sion of the Christian mystery. The original teach
declared in the fourth century the State religion,
its doctrines had been in conflict with many op
posing forms of belief. But its doughtiest oppo
nent was not the decrepit faith in the gods of Greece
and Rome. A more dangerous foe was found in
ancient philosophy, especially in its latest form of
Neoplatonism, which strove for spiritual control of
the world and combined the theoretical with the
practical. The one lack of Neoplatonism was a per
ing of Mani could not have been very different in
this matter from the common Mandaean Gnostic
doctrine (see MANI, MANIcHEANs). The conception
of eons and of the ruh al hayat, " spirit of life," are
alike in the two systems (cf. the Valentinian Zoe).
Similarly the work of the original man in combating
the original devil is practically the same in Man
daeism and Manicheanism, though the former has
made the development more complex by introdu
cing a stratum of Aramaic thought in the names of
angels and devils. While, then, the religious sys
tem of the Mandaxans has especial interest rather
in connection with the universal history of religion
than with the theology of Christianity, yet there is
much in it which can shed light upon the history of
doctrine. In particular, the form of the Mandaean
sacraments affords ground for thought to the in
vestigator of the history of the Christian sapra
ment of baptism. (K. KESSLER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Ginza, called also the Sidra rabba, is best consulted in the ed. of H. Petermann, Thesaurus give liber magnua, vulgo " Liber Adami," vol. i., Berlin, 1867, vol. ii., Leipsie, 1867 (based on a comparison of four MSS. of 16th and 17th centuries). A prior ed. was by M. Norberg, Codex Nasaraua, liber Adami appellatua, vols. i. iv., Copenhagen, vol. v (onomasticon), Lund, 1817 (misleading, being a Syriac transcription, but has Latin tranal.). A Germ. transl., with notes, has been issued by W. Brandt, G6ttingen, 1893, and the same scholar gives the titles of the tracts or books of which the Ginza is composed in his very scholarly Manddiache Religion, pp. .207 209, Leipsic, 1889. Other Manderan writings published are: Qolaeta, by J. Euting, Stuttgart, 1867 (a liturgical work); parts of the Sidra de Yahya ("Book of John"), in Germ. transl. by G. W. Lorsbaeh, in Beitragen zur Philosophic and Geachichte, v (1799), 1 44. Mandman inscriptions have been published: H. Pognon, Inscriptions mandaitea lea coupes de Khouabir, 2 vols., Paris, 1898 99 (cf. the review by M. Lidzbarski in TLZ, 1899); idem, Une incantation contre lea genies malfaiaanta en Mandaite, Paris, 1892; M. Lidzbarski, in Ephemeris fur aemitiache Eloigraphik, i. 1 (1900), 89 106; cf. J. H. Mordtmann and D. H. Moller, Sabdische Denkmaler, Vienna, 1883.
For early reports concerning the Mandeeans consult: F. Ignatius a Jesu, Narratio originia, rituum et erromm Christianorum S. Joannia, Rome, 1652; Abraham Ecchellensis, Eutychiua patriarchs Alexandrinua vindicatua, pp. 310 336, Rome, 1660; Jean Thdvenot, Voyage au Levant, Paris, 1664; J. Chardin, Journal du voyage . . . en Peres, London, 1686; C. Niebuhr, Reisebeachreibung nach Arabien and andern . . . Ldndern, 3 vols., Hamburg, 1774 1837, Eng. transl., 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1792. The two important modern works besides that of W. Brandt, ut sup., are by H. J. Petermann, Reisen im Orient, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1861; and M. N. Siouffi, 0tudea our la religion lea Soubbae ou SaWene, laura dogma, leurs maura, Paris, 1880. Not to be overlooked is W. Brandt, in JPT, :viii (1892), 405 438, 575 603. Consult further: J. Matter, Hist. du gnoaticiarm, ii. 394 422, Paris, 1828; L. E. Burckhardt, Les Nazoriene ou Mandai Jahja (disciples de Jean), Stras. burg, 1840 (based on Norberg); D. Chwolsohn, Die Saabier, i. 100 138, St. Petersburg, 1856; J. M. Chevalier Lyeklama, Voyages . . dana la Mlaopotamie, vol. iii., book 3, chap. iv., Paris, 1868; Babelon, in Annales de philoaophie chr4tienne, 1881; E. Bischoff, Im Reiche der Gnosis. Die myatiachen Lehren lea judiachen und chriatlichen Gnoaticiamua, Manddiamua and Manichdiamue and ihr babyloniach mtraler Uraprunp, Leipsic, 1906; an important body of magazine literature is indicated in Richardson. Encyclopaedia, pp. 674 675; Encyclop'todia Brfr tannica, xv. 467. For the language: T. N51deke, Manddi8che Grammatik, Halle, 1875; idem, in Abhandlungen der Gottinger Geaellachaft, 1862; H. Pognon, Inscriptions, ut. sup., pp. 257 308.
