161 religious encyclopedia mandeeans

Download 4.9 Mb.
Size4.9 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   46



who also employed " Egyptians " and " Red Sea "

in just such a metaphorical sense as did the Man­

doeans. Indeed, the question of the sources of

Mandaeism is just that of the sources of Ophitism

and Gnosticism in general. These, systems are not

traceable to the teachings of the Persian Zarathus­

tra, nor to Phenician heathenism, nor to the Greek

mysteries, but simply to the Babylonian Chaldean

national religion, which was domiciled in the region

where Ophites, Perat2e, and Mandamus lived, and

where they were distinguished from Christians (cf.

W. Anz, Zur Frage mach der Uraprung des Grlosti­

zi8mus, pp. 59 sqq., Leipsic, 1897). While some

fundamental conceptions are changed, as when the

names of Babylonian deities become the names of

the planets and are regarded as evil spirits, yet the

derivation is so clear upon investigation that no

doubt can be entertained upon this point.

The Mandwan baptism can not be derived from

the Jewish baptism of proselytes, nor is it Christian

baptism taken over and exaggerated; the Man­

daean practise is diametrically opposed to both.

Christian baptism implies metanoia,

rz. Baby  ethical rebirth, and it marks the in=

lonian and auguration of an ethical renewing of

Manichean the heart after the pattern of the Sa­

Ideas vior; the MandIean rite, so frequently

Borrowed. repeated, is a theurgio magical opera­

tion and aims at an ever increasing

insight into the secrets of the kingdom of light

through the mediation of water, the element of the

king of light. The Mandsean light god Maria Rabba

is to be identified with the Babylonian Ea (see

BABYLONIA, VIL, 2, § 3), and his emanation Manda

de hayye or his son Hibil Ziwa with Ea's son Mar­

duk (see BABYLONIA, VIL, 2, § 10). Ea, the god

of profound knowledge, father of the mediator

Marduk, enthroned in the world sea, whose holy

element is water, is the Ea of the brilliant ocean of

heaven, as comes out in the Ayar yora and the

heavenly Jordan of the Mandwans. Similarly, as

Marduk, the conqueror of Tiamat, appears in vari­

ous incarnations like that of Gilgamesh, so do Hibil

Ziwa and his successors. The parallels of Ishtar's

descent into hell and that of Hibil Ziwa, the divi­

sion of the planetary worlds into a system of seven,

and the seat of Es, in the  North with the Mandaean

direction of worship to that quarter are sufficiently

obvious. Similar relationship can be established

with Manicheanism. Mani was in his youth an ad­

herent of the Babylonian Mu'tasilah (" baptizers "),

an early Babylonian sect. Palestinian Hemero­

baptists, Elkesaites (q.v.), Nazarenes, and Ebion­

ites (q.v.) were sects which propagated in the West

under Jewish influence Babylonian ideas, especially

those of a mediator and the closely connected rite

of baptism; these sects took form in pre Christian

times and later were hostile to Christianity. John

the Baptist gave to the rite of baptism, thus de­

rived, a new ethical content by connecting with it

the Old Testament expectation of a Messiah. Sim­

ilarly the second sacrament of the Mandmans, the

Eucharist, must be explained upon usage grounded

in nature religions, in honor paid to the pure ele­

ments of nature and its gifts, and not as a perver­

sion of the Christian mystery. The original teach 

declared in the fourth century the State religion,

its doctrines had been in conflict with many op­

posing forms of belief. But its doughtiest oppo­

nent was not the decrepit faith in the gods of Greece

and Rome. A more dangerous foe was found in

ancient philosophy, especially in its latest form of

Neoplatonism, which strove for spiritual control of

the world and combined the theoretical with the

practical. The one lack of Neoplatonism was a per 

ing of Mani could not have been very different in

this matter from the common Mandaean Gnostic

doctrine (see MANI, MANIcHEANs). The conception

of eons and of the ruh al hayat, " spirit of life," are

alike in the two systems (cf. the Valentinian Zoe).

