Holy Sepulcher in Palestine " (Arabic, Cairo, 1893);
" History of the Christian Church " (Arabic, Kazan,
1894); " Refutation of the Encyclical of Pope Leo
XIII." (Arabic, 1895); and " Prayer Book of the
Greek Orthodox Church " (Arabic, New York, 1898).
HAWEIS, h8'is, HUGH REGINALD:Church of England; b. at Egham (3 m. s.e. of Windsor), Surrey, Apr. 3, 1838; d. at London Jan. 29, 1901. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1861), and was curate of St. Peter's, Stepney, from 1861 to 1863, and of St. James the Less, Westminster, from 1863 to 1866, while from 1866 until his death he was perpetual curate of St. James, Marylebone, where he was the successor of F. D. Maurice (q.v.). He was one of the leaders of the Broad church party in the Church of England, and in 1860 took part in the Italian campaigns of Garibaldi against the pope. Like his predecessor, he was deeply interested in the welfare of the lower classes, instituting special Sunday evening services for them. Among his numerous publications, special mention may be made of his Music and Morals (London, 1871); Thoughts for the Times (1872); Unsectarian Family Prayers (1874); Speech in Season (1874); Ashes to Ashes (an argument for cremation; 1874); Current Coin (1876); Arrows in the Air (1878); Poets in the Pulpit (1880); Key of Doctrine and Practice (1884); Winged Words: or, Truths Retold (1885); Christ and Christianity (5 vols., 1886 87); The Dead Pulpit (1896); Ideals for Girls (1897); and The Child's Life of Jesus (1901).
HAWKER, ROBERT: Church of England; b. at Exeter Apr. 13, 1753; d. at Plymouth Apr. 6, 1827. Following his father, he adopted surgery as his pro
fession, and spent three years as assistant surgeon in the Royal Marines. In May, 1778, he entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, took holy orders, and became curate of Charles, near Plymouth, in Dec., 1778, succeeding to the vicarage of Charles in 1784. In 1797 he became deputy chaplain of the garrison at Plymouth. In 1802 he founded the Great Western Society for Dispensing Religious Tracts among the Poor in the Western District, and in 1813 he established the Corpus Christi Society in his parish. He became one of the most popular extemporaneous preachers in England, and on the occasion of his annual visits to London preached to crowded congregations in the leading churches. In theology he was a high Calvinist. The list of his works, some of which passed through many editions, occupies six columns in the British Museum catalogue. The best known are: Sermons on the Divinity of Christ (London, 1792); The Poor Man's Morning Portion (London, 1809); The Poor Man's Commentary on the New Testament (4 vols.,1816); The PoorMan's Evening Portion (1819); and The Poor Man's Commentary on the Old Testament (6 vols., 1822). His Works, exclusive of the two commentaries, were edited, with a Memoir, by John Williams (10 vols., 1831).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the Memoir by Williams, ut sup., consult: G. C. Boase and W. P. Courtney, Bibliotheca Cornubieneis, passim, 3 vole., London, 1874 82; DNB, xxv. 201.
