Benchmark 2: The student uses a working knowledge and understanding of individuals, groups, ideas, developments, and turning points of the Age of Revolutions (1650-1920).
Indicator A5: The student compares and contrasts German unification with the Meiji restoration (e.g., nationalism, militarism, modernization, industrialization).
The Meiji Restoration (明治維新, Meiji-ishin?), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure. It occurred in the latter half of the 19th century, a period that spans both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji Era. Probably the most important foreign account of the events between 1862-1869 is contained in A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow. The restoration was a direct response to the opening of Japan by the arrival of the Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry. This restoration made Imperial Japan a great power.
Meiji Restoration refers to the restoration of the Tenno to the rule of Japan, i.e. the abolition of the Shogunate in 1868. The Tenno remained a largely ceremonial, representative figure; the Meiji Restoration marked the beginning of the modernization and democratization of Japan. Meiji translates to enlightened rule and was the Imperial name chosen by Tenno Mutsuhito, who ruled from 1867 to 1912.
The Unification of Germany took place on January 18, 1871, when Prussian Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck managed to unify a number of independent German states into one nation, and thus create the German Empire, from which all of the states since that time bearing the name of Germany descend. There is much debate surrounding whether or not the "Iron Chancellor" had a masterplan to unify Germany or whether his aims were simply to expand Prussia.
Parallels with JapanJapan followed a similar course of conservative modernization from the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the Meiji Restoration to 1918. Japan issued a commission in 1882 to study various governmental structures throughout the world and were particularly impressed by Bismarck's Germany, issuing a constitution in 1889 that formed a premiership with powers analogous to Bismarck's position as chancellor with a cabinet responsible to the emperor alone.
One factor in the social anatomy of these governments had been the retention of a very substantial share in political power by landed elites— in Germany's case the Prussian Junkers — due to the absence of a revolutionary breakthrough by the peasants in combination with urban workers.
Use the information above, prior knowledge and research to determine if the following facts support information about the Meiji Restoration, German Unification, or both.
If the facts support information about the Meiji Restoration put an (M) in the blank. If the facts support information about German Unification put a (G) in the blank. If the facts support information about both, put a (B) in the blank.
_____Power was in the hands of the small group of men who were determined to
build a new nation.
_____1904 they defeated Russia winning more of Manchuria. It was the first time an Asian power defeated a European nation.
_____Prussia builds its military power into a huge war machine.
_____Their economy becomes third largest producer of manufactured goods.
_____Updated and built their militaries to world power status.
_____Developed the economy to become a world leader.
_____Bismarck expands Prussia’s power first by defeating Denmark to win two provinces.
_____Began to expand into China, and in 1894 conquered Korea and parts of Manchuria.
_____Leader Tomomi Iwakura sent missions across Europe and North America to learn Western civilization.
_____Feared foreigners would take over so they overthrew the Tokugawa shoguns and put in a new ruler.
_____January, 1871, King William crowns himself Kaiser or emperor setting up the Second Reich and building a more imperialistic nation.