MANDE, mdn'de, HENDRIg: Dutch mystic of the Windesheim community; b. at Dort c. 1360; d. in the monastery of Sion, near Beverwijk, 1431.
want of which, as contrasted with Christianity, it
failed to attain popularity. Even more
r. The dangerous than this was a religion
Religion which, rising in the Orient, united in
Character itself the charms of the new with the
ized. allurements of the old as represented
in the mysteries which were so
attractive to the peoples of that time. This was
Mithraism, of which Renan once rightly remarked,
lands THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 158
Very little is known regarding his life. When his
biographer, Jan Busch (q.v.), entered the monas
tery of Windeaheim, Mande was already an old
man. All known of his early life is that be was
physically frail and weak and that his education
enabled him to fill the position of court scribe with
William VI., count of Holland, under difficult con
ditions. He was deeply impressed by Groote's
sermons (see GRooTE, GEERT), and, as a result of
visions of the Crucified One with his stigmata, he
appendix V.; De luce veritatia, extant in the same
manuscript; De trabus statibus hominia conversi,
in quibus consistit perfeetio vine 8piratualia. This is
Mande's most important and beat known writing,
based on Joel ii. 12, 13. In it Mande has ex
plained his whole conception of the spiritual life.
Amorosa querela amantis animm Deum scum pro
ltberatione tenebrarum defeduumque auorum, extant
in several manuscripts and printed by W. Moll in
the Kalender voor Protestanten in Nederland, 1860,
p. 113. Allocutio brevis amantis animm cum amato
suo, printed in W. Moll's Joh. Brugmann, i. 310,
Amsterdam, 1854. De preparations interniv nostree
habitation* in Moll, Brugmann, i. 293. Dialogue
etve collocutio devotte animm cum Deo amato suo et re8ponsio ejus ad animam devotam, supposed by Visaer to be in the third part of an Amsterdam manuscript (of. Viaser, ut sup.). De raptibus et collocutionibus cum Deo et Dei secum decent (of. Visser, in the Nederlandsche Archief van Kerkgeachiedenia, 1901, p. 249. In the issue for 1902 the dieteche text van H. M. apokalypais is printed).
Of the writings mentioned by Busch there are missing De vita apirituali et devota and De vita eontemplativa; these are probably developments of parts of the De tribes statibus. The tractate Van den gheesteliken opgave, found by Borssum in Amsterdam and published in the Archief for 1896, has not yet been proved to be by Mande.
According to Busch, all the writings of Mande enumerated were written in his own hand but without the addition of his name. During the disorders succeeding the Reformation and the suppression of the monasteries the tradition of authorship was lost. Mande's mysticism as described by Viaser is less grandiose than Ruyabroeck's. Mande to simpler, more sentimental, and more Biblical, and he may be looked upon as the precursor of Thomas A Kempis, who popularized him. L. SCHULzE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The one source is the Chronicon Windeshemense of J. Busch, ed. K. Grubs, Halle, 1887. Consult W. Moll, J. Brugmann i. 260, Amsterdam, 1854; idem, Kerkpeaciedenis van Nederland voor de Havorming, 2 cola., ib.1864 71; J. G. B. Aoquoy, Het Klooster to Windssheim, i. 260, Utrecht, 1875; ADB, xx. 165; above all, the monograph by G. Visser mentioned in the text.
MANDEVMLE, BERNARD. See DE18M.
MANEGOLD OF LAUTEHBACH: German Augustinian monk; b. about 1060; d. after 1103, probably on May 24. At an early age he entered the cloister of Gebweiler in Alsace, but when it was destroyed by partizans of Henry IV., he went, after a period of wandering, to Bavaria about 1086, and found refuge in the cloister of Raitenbach. After 1090 he lived in the cloister of Marbach, near Colmar in Alsace, ultimately becoming prior, and opposing Henry to the very last. The great importance attached to the pamphlet of the scholastic Wenrich of Troves (q.v.) moved Manegold to compose his Labor ad Gebehardum (MGH, Lib. de lite, i., 1890, 308 430), dedicated to Archbishop Gebbard of Salzburg, and written in the lifetime of Gregory VIL, though not published until after his death. Manegold reveals himself as an enthusiastic partizan of the Gregorian party, and upholds the pope's views in all the disputes of the period, though from a radically democratic platform. Thus royalty, in his view, is not an ordinance of God, but an office bestowed by the people, and the relation between king and people is in the nature of a treaty, breach of which by the king enables the people to recede from the treaty and to dissolve the subject relation. In the light of these principles, Manegold vindicated the pope's right to release the Germans from their oath of allegiance to Henry IV., though without being clear concerning the relation of such an exercise of popular sovereignty to the papal act of nullifying the oath. In his Opusculum contra Wolfelmum Coloniensem (ed. A. Muratori, Anew. dota, iv. 163 208, Padua, 1713; cf. Lib. de lite, i. 30,3 308), Manegold assils the assumption of a
158 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Mande
compatibility of the teachings of the ancient phi
losophers with Christian dogma.