HAWKER, ROBERT STEPHEN:English clergyman, poet, and antiquary, grandson of Robert Hawker (q.v.); b. at Stoke Damerel (2 m. n. of Plymouth) Dec. 3, 1803; d. at Plymouth Aug. 15, 1875. He was educated at the Cheltenham grammarschool, and at Pembroke College and Magdalen Hall, Oxford (B.A., 1828; M.A., 1836). In 1827 he won the Newdigate prize by a poem on Pompeii, which subsequently secured him preferment through Bishop Phillpotts. In Dec., 1834, he was instituted to the vicarage of Morwenstow, on the northwest coast of Cornwall, and in 1851 he was instituted to the adjoining vicarage of Wellcombe. During a ministry of forty years in this wild region he did much good, particularly for seafaring then. In theology he held essentially the views of the Tractarians; and shortly before his death he was received into the Roman Catholie Church. As a poet he is likely to have a place in English literature. His ballads are simple and direct, and have the true flavor of antiquity. His most famous composition is the ballad Trelawny, which, published anonymously as an ancient ballad, deceived even such experts as Scott and Dickens. The most important collections of his poems are: Eccksia (Oxford, 1840); Reeds Shaken with the Wind (London, 1843); Echoes from Old Cornwall (1846); The Quest o f the Sangraal (Exeter, 1864); and Cornish Ballads (London,1869). His Poetical Works have been edited by J. G. Godwin (1879; also ed. A. Wallis, 1899), as also his Prose Works (1893).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. G. Lee, Memorials of . . . Rev. R. S. Hawker, London, 1876; S. Baring Gould, Vicar of MorwenaG):o; .Memoir of R. S. Hawker, ib. 1875 (this ed. was severely criticized in the Athenaam, Mar. 26, 1876, and was withdrawn from the market and new editions issued, 1876); G. C. Boase and W. P. Courtney, Bibliotheca Cornubienais, i. 220 222, iii. 1222 23, 3 vole., ib. 1874 82; DNB, xxv. 202 203.
Heart, 8iblioalQsage THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 178
HAWKS, FRANCIS LISTER: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Newbern, N. C., June 10, 1798; d. in New York Sept. 26, 1866. He attended the University of North Carolina (B.A., 1815), studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1819. He was appointed reporter of the supreme court of the State, and elected to the State legislature in 1823. After studying theology under William Mercer Green he entered the ministry in 1827. In Apr., 1829, he became assistant to Dr. Harry Croswell at Trinity Church, New Haven, Conn., but went to Philadelphia a few months later as assistant minister at St. James's. He was elected professor of divinity at Washington (now Trinity) College, Hartford, Conn., in 1830, and rector of St. Stephen's, New York, in Mar., 1831. The following December he became rector of St. Thomas', New York, and soon came to be regarded as the most eloquent pulpit orator of his denomination. He resigned in 1843, as a result of financial difficulties incident to the failure of St. Thomas' Hall, a school for boys established by Hawks at Flushing, L. I., in 1836. He was subsequently rector of Christ Church, New Orleans (1844 49), and of Calvary Church, New York (1849 62). On account of his sympathy for the South, he resigned his charge in 1862 and went to Baltimore as rector of Christ Church; but returned to New York in 1865 as rector of the newly established parish of the Holy Savior. He was appointed historiographer of his denomination in 1835, and three times declined an election to the episcopate. Aside from his law reports, his principal works are: Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History o f the United States (2 vols., New York, 1836 39), dealing with the early church in Virginia and Maryland; Commentary on the Constitution and Canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church (1841) ; Auricular Confession (1849) ; and, in collaboration with W. S. Perry, Documentary History of the Protestant Episcopal Church (2 vols., 1862 63). He also contributed largely to The New York Review and Quarterly Church Journal (10 vols., 1837 42), of which he was one of the founders.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: w. S. Perry, Hist. of the American Episcopal Church, consult Index, 2 vols., Boston, 1885; C. C. Tiffany, in American Church History Series, pp. 448, 477, New York, 1895; National Cycloytedia of American Biography, vii. 90, ib. 1897; Appleton's Cyclopoodia of American Biography, iii. 121 122, ib. 1898.
HAWLEY, GIDEON: American Congregationalist, missionary to the Indians; b. at Bridgeport, Conn., Nov. 11, 1727; d. at Marahpee, Mass., Oct. 3, 1807. He was graduated at Yale in 1749, entered the ministry, and, under the direction of Jonathan Edwards, began missionary work among the Indians at Stockbridge, Mass., in 1752. In 1753 he was sent by the commissioners of Indian affairs to establish a mission among the Iroquois on the Susquehanna, but was obliged by the French and Indian war to abandon this work in May, 1756. He then went to Boston and enlisted as chaplain in Colonel Richard Gridley's regiment. On Apr. 10, 1758, he was installed pastor over the Indians at Marshpee, Mass., and spent the rest of his life, nearly half a century, in work among the tribes there.
