1890’s 1914 Foreign Policy and Domestic Politics

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1890’s - 1914 Foreign Policy and Domestic Politics
1. 1890s American expansionism fueled by following causes. (deviation from previous

traditions and policies?)

A) Closing of the frontier leads industrialists to seek markets and raw

materials overseas.

B) Missionary urges, desire to spread both Christianity and Anglo-Saxon democratic

principles, "divinely commissioned," manifest destiny Josiah Strong - Our Country

C) "National honor,". jingoism, desire to compete with European imperialism to

strengthen America

D) Outgrowth of Social Darwinism
2. Expansionists - T. Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, Albert J. Beverage

Capt. Alfred T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1890

3. 1883-1890s naval expansion
4. Hawaii - Growth of U. S. business interests and immigrant labor resented by Queen

Liliuokalani, attempts to oust U.S. influence

5. Sugar grower revolt with help from the Boston
6. Calls for annexation 1893 rejected by Cleveland
7. Annexed in July 1898 during Span-Am War
Spanish American War
8. Spanish colony -Cuba U.S. interests, following reasons:
A) extensive U.S. investments and trade in sugar cane

B) desire for a future naval base to protect a future canal (Cent. Am)

9. Tariffs 1890 and 1894 cause Cuban revolution. (1868-78 10 year war)
10. V. Weyler dispatched 1895 uses harsh measures of counterinsurgency.
11. U.S. resentment at Spanish atrocities intervention advocated,

Spain removes Weyler by 1897

12. Rise of Yellow Press, Wm. R. Hearst NY Journal, J. Pulitzer, NY World

Focus on Cuban affairs (fabrications and exaggerations, Gulf War 1991)

13. Henrique De Lome letter Feb 9, 1898
14. Battleship Maine explosion Feb. 15, Yellow Press exploitation
15. April 11, war declared, McKinley under political pressure, Ultimatum to Spain (accepted

two days too late)

16. April 18, Teller Amendment (sincerity ?)
17. “Splendid little war” John Hay
18. disease outnumbers battle deaths 5000 to 500 . army and navy under preparedness
19. T. Roosevelt asst. secretary navy dispatches G. Dewey Hong Kong. .Manila Bay May 1,

1898 defeated Spanish Fleet, deal with Emilio Aguinaldo.

20. L. Wood, Roosevelt, Rough Riders, San Juan and Kettle Hills Cuba
21. Dec. 10, 1898 Paris Peace Treaty. - Cuban independence recognized, Guam, Puerto

Rico annexed and the Philippines taken from Spain for $20 million

22. Debate over treaty (Philippines annexation)
23. Opposed- J. Addams, Cleveland, Gompers, Anti-Imperialist league,

Dec. of Independence violated

24. Favored - H.C. Lodge, T. Roosevelt, J. Strong, A. T. Mahan
25. Racism argued for and against annexation of the Philippines
26. McKinley's - “Uplift, Civilize, Christianize” remarks about Germany and Spain
27. Election of 1900 Bryan vs. McKinley (replay of 1896)
28. L. Wood, Cuba, 1901 Platt Amendment, Guantanamo Bay naval base
29. Philippine insurrection war, led by Aguinaldo 3 years
Foreign policy towards Asia
30. Open Door notes 1899 following the foreign intrusion into China
31. John Hay- Open Door policy, Philippines as an Asian defense base
32. May 1900 Boxer uprising, I Ho Chuan “Righteous Harmonious Fists”

Opposed Christians and diplomats besieged in Peking

33. International relief forces arrive and rescue diplomats
34. Second round of Open Door notes
35. Foreign powers accept $333 million indemnity, U.S. $24, half returned
36. Impact on Chinese revolution 1911 - Sun yat Sen
Progressivism 1901-1917
37. Political corruption, economic disparity, urban poverty gives rise to grass roots call for