Similarly the work of the original man in combating

the original devil is practically the same in Man­

daeism and Manicheanism, though the former has

made the development more complex by introdu­

cing a stratum of Aramaic thought in the names of

angels and devils. While, then, the religious sys­

tem of the Mandaxans has especial interest rather

in connection with the universal history of religion

than with the theology of Christianity, yet there is

much in it which can shed light upon the history of

doctrine. In particular, the form of the Mandaean

sacraments affords ground for thought to the in­

vestigator of the history of the Christian sapra­

ment of baptism. (K. KESSLER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Ginza, called also the Sidra rabba, is best consulted in the ed. of H. Petermann, Thesaurus give liber magnua, vulgo " Liber Adami," vol. i., Berlin, 1867, vol. ii., Leipsie, 1867 (based on a comparison of four MSS. of 16th and 17th centuries). A prior ed. was by M. Nor­berg, Codex Nasaraua, liber Adami appellatua, vols. i. iv., Copenhagen, vol. v (onomasticon), Lund, 1817 (mislead­ing, being a Syriac transcription, but has Latin tranal.). A Germ. transl., with notes, has been issued by W. Brandt, G6ttingen, 1893, and the same scholar gives the titles of the tracts or books of which the Ginza is composed in his very scholarly Manddiache Religion, pp. .207 209, Leipsic, 1889. Other Manderan writings published are: Qolaeta, by J. Euting, Stuttgart, 1867 (a liturgical work); parts of the Sidra de Yahya ("Book of John"), in Germ. transl. by G. W. Lorsbaeh, in Beitragen zur Philosophic and Geachichte, v (1799), 1 44. Mandman inscriptions have been published: H. Pognon, Inscriptions mandaitea lea coupes de Khouabir, 2 vols., Paris, 1898 99 (cf. the re­view by M. Lidzbarski in TLZ, 1899); idem, Une incan­tation contre lea genies malfaiaanta en Mandaite, Paris, 1892; M. Lidzbarski, in Ephemeris fur aemitiache Eloi­graphik, i. 1 (1900), 89 106; cf. J. H. Mordtmann and D. H. Moller, Sabdische Denkmaler, Vienna, 1883.

For early reports concerning the Mandeeans consult: F. Ignatius a Jesu, Narratio originia, rituum et erromm Christianorum S. Joannia, Rome, 1652; Abraham Ecchel­lensis, Eutychiua patriarchs Alexandrinua vindicatua, pp. 310 336, Rome, 1660; Jean Thdvenot, Voyage au Levant, Paris, 1664; J. Chardin, Journal du voyage . . . en Peres, London, 1686; C. Niebuhr, Reisebeachreibung nach Arabien and andern . . . Ldndern, 3 vols., Hamburg, 1774 1837, Eng. transl., 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1792. The two impor­tant modern works besides that of W. Brandt, ut sup., are by H. J. Petermann, Reisen im Orient, 2 vols., Leip­sic, 1861; and M. N. Siouffi,  0tudea our la religion lea Soubbae ou SaWene, laura dogma, leurs maura, Paris, 1880. Not to be overlooked is W. Brandt, in JPT, :viii (1892), 405 438, 575 603. Consult further: J. Matter, Hist. du gnoaticiarm, ii. 394 422, Paris, 1828; L. E. Burckhardt, Les Nazoriene ou Mandai Jahja (disciples de Jean), Stras. burg, 1840 (based on Norberg); D. Chwolsohn, Die Saa­bier, i. 100 138, St. Petersburg, 1856; J. M. Chevalier Lyeklama, Voyages . . dana la Mlaopotamie, vol. iii., book 3, chap. iv., Paris, 1868; Babelon, in Annales de philoaophie chr4tienne, 1881; E. Bischoff, Im Reiche der Gnosis. Die myatiachen Lehren lea judiachen und chriat­lichen Gnoaticiamua, Manddiamua and Manichdiamue and ihr babyloniach mtraler Uraprunp, Leipsic, 1906; an im­portant body of magazine literature is indicated in Rich­ardson. Encyclopaedia, pp. 674 675; Encyclop'todia Brfr tannica, xv. 467. For the language: T. N51deke, Mandd­i8che Grammatik, Halle, 1875; idem, in Abhandlungen der Gottinger Geaellachaft, 1862; H. Pognon, Inscriptions, ut. sup., pp. 257 308.