HAZAEL : A king of Damascus reigning about 850 B.c. The name (Assyr. Hazdilu; Septuagint, Azael) means °° God has seen." He was sent by Benhadad, his predecessor on the throne of Damascus, to consult Elisha concerning Benhadad's sickness, and received from the prophet the announcement of Benhadad's death and of his own elevation to the throne (II Kings viii. 7 15). According to I Kings xix. 15 Elijah had already received a commission from Yahweh to anoint Hazael king of Syria; but there is no record that the commission was executed. The day after Hazael's return, Benhadad died a violent death. Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah leagued themselves against Hazael to recapture Ramoth gilead which was occupied by the Syrians, but were defeated (II Kings viii. 28, ix. 15). From Jehu, Joram's murderer and successor, Hazael took all Israel's trams Jordanic provinces (lI Kings x. 32 aqq.) and treated the inhabitants with great cruelty (Amos i. 3 aqq.). He assailed Judah, but was diverted from marching against Jerusalem by the tribute sent him by King Jehoahaz (II Kings xii. 18). Hazael, who ruled at least forty five years, was followed by his son Benhadad, out of whose hand Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz took again the cities which had been taken from Jehoahaz (II Kings xiii. 24 sqq.). In the cuneiform inscriptions it is stated that Hazael was twice (in 842 and 839 B.c.) attacked by Shalmaneser II. In these wars Jehu, king of Israel, Hazael's opponent, sided with the Assyrians (E. Schrader, Keilinsehriften and Geschichtsforschung, pp. 372 aqq., Giessen, 1878, 372 sqq., 358; see JEHU).Josephus reports that to Azaelos and his predecessor Ader (Benhadad) divine honors were paid in Damascus.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. F. McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monuments, vol. i., §¢ 236, 241 sqq., New York, 1894; Schrader, KAT, pp. 265 266 et passim; idem, CLOT, i. 191 201; H. Winekler, Alttmtamentliche Unterauchungen, pp. 64 06, Leipsic, 1892; DB, ii. 312 313; EB, ii. 1975; JE, vi. 279 280; and the appropriate sections in the works on the history of Israel named under ARAB.
HE AND SHE BIBLES. See BIBLE VERsloNs, B, IV., § 9.
HEADLAM, ARTHUR CAYLEY: Church of England; b. at Whorlton (32 m. n.w. of York), Durham, Aug. 2, 1862. He was educated at New College, Oxford (B.A., 1885), and was ordained priest in 1889. He was fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (18851897), and chaplain (1888 96), and theological lecturer in Oriel and Queen's Colleges (1888 93) and Trinity College (1895 96). He was rector of Welwyn, Hertfordshire, (1896 1903), and in 1903 was chosen principal of King's College, London. He was examining chaplain to the bishop of Southwell (1891 1904), and elect preacher to the University of Oxford (1899 1901). He has written Ecclesiastical Sites in Isauria (London, 1893); Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (in collaboration with W. Sanday; 1895); Teaching of the Russian Church (1897); The Dates of the New Testament Books (1902); and Sources and Authority of Dogmatic Theology (1903).
HEALY, JOHN: Roman Catholic archbishop of Tuam, Ireland; b. at Ballinafad (16 m. s.e. of Sligo),
County Sligo, Ireland, Nov. 14, 1841. He was educated at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth (18601867), and at the College of the Immaculate Conception, Summerhill, Athlone (1867 69). He was ordained to the priesthood in 1867, and after being classical professor in the College of the Immaculate Conception (1867 69), he was curate at Ballygar, County Galway (1869 71), and at Grange, County Sligo (1871 78). He was then professor in the grammar school at Elphin (1878 79), and in 1879 became professor of dogmatic theology at Maynooth College. He was appointed prefect of the Dunboyne Establishment, Maynooth, in 1883, and in the following year was consecrated bishop coadjutor of Clonfert. He succeeded to the see in 1896, and in 1903 was elevated to the archdiocese of Tuam. He was a member of the Royal Commission on University Education in Ireland which sat in 1901. He was editor of The Irish Ecclesiastical Record in 1883 84, and has written: Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars (Dublin, 1890); History of Mdynooth (1895); Record of Maynooth Centenary (1896); and Life and Writings of St. Patrick (1905).