38. Muckrakers - Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Frank Norris, Jack London,

Ray Stannard Baker, know book titles
39. Democracy, efficiency, specialization
40. Frederick Taylor “Taylorism”
Political reform
41. City machines and bosses and ties to industry
42. Commission form and city manager form
43. State government reforms, referendum, recall, direct primary, initiative
44. Robert Lafollette WI, Wisconsin Idea, brain trust, pioneer of reforms
45. Lochner v. NY 1905, Muller v. Oregon 1908
46. Progressive Amendments: 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th
47. Social legislation: child labor, minimum wage, maximum hours, workman's


48. McKinley assassinated 1901 anarchist Czolgosz, T. Roosevelt ascends, age 42
49. TR personal background family, health career, attitudes, TR view of big business and

regulations, good and bad trusts, active federal stewardship, "Trustbuster"

50. 1904 No. Securities case 44 other antitrust suits
51. 1902 Anthracite Coal strike, arbitration, UMW
52. Elkins Act 1903, rebates
53. Hepburn Act 1906, I.C.C.
54. 1906 Pure Food & Drug Act
55. Conservation, national parks, 1901 Newlands Reclamation Act
56. Big stick policy, naval growth, Latin American interventionism,

57. Venezuela debt crisis 1902, 1904, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe

Doctrine of 1823 led to Latin American resentment
58. Santo Domingo 1903 debt customs house taken over
59. Central American canal, C1ayton-Bulwer 1850, Hay-Pauncefote 1901
60. F. .de Lesseps, Suez, tries and fails at a Panama canal, terrain, disease 1881-88

61. Nicaragua and Panama routes Maritime Canal Co. and old French Co.

Phillippe . Bunau-Varilla
62. Nicaraguan route cheaper, Bunau-Varilla and Cromwell lobbying and Mt. Motombo
63. Spooner Amendment 1902
64. Hay-Herran Treaty 1903, Columbia rejects, $10-25 M
65. T. Roosevelt reaction
66. Bunau-Varilla engineers revolution with help from the Nashville 1903
67. Hay-Bunau-Vari1la Treaty 10 miles, $10 M, $250,000
68. 1904-1914, G. W. Goethals chief eng., Dr. Wm. Gorgas yellow fever,
69. Canal policies further Latin American resentment
Rise of Japan - threat to Open Door policy China, Philippines
70. Sino-Japanese War 1894-95, Korea, Taiwan,
71. Conflict over Manchuria, 1904-05, Russo-Japanese War, Russian Fleet defeated
72. TR seeks balance of power in the Pacific during the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War

offers mediation, Treaty of Portsmouth 1905, Japan resents, Nobel prize, strained

U.S.-Japan relations
73. 1906-07 San Francisco school crisis, TR Gentleman’s Agreement
74.. Great White fleet, world tour Yokohama stop
75. 1908 election Taft vs. Bryan
76. Dollar Diplomacy under Taft, Nicaragua 1909-1933, Sandino, Dom. Rep.
77. TR 1910 begins seeking 1912 Rep. nomination, Despite primary victories for TR,

Taft gets Rep. nomination.

78. Progressive Party (Bull Moose) chooses TR as a third party candidate
79. Democrats - Chooses Woodrow Wilson, Wilson wins 324-88-8 Electoral votes
80. Wilson wins, "New Freedom"
81. Underwood tariff 1913 with 1st legal income tax
82. FTC 1914
83. Clayton Antitrust Act called the Magna Carta of Labor
84. Keatings-Owen Act 1916
85. Wilson attempts to pursue noninterventionist foreign policy (“Watchful Waiting” towards

Mexico) eventually however intervenes throughout Central America

86. Diaz deposed 1911 by Madero, land reform scare American interests, 1913 Huerta kills

Madero, Wilson refuses to recognize Huerta, backs Carranza.

87. 1914 American sailors arrested in Tampico, German arms arrive, U.S. occupy, ABC

Powers meet, Huerta deposed by Carranza, P. Villa raids N.M. 1916, J. J. Pershing

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