MANDE, mdn'de, HENDRIg: Dutch mystic of the Windesheim community; b. at Dort c. 1360; d. in the monastery of Sion, near Beverwijk, 1431.

want of which, as contrasted with Christianity, it

failed to attain popularity. Even more

r. The dangerous than this was a religion

Religion which, rising in the Orient, united in

Character  itself the charms of the new with the

ized. allurements of the old as represented

in the mysteries   which were so

attractive to the peoples of that time. This was

Mithraism, of which Renan once rightly remarked,


Mani, Manioheans

Very little is known regarding his life. When his

biographer, Jan Busch (q.v.), entered the monas­

tery of Windeaheim, Mande was already an old

man. All known of his early life is that be was

physically frail and weak and that his education

enabled him to fill the position of court scribe with

William VI., count of Holland, under difficult con­

ditions. He was deeply impressed by Groote's

sermons (see GRooTE, GEERT), and, as a result of

visions of the Crucified One with his stigmata, he

resolved to enter a monastery and chose that of

Windesheim at Deventer, taking the vows in 1395.

On account of his health he never became canonims,

in spite of the great veneration inspired by his vi­

sions and his gracious personality. He cultivated

intimate relations with the prominent members of

the new devotion. In a little tractate he has given

an account of his visions; this Busch translated

into Latin and added some accounts of the author

derived from his associates. In the monastery­

which he rarely left, and only in its service he

occupied himself with copying manuscripts. His

death occurred during a journey with Busch di­

rected by the authorities at Windeaheim.

Of Mande's writings in French and German,

composed for the brethren, fourteen are mentioned

by Busch. They did not become widely known in

spite of their graceful diction and depth of mean­

ing. Mande was strongly influenced by Ruys­

broeck, but was simpler and more easily under­

stood. He was indeed called the Ruysbroeck of

northern Holland. Only in 1854 were his writings

rediscovered. They are as follows: Ltber unus

quomodo veterem hominem cum adtbus 8uw eruere

debemu8 et Chriato nos unire. The Dutch manu­

cript was found by G. Visser and printed in his

H. Mande. Bijdrage tat de Kennis der Noord­

Nederlandache Mystiek, The Hague, 1899. Liber de

intimis domini nostril J. Christi et aeptem vice qui­

bus itur ad ea, found by S. Becker and published

by C. K. de Bazel, Leyden, 1886, new ed. in Viaser,

ut sup. Mande refers to Bonaventura's Itinerar­

ium mends, more especially to the section de aep­

tem itinenbus aternitatis. Liber de perfecta amoris

altitudine et de vii8 ad eam perveniendi, ed. Visser

after a Brussels manuscript. De sapida eapientia,

according to Visaer; it exists in an Amsterdam man­

uscript and treats of the seven gifts, under the

title: Van der gave der amakender urijaheit. Specu­

lum verdtatis, also in the Amsterdam manuscript,

Een apiegel der waerheit, printed in Visaer, ut sup.,

appendix V.; De luce veritatia, extant in the same

manuscript; De trabus statibus hominia conversi,

in quibus consistit perfeetio vine 8piratualia. This is

Mande's most important and beat known writing,

based on Joel ii. 12, 13. In it Mande has ex­

plained his whole conception of the spiritual life.

Amorosa querela amantis animm Deum scum pro

ltberatione tenebrarum defeduumque auorum, extant

in several manuscripts and printed by W. Moll in

the Kalender voor Protestanten in Nederland, 1860,

p. 113. Allocutio brevis amantis animm cum amato

suo, printed in W. Moll's Joh. Brugmann, i. 310,

Amsterdam, 1854. De preparations interniv nostree

habitation* in Moll, Brugmann, i. 293. Dialogue

etve collocutio devotte animm cum Deo amato suo et

re8ponsio ejus ad animam devotam, supposed by Visaer to be in the third part of an Amsterdam manuscript (of. Viaser, ut sup.). De raptibus et collocutionibus cum Deo et Dei secum decent (of. Vis­ser, in the Nederlandsche Archief van Kerkgeachie­denia, 1901, p. 249. In the issue for 1902 the diet­eche text van H. M. apokalypais is printed).