HEARD, JOHN BICKFORD: Church of England; b. at Dublin, Ireland, Oct. 26, 1828. He was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (B.A., 1852), and was ordained priest in 1852. He was vicar of Bilton, Yorkshire (1864 68), curate of St. Andrew's, Westminster (1878 80), rector of W oldingham, Surrey (1880 91), and vicar of Queen Charlton (1894 1904). He was also editor of the Religious Tract Society from 1866 to 1873, and Hulsean Lecturer in Cambridge in 1892. His theological standpoint is that of the German mediating school, and in his writings he has sought to develop a Christian psychology in support of theology and to lay stress on Pauline rather than on Augustinian concepts. He has written The History of the Extinction of Paganism in the Roman Empire (Cambridge, 1852); The Pastor and Parish (London, 1865); The Tripartite Nature of Man (Edinburgh, 1866); National Christianity; or, Cceaarism and Clericalism (London, 1877); and Alexandrian and Carthaginian Theology Contrasted (Hulsean Lectures; Edinburgh, 1893).
HEART, BIBLICAL USAGE: The Hebrew lebh or lebhabh and the Greek kardia (" heart ") are never used in the Bible of animals except in the passages Job xli. 24 and Dan. iv. 16, where the reference is psychological, not physiological. Deut. iv. 11 speaks of the heart of heaven, II Sam. xviii. 14 of the heart of an oak, Ex. xv. 8 and other passages of the heart of the sea, and Matt. xii. 40 of the heart of the earth, all designating the interior parts of the objects. In nearly all passages where the word occurs, however, it is used of man's heart, and generally in the psychological sense as the organ by which he feels, thinks, and wills. The terms lebh, lebhabh, kardia, which never mean " self," as does nepheah, are employed to express the ethical qualities which the Greeks ascribed to the soul.
As an organ of the body the heart is the seat of life, and is concerned in the receipt of impressions and the issuance of expressions of personal life. Strengthening and revival which come from the V. 12
Heart, Biblical Qssge
partaking of food bring strength and comfort to the heart (Gen. xviii. 5; Judges xix. 5, 8), and excess affects the heart unfavorably (Luke xxi. 34). Indeed, the heart is the center of personal life in all its relations (Prov. iv. 23); consequently, up to a certain limit, kardio, psyche, and pneuma, " spirit," may be used as synonyms, and the reception of joy, sorrow, emotion, alarm is ascribed to the heart (e.g., Prov. xii. 25) or to the soul (Gen. x11. 8). The unstable man is called dipsychos, "double minded," and to him is given a double heart (Ecclus. i. 28). The heart is to be purified (James iv. 8), so is the soul (I Pet. i. 22), just as depression is ascribed to the soul in Pa. xlii. 5, and to the heart in Pa. lxii. 8. But each of these terms has its peculiarities of usage. Man is said to lose his soul, never his heart. Where the two are bound together in some action, especially if that be religious, as in the case of lovingGod, it is not a mere heaping together of synonyms, but the expression of action involving the entire personality. Nabal's heart is said to have died (I Sam. xxv. 37), though his actual death did not occur till ten days afterward (verse 38). So one may speak of the heart of the soul, but never of the soul of the heart, since the psyche is the subject of life while the kardia is only an organ.
