups.
Answer: Niels Henrik Abel 11. Chapter XIV of Biographia Literaria tells of the conception of this volume as a way to defray the cost of two friends' walking trip. Its title is a misnomer, since a third of the poems do not fit the title's description ‑‑ "The Mad Mother" and "The Tables Turned", for instance. Written from 1798‑1800, it contains Coleridge's Rime of the Ancyent Mariner. FTP, name this collaboration between Coleridge and Wordsworth.
Answer: Lyrical Ballads
12. He came to America from England, where he was trained as an engraver. He expressed the elemental power of America's primitive landscape by transforming the formulas of the English picturesque. His best landscapes include Schroon Mountain, Adirondacks and the Voyage of Life series. FTP, name this painter, the founder of the Hudson River School.
Answer: Thomas Cole 13. The principle beneficiaries of the treaty were France and Sweden. France made territorial gains on its northern frontier, notably the regions of Alsace and Lorraine, and Sweden received territories in the Holy Roman Empire. The main loser in the treaty was the House of Hapsburg, since both the United Provinces and the Swiss Confederation were recognized as independent states. FTP, name this treaty of 1648, that ended the Thirty Years' War.
Answer: Peace of Westphalia 14. He entered Yale in 1803, but was expelled in his third year for a prank. His naval career ended after he became a lieutenant, and he settled down to farm and write novels. His first, Precaution, was a dismal failure. For 10 points, name this author of The Pilot, Satanstoe, and The Prairie, part of his Leatherstocking Tales.
Answer: James Fenimore Cooper 15. It boils at ‑84 Celsius, has a relative density of 0.91, and is soluble in ethanol, acetone, and water. A colorless, poisonous gas, its disagreeable odor arises from impurities, not from the gas itself. It is prepared by the action of water on calcium carbide, or by catalysis from naphtha. FTP, name this hydrocarbon with chemical formula HCCH, often used in welding.
Answer: acetylene 16. A highly unstable man, he broke violently with his mentor, the social reformer Saint‑Simon. He taught philosophy for a while, but suffered a nervous breakdown and was supported in his last years by friends like George Grote and John Stuart Mill. He sought to expound the laws of social evolution and establish a true science of society. FTP, name this French philosopher who anticipated sociology with his philosophy of Positivism.
Answer: Auguste Comte
17. Among the first acts of this body were the writ of habeas corpus, the prohibition of taxation without legislative consent, and the abolition of royal courts such as the Star Chamber. Summoned in the summer of 1640, its first year was dominated by John Pym, an outspoken Puritan critic of the king. Oliver Cromwell demanded that the Anglican Book of Common Prayer be abolished, and the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance against king Charles I. FTP, give the nickname of this Parliament that sat for 13 years.
Answer: Long Parliament
18. Important because individual stars within them can be studied, they are about one hundred‑eighty thousand light years away, and contain a few million stars each. First discovered in 1519, they are visible as blurred patches in the southern hemisphere. FTP, name these two dwarf galaxies, one large and one small, discovered by a Portuguese navigator.
Answer: Magellanic Clouds 19. They form a department of Greece and include the mountainous Cos, Kalinmos, and Carpathos, as well as the largest island, Rhodes. For 10 points, what is this group of fourteen islands that derives its name from the original belief that there were twelve islands in the group.
Answer: Dodecanese islands
20. In 1832, he broke a finger of his right hand while using an exercise device, nixing his career as a performer. Instead, he turned to composition, and edited the biweekly publication Neue Leipzige Zeitschrift fur Musik. His musical works include incidental music to Byron's Manfred, as well as "Carnaval", "Kreisleriana", and "The Rhenish Symphony". FTP, name this German composer who married Clara Wieck in 1840.
Answer: Robert Schumann
21. Her third marriage was to Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, at whose court she established a circle of artists and writers, including Ariosto and Titian. Her second marriage was to Alfonso of Aragon, nephew of the king of Naples, but this union was ended in 1500 when Alfonso was murdered by her brother. Her first marriage was to Giovanni Sforza of Pesaro, but that one was annulled by her father, Pope Alexander VI. FTP, name this illegitimate daughter who has become unjustly notorious for wantonness and incest.
Answer: Lucretia Borgia 22. He is a self‑reliant businessman who has become wealthy and moves to Boston. Building a home on Beacon Hill, he begins to recognize ethical standards, but is financially ruined by the end of the novel. His wife Persis has been unable to control their daughter Penelope, and Penelope eventually marries Tom Corey, and the two escape to Mexico. FTP, who is this character whose "rise" is described in a novel by William Dean Howells?
Answer: Silas Lapham 23. He attended Moscow University and then the military cavalry school of St. Petersburg where he received a commission in the guards. He wrote from an early age, but most of his work was not published until the end of his short life. A poem written on the death of Pushkin caused his banishment to the Caucausus, which inspired poems such as "The Novice", "The Demon", and "Ismail Bey". FTP, name this Russian author best known for the novel A Hero of our Time.
Answer: Mikhail Lermontov
24. Included in this poetry collection are "Four Elements", "Four Seasons", "Four Ages of Man", "Four Constitutions", and "A Dialogue between Old England and New". Appearing in the second edition was "Contemplations", which is generally considered the poet's best work. FTP, name this poetry collection published in 1650 by Anne Bradstreet, the first volume of poems written in North America.
Answer: The 10th Muse Lately Sprung Up in America
25. Slain by one of his sons, he was succeeded as king of Assyria by Esarhaddon. A great builder and conqueror, he authorized the construction of embankments and canals along the Tigris, and he rebuilt Nineveh. He destroyed Babylon and seized most of the cities of Judah, but according to Second Chronicles 32, he was prevented from sacking Jerusalem under Hezekiah when an angel of God came in the night and annihilated his army. FTP, name this son of Sargon II, immortalized in a poem by Lord Byron.