Of the writings mentioned by Busch there are missing De vita apirituali et devota and De vita eon­templativa; these are probably developments of parts of the De tribes statibus. The tractate Van den gheesteliken opgave, found by Borssum in Am­sterdam and published in the Archief for 1896, has not yet been proved to be by Mande.

According to Busch, all the writings of Mande enumerated were written in his own hand but with­out the addition of his name. During the disor­ders succeeding the Reformation and the suppres­sion of the monasteries the tradition of authorship was lost. Mande's mysticism as described by Via­ser is less grandiose than Ruyabroeck's. Mande to simpler, more sentimental, and more Biblical, and he may be looked upon as the precursor of Thomas A Kempis, who popularized him. L. SCHULzE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The one source is the Chronicon Windes­hemense of J. Busch, ed. K. Grubs, Halle, 1887. Consult W. Moll, J. Brugmann i. 260, Amsterdam, 1854; idem, Kerkpeaciedenis van Nederland voor de Havorming, 2 cola., ib.1864 71; J. G. B. Aoquoy, Het Klooster to Windss­heim, i. 260, Utrecht, 1875; ADB, xx. 165; above all, the monograph by G. Visser mentioned in the text.


MANEGOLD OF LAUTEHBACH: German Au­gustinian monk; b. about 1060; d. after 1103, prob­ably on May 24. At an early age he entered the cloister of Gebweiler in Alsace, but when it was des­troyed by partizans of Henry IV., he went, after a period of wandering, to Bavaria about 1086, and found refuge in the cloister of Raitenbach. After 1090 he lived in the cloister of Marbach, near Col­mar in Alsace, ultimately becoming prior, and op­posing Henry to the very last. The great impor­tance attached to the pamphlet of the scholastic Wenrich of Troves (q.v.) moved Manegold to com­pose his Labor ad Gebehardum (MGH, Lib. de lite, i., 1890, 308 430), dedicated to Archbishop Gebbard of Salzburg, and written in the lifetime of Gregory VIL, though not published until after his death. Manegold reveals himself as an enthusiastic par­tizan of the Gregorian party, and upholds the pope's views in all the disputes of the period, though from a radically democratic platform. Thus royalty, in his view, is not an ordinance of God, but an office bestowed by the people, and the relation between king and people is in the nature of a treaty, breach of which by the king enables the people to recede from the treaty and to dissolve the subject relation. In the light of these principles, Manegold vindi­cated the pope's right to release the Germans from their oath of allegiance to Henry IV., though with­out being clear concerning the relation of such an exercise of popular sovereignty to the papal act of nullifying the oath. In his Opusculum contra Wolfelmum Coloniensem (ed. A. Muratori, Anew. dota, iv. 163 208, Padua, 1713; cf. Lib. de lite, i. 30,3  308), Manegold assils the assumption of a


Mani, Manloheans

compatibility of the teachings of the ancient phi­

losophers with Christian dogma.

Manegold of Lautenbach has often been con­

fused with the philosopher Manegold (Histoire lit­

Mraire de la France, ix. 280 290, Paris, 1750), who

probably likewise came from Alsace, and gained

much renown as a teacher in France between 1070

and 1090. CARL M1RBT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. van Giesebrecht in &itzunpsberichte der

Miinchener Akademie, 1888, ii. 297 330; N. Paulus, in

Revue cavtolique d'Alsace, 1888, pp. 209 221, 279 289.

337 345; W. Martens, Gregor VII., Leipsic, 1894; C.

Mirbt, Die PuUizietik im Zeitaker Gregors VII., PASSIM,

ib. 1894; G. Meyer van Knonau, Jahrbiieher des deatschen

Reichs unter Heinrich IV. and V., vol. iii., ib. 1900; J. A.

Endres, in Riatorisch politiache Bldtter, ex"ii (1901),

389 401, 486 495; G. Koch, Manegold roan Lautenbach,

Berlin, 1902; KL, viii. 597 598.