The relations and distinctions between heart and spirit recall those between spirit and soul. The soul is what it is through the spirit which exists in it as the life principle, so that within certain bounds each may stand for the other (see SOUL AND SPIRIT). Since the personal life is limited by the spirit and is mediated through the heart, the activities of the spirit are sought in the heart, and to it then may be ascribed the properties of the spirit, and spirit and heart may be paralleled (Ps. xxxiv. 18). While Acts Nix. 21 ascribes purpose to the soul, II Cor. ix. 7 ascribes it to the heart. On the other hand, serving God in the spirit (Rom. i. 9) is not quite the same as serving him with the heart. Exchange between spirit and heart is excluded when the heart appears as the place of that activity of the spirit the result of which is conscience (I Sam. xxiv. 5). Heart and flesh are differentiated so that sin is ascribed to the heart, though both are united in Ezek. xliv. 7. Delitzach finds in Ps. xvi. 9 an Old Testament trichotomy, but really in the first clause heart and soul are united to express as strongly as possible the inner exultation. Heart is in distinction from soul the place where the whole personal life is concentrated, where is concealed the personal individual essence, and whei_ce proceed the evidences of personal character in good or evil (Matt. xv. 8). With the heart man approaches God and Christ rests in him, possesses him, so that he lives and dwells in man (Eph. iii. 17; Gal. ii. 20). Similarly, estrangement from God is of the heart (Eph. iv. 18; Isa. i. 5). In like manner the individual character is expressed in terms of the heart in respect to purity, humility, uncircumcision, unrighteousness, and the like. God himself is called mighty in heart (Job xxxvi. 5), and he who seeks God and in faith relies upon him is called strong in heart (Ps. lxxviii. 8).
The heart is the treasury of good and evil (Matt. xii. 34 35); it is the organ for the reception of
Heart, Biblical usage
Heathenism THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 178
God's word and of the gift of the Holy Spirit
(Matt. xiii. 19). But if it is the seat of God's activ
ity and of that of his word and spirit, so is it of
Satan's activity (John xiii. 2), and it resists God
and becomes hardened (Acts xxviii. 27). Similarly,
out of it proceeds love for God and man. It is the
organ of faith or unfaith (Roe. x. 9), of decision
(Acts v. 4), and of thought (Isa. x. 7). In this
sense Johannean and Pauline usage equates nous and
dianoia; since the nous as the organ of the spirit
is also a function of the heart, it is conceivable that
the apostle opposes nous to sarx, °` flesh " (Roe.
vii. 25), because for his purpose the opposition
between sarx and kardia seemed too inclusive. In
the heart of man through his conscience is written
the work of the law (Roe. ii. 15), and God has placed
resides that double personality (Rom. vii.) by which
man is either senseless (Roe. i. 21) or impenitent
(Roe. ii. 5) or uncircumcised in heart (Acts vii.
51), or, on the other side, is honest and good (Luke
viii. 15). (H. CREMERt.)
BIBLIOORAPBT: F. Delitasoh, System der bibliachen Psychologie, Leipsic, 1881, Eng tranal., Edinburgh, 1887; C. H. Zeller Kurze Seelenlehre, Calw, 1850; J. G. Krumm, De notionibua psychologies Paulinia, chap. iii., Giessen, 1858; J. T. Beck, Umrias der bibliachen Seelenlehre, Stuttgart, 1871; idem Outlinesof Biblical Psychology, pp 78 148, Edinburgh, 1877; G. F. Oehler, Theology of O. T., i. 221 eqq.. ii. 449, ib. 1874 75; B. Weiss, Biblical Theology of N. T., ib. 1882 83; E. WSmer, Biblische Anthropologic, II., xi. 3, Stuttgart, 1887; K. Fischer, BiUitcha Paychologie, Biologic and PUdapogik, pp 20 sqq.. Goths, 1889; H. Schultz, O. T. Theology, ii. 248 sqq., London, 1892; W. Beyschlag N. T. Theology, consult Index, Edinburgh, 1896; C. A. Briggs, in Semitic Studies in Memory of A. Kohut, pp 94 105, London, 1897; T. Simon, Die Peychologie des Apostela Paulus, pp 24 sqq, GSttingen, 1897; G. Waller, Biblical View of the Soul, London, 1904; DB. ii. 317 318; EB, ii. 1981 82• JE, vi. 295 296; DCO i. 709 711; and the lexicons under the words cited in the text.
HEART OF JESUS, SOCIETY OF. See SACRED HEART OF JE6us, DEVOTION TO.