Manegold of Lautenbach has often been con
fused with the philosopher Manegold (Histoire lit
Mraire de la France, ix. 280 290, Paris, 1750), who
probably likewise came from Alsace, and gained
much renown as a teacher in France between 1070
and 1090. CARL M1RBT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. van Giesebrecht in &itzunpsberichte der
Miinchener Akademie, 1888, ii. 297 330; N. Paulus, in
Revue cavtolique d'Alsace, 1888, pp. 209 221, 279 289.
337 345; W. Martens,Gregor VII., Leipsic, 1894; C.
Mirbt, Die PuUizietik im Zeitaker Gregors VII., PASSIM,
ib. 1894; G. Meyer van Knonau, Jahrbiieher des deatschen
Reichs unter Heinrich IV. and V., vol. iii., ib. 1900; J. A.
Endres, in Riatorisch politiache Bldtter, ex"ii (1901),
389 401, 486 495; G. Koch,Manegold roan Lautenbach,
Berlin, 1902; KL, viii. 597 598.
MANETHO: Egyptian historian. He was prob
ably a native of Sebennytus, chief town of the nome
of that name, flourished in the third century B.c.,
cited by Josephus (Ant. I., iii. 9) as " Egyptian His
tory." Only fragments of these works are ex
tant, in citations. Of the " Epitome " the most
extensive fragments are in Plutarch's De hide et
Osiri (chaps. viii., ix., xlix., lxii., Luiii.). Of the
" History "the most important fragment is a cata
logue of the kings of Egypt of dynasties I. XXX.
(Menes Nectanebo II.), preserved in part in Julius
Africanus and Eusebius. The fragments have been
collected in C. and T. Willer, Fragments historicorum
Gracorum, vol. ii (Paris, 1848).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. J. Lauth, Manetho and der Turiner
K6nigapapynes, Munich, 1865; G. F. Unger, Chronologisdes
Manetho, Berlin, 1867; J. Krall, Composition and $chicksale
du manethonisehen Geachirhtsvxrkes, Vienna, 1879.
MANGOLD, WILHELM JULIUS: German Lu
theran; b. at Cassel Nov. 20, 1825 ; d. at Bonn
Mar. 1, 1890. He entered the University of Halle
in 1845; later he spent a year and a half at Mar
burg, and so distinguished himself here that in the
autumn of 1848 he was urged by his examiners to
embrace an academic career. Until Sept., 1849,
he devoted himself at Gtsttingen to ecclesiastical
history, and in the following year served with suo
MANI, MANICHEANS. The Religion Characterized (¢ 11. Origin of Man (¢ 6).
Mani's Origin; Legendary Accretions (§ 2). The End of the World (§ 7).
Mani's Life (§ 3). Two Classes of Manicheans (§ 8).
Manichean Cosmogony (¢ 4). Fasts, Feasts, and Prayer(§ 9).
Commingling of Light and Darkness (¢ 5). The Church (¢ 10). When Christianity had won its fight and been declared in the fourth century the State religion, its doctrines had been in conflict with many opposing forms of belief. But its doughtiest opponent was not the decrepit faith in the gods of Greece and Rome. A more dangerous foe was found in ancient philosophy, especially in its latest form of Neoplatonism, which strove for spiritual control of the world and combined the theoretical with the practical. The one lack of Neoplatonism was a per
teas as private tutor to two sons of the elector. On Thiersch's retirement Mangold chose the vacant department of New Testament theology in place of ecclesiastical history. Having acquired a considerable reputation both as teacher and author, he received in 1863 s call to Vienna, from the Evangelical faculty of theology there, but at the same time, in spite of the intrigues of his adversaries, he was at last, by command of the elector, appointed regular professor of theology at Marburg. Here, besides his constant application to his specialty of Biblical instruction, and to his other university duties, including the rector's office, which he filled in 18691870, he took much interest in the Reformed congregation at Marburg and in the extraordinary Hessian Synod, in whose behalf he labored as a member of the Prussian House of Deputies. His call to Bonn in 1872 was due to the minister Falk. Here he labored indefatigably and successfully for over seventeen years, in the spirit of his chosen motto, " Speaking the truth in love." He was largely influenced by his teacher and veteran colleague, Ernst Henke, his memorial tribute to whom (Marburg, 1879) clearly reflects his own theological attitude. Although he fully understood honest orthodox zeal and was patient with ignorance, be had abundant occasion in Bonn for decided opposition to arbitrary traditionalism. However, be soon became one of the best loved teachers of the university, which in 1876 77 elected him rector.
Omitting his numerous minor works, of which a
complete lief is given in the Protestarltiache Ifirchen
zeituny for 1890, no. 17, it is necessary to mention
here the following larger books: Die Irrlehrer der
Pastoralbriefe (Marburg, 1856); Der Rdmerbrief and
die Anfarlge der romischen Gemeirlde (1866); and an
independent work, not merely a recasting of the
last named work, Der RSmeriSriej and seine
geschichtlichen Voratcasetzurlgen (1884). He was
also widely known for his two greatly enlarged new
editions of his predecessor Friedrich Bleek's Eirl
leiturlg in das Neue Testament (Berlin, 1875; 1886).
He left Bleek's text as it stood, but amplified it by
excellent supplements, thereby prolonging the use
fulness of Bleek's remarkable work by coordinating