MANETHO: Egyptian historian. He was prob­

ably a native of Sebennytus, chief town of the nome

of that name, flourished in the third century B.c.,

during the reign of Ptolemy Soter and possibly

of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was a priest of On

(Heliopolis). He wrote in Greek for the temple

archives an " Epitome of Things Physical," on

Egyptian philosophy and theology, and what is

cited by Josephus (Ant. I., iii. 9) as " Egyptian His­

tory." Only fragments of these works are ex­

tant, in citations. Of the " Epitome " the most

extensive fragments are in Plutarch's De hide et

Osiri (chaps. viii., ix., xlix., lxii., Luiii.). Of the

" History "the most important fragment is a cata­

logue of the kings of Egypt of dynasties I. XXX.

(Menes Nectanebo II.), preserved in part in Julius

Africanus and Eusebius. The fragments have been

collected in C. and T. Willer, Fragments historicorum

Gracorum, vol. ii (Paris, 1848).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. J. Lauth, Manetho and der Turiner

K6nigapapynes, Munich, 1865; G. F. Unger, Chronologisdes

Manetho, Berlin, 1867; J. Krall, Composition and $chicksale

du manethonisehen Geachirhtsvxrkes, Vienna, 1879.


theran; b. at Cassel Nov. 20, 1825 ; d. at Bonn

Mar. 1, 1890. He entered the University of Halle

in 1845; later he spent a year and a half at Mar­

burg, and so distinguished himself here that in the

autumn of 1848 he was urged by his examiners to

embrace an academic career. Until Sept., 1849,

he devoted himself at Gtsttingen to ecclesiastical

history, and in the following year served with suo 


The Religion Characterized (¢ 11. Origin of Man (¢ 6).

Mani's Origin; Legendary Accretions 2). The End of the World 7).

Mani's Life 3). Two Classes of Manicheans 8).

Manichean Cosmogony 4). Fasts, Feasts, and Prayer 9).

Commingling of Light and Darkness 5). The Church (¢ 10).

When Christianity had won its fight and been declared in the fourth century the State religion, its doctrines had been in conflict with many op­posing forms of belief. But its doughtiest oppo­nent was not the decrepit faith in the gods of Greece and Rome. A more dangerous foe was found in ancient philosophy, especially in its latest form of Neoplatonism, which strove for spiritual control of the world and combined the theoretical with the practical. The one lack of Neoplatonism was a per 

teas as private tutor to two sons of the elector. On Thiersch's retirement Mangold chose the vacant department of New Testament theology in place of ecclesiastical history. Having acquired a consid­erable reputation both as teacher and author, he received in 1863 s call to Vienna, from the Evangeli­cal faculty of theology there, but at the same time, in spite of the intrigues of his adversaries, he was at last, by command of the elector, appointed regular professor of theology at Marburg. Here, besides his constant application to his specialty of Biblical instruction, and to his other university duties, including the rector's office, which he filled in 1869­1870, he took much interest in the Reformed congregation at Marburg and in the extraordinary Hessian Synod, in whose behalf he labored as a member of the Prussian House of Deputies. His call to Bonn in 1872 was due to the minister Falk. Here he labored indefatigably and successfully for over seventeen years, in the spirit of his chosen motto, " Speaking the truth in love." He was largely influenced by his teacher and veteran col­league, Ernst Henke, his memorial tribute to whom (Marburg, 1879) clearly reflects his own theological attitude. Although he fully understood honest orthodox zeal and was patient with ignorance, be had abundant occasion in Bonn for decided oppo­sition to arbitrary traditionalism. However, be soon became one of the best loved teachers of the university, which in 1876 77 elected him rector.

Omitting his numerous minor works, of which a

complete lief is given in the Protestarltiache Ifirchen­

zeituny for 1890, no. 17, it is necessary to mention

here the following larger books: Die Irrlehrer der

Pastoralbriefe (Marburg, 1856); Der Rdmerbrief and

die Anfarlge der romischen Gemeirlde (1866); and an

independent work, not merely a recasting of the

last named work, Der RSmeriSriej and seine

geschichtlichen Voratcasetzurlgen (1884). He was

also widely known for his two greatly enlarged new

editions of his predecessor Friedrich Bleek's Eirl­

leiturlg in das Neue Testament (Berlin, 1875; 1886).

He left Bleek's text as it stood, but amplified it by

excellent supplements, thereby prolonging the use­

fulness of Bleek's remarkable work by coordinating

it with the progressive development of New Testa­

ment scholarship. A. KAMPHAUBEN.

Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   46

The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page