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HAUSMANN, NICOLAUS (NICLAS) : German Reformer; b. at Freiberg (20 m. a. w. of Dresden) c. 1479; d. there Nov. 3, 1538. After serving for a time as preacher at Schneeberg, he was appointed pastor at the church of St. Mary and chief clergy­man at Zwickau, and was there involved with the mystics who adhered to Thomas Miinzer (q.v.). Eleven years later he was appointed pastor at Dessau at the recommendation of Luther. In the latter part of 1538 he was called to Freiberg as superintendent, but was stricken with apoplexy at his very first sermon. Hausmann was one of the oldest and dearest friends of Luther, and may be termed the Reformer of Zwickau and Anhalt.

(G. Faarrgt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 0. G. Schmidt, Nicolaus Hausmann, der Freund Lathers, Leipsic, 1860; especially, J. g6etlin, Martin Luther, passim, Berlin, 1903 (quite full).

HAUSRATH, ADOLF: German Reformed; b. at Carlaruhe Jan. 13, 1837. He was educated at the universities of Jena, G6ttingen, Berlin, and Heidel­berg (1856 60), and after being vicar at Heidelberg from 1860 to 1864, was assessor to the supreme consistory of Baden for three years. In 1867 he was appointed associate professor of church history at Heidelberg, where he has been full professor of the same subject since 1871. His theological posi­tion is liberal. He has written: Konrad von Mar­burg (Heidelberg, 1862); Der Apostel Paulus (1865); Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte (4 vols., 1868 74; Eng. tranal., Hist. of the N. T. Times, 4 vols., London, 1895); Der Vierkapitelbrief deg Paulus an die Korinther (1869); David Friedrich Strauss and die Theologie seiner Zeit (2 vols., Munich, 1875­77); Kleine Schriften religionsgeschichtlichen Inhalts (Leipsic, 1883); Arnold von Brescia (1892); Peter Abdlard (1893); Martin Luther's Romfahrt (Berlin, 1894); Die Arnoldisten (Leipsic, 1895); Aleander and Luther auf dem Reichatage zu Worms (Berlin, 1897); Luthers Leben (2 vols., 1904 05); and Rich­ard Rothe and seine Freunde (2 vols., 1904 06).

HAUSSLEITER, JOHANNES:' German Lutheran; b. at Lopsingen (a village near Nordlingen, 50 m. s.w. of Nuremberg), Bavaria, June 23, 1851. He was educated at the universities of Erlangen, Tiibingen, and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1884), and since 1891 has been professor of New Testament exegesis at the University of Greifawald.  Besides contributing extensively to theological periodicals and encyclo­pedias and editing August Friedrich Christian Vil­mar's Ueber den evangelischen Unterricht in deutschen Gymnasien (Marburg, 1888), he has written Aua der Schule Melanchthons, theologische Disputationen and Promotionen zu Wittenberg in den Jahren 16.46­1560 (Greifswald, 1897), and Melanchthon Kompen­dium (1902), as well as many briefer works.
HAVELBERG, BISHOPRIC OF: A bishopric founded by Otto I. about 948 for the propagation of Christianity among the Wends (q.v.), taking its name from the town of Havelberg (in Prussia, on the Havel, about 60 m. n.w. of Berlin). The territory of the bishopric extended from the middle Elbe to the Baltic Sea and included the island of Usedom. Originally under the authority of the archbishop of Mainz, it was transferred in 968 to the newly erected


Hawaiian Islands

archbishopric of Magdeburg. Its existence, how­ever, practically terminated with the great Wendish uprising of 983, when the town of Havelberg was taken by storm. Bishops of Havelberg continued to be named, but they remained far from their diocese, where the old heathenism prevailed. In 1140 the northern part of the see was annexed to the diocese newly formed for Pomerania (see KAMMIN, BI8HOPRIC OF). In 1129 St. Norbert, founder of the Premonatratensians, undertook the restoration of the diocese. He obtained the ap­pointment of his pupil, Anselm, who established a cathedral chapter in 1144, and, when a large part of the pagan inhabitants were exterminated by the crusade against the Wends in 1147, colonized the depopulated districts from the Netherlands. Most of the bishops of the later time were Premonstra­tensians, frequently elected, from the thirteenth century on, under the influence of the margraves of Brandenburg. The last bishop, Busso II. (d. 1548), labored unsuccessfully to withstand the inroads of the Reformation, and at his death the elector assigned the territory to his sons as administrators and completed its secularization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. F. Riedel, Codex diplomatieua Branden­burgeneia, I., ii. 382 sqq., 6 vols., Berlin, 1838 58; L. Giesebrecht, Wendische Geschichten, Berlin, 1843; Hauck, %D, iii. 102 eqq., et passim.

HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY: English general; b.

at Bishop Wearmouth (12 m. n. e. of Durham)

Apr. 5, 1795; d. at Lucknow, India, Nov. 24, 1857.

He was educated at the Charterhouse, London, and

entered the Middle Temple in 1813 as the pupil of

Joseph Chitty. In 1815 he entered the army as

second lieutenant, and after eight years of service

in Great Britain went to India in 1823. During the

voyage he experienced strong religious conviction,

and determined to lead a Christian life. Through­

out his long and distinguished military career in

India it was his custom to call his men together for

frequent devotional services. He took an active

interest in missions, and joined the Baptist Church.

He served in the war against Burma 1824 26, in

the first Afghan war, 1838 12, in the first Sikh war,

1845 46, commanded a division of the army that

invaded Persia in 1856, and particularly distin­

guished himself during the Indian Mutiny of 1857.

By a series of brilliant victories he made himself the

" hero of Lucknow "; but five days after the relief

of the city he died of dysentery, brought on by

overexertion. Before the news of his death had

been received in England he was created major­

general and baronet, and by Parliament granted a

pension of a thousand pounds. He published Mem­

oir o f Three Campaigns (Serampore, 1828); and

Narrative o f the War in Afghanistan (2 vols., London,


BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. P. Grant, The Christian Soldier. Me­morials of Major General Sir H. Havelock, London, 1858; W. Brook, Biographical Sketch of Sir Henry Havelock, ib. 1864; J. C. Marshman, Memoirs of Major General Sir Henry Havelock, ib. 1887; A. Forbes, Havelock, ib. 1890; DNB, xxv. 174 179; and books dealing with the history of Inia, especially with the Mutiny.

HAVEN, ERASTUS OTIS: Methodist Episcopa­lian; b. in Boston, Mass., Nov. 1, 1820; d. at Salem, Ore., Aug. 2, 1881. He studied at the Wesleyan

University, Middletown, Conn. (B.A., 1842), taught for a number of years, then joined the New York Conference in 1848. He was successively pastor of the Twenty fourth (now Thirtieth) Street Church (1848 49), of the Red Hook Mission (1850 51), and of the Mulberry Street (now St. Paul's) Church (1852). In 1853 he was elected to the chair of Latin in the University of Michigan, and the follow­ing year he was transferred to the chair of English language, literature, and history. From 1856 to 1863 he was editor of Zion's Herald, Boston. He was a member of the Massachusetts State Board of Education 1858 63, a member of the State Senate 1862 63, and for a time one of .the overseers of Harvard. In 1863 he was elected president of the University of Michigan, and in 1869 became president of Northwestern University. He resigned this post in 1872, after having been elected by the General Conference of that year corresponding secretary of the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church. From 1874 to 1880 he was chancellor of Syracuse University. In 1879 he was sent to Great Britain as a delegate of the Methodist Episcopal Church to the parent Wesleyan body. In 1880 he was elected bishop. He contributed largely to the periodical press, and published several books, of which the best known are: The Young Man Advised (New York, 1855); The Pillars of Truth (1866); and a work on Rhetoric (1869).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Autobiography appeared New York, 1883.

HAVEN, GILBERT: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Malden, Mass., Sept. 19, 1821; d. there Jan. 3, 1880. After his graduation at Wesleyan University in 1846 he taught for several years at the Amenia Seminary, Dutchess county, N. Y. In 1851 he joined the New England Conference, and thereupon preached for two years each at Northampton, Wil­braham, Westfield, Roxbury, and Cambridge. In 1861 he was commissioned chaplain of the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, but resigned after three months on account of ill health. After spending a year in Europe he resumed his ministerial work as pastor of the North Russell Street Church, Boston. In 1867 he became editor of Zion's Herald, Boston, a post that he filled for the next five years. On May 24, 1872, he was elected bishop. He made Atlanta his official residence, but traveled exten­sively throughout the country. In the interest of missions he visited Mexico in 1873 and Liberia in 1876. He was active in the educational work of the denomination, particularly among the freedmen of the South, and by his wise counsels and liberal gifts contributed largely to the success of Clark University, at Atlanta. His more important works are: The Pilgrim's Wallet (Boston, 1865), sketches of travels in Europe; National Sermons (1869); Life o f Father Taylor (New York, 1871); and Our Next Door Neighbor (1875), sketches of Mexico.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Prentiss, Life of Gilbert Haven, New York, 1883; E. Wentworth,,Gilbert Haven, ib. 1880.

HAVERGAL, FRANCES RIDLEY: English hymn­writer; b. at Astley (9 m. n.w. of Worcester),

Worcestershire, Dec. 14, 1836; d. near Swansea,

South Wales, June 3, 1879. She was a daughter of the Rev. W. H. Havergal, for many years rector of


Hawaiian Islands

St. Nicholas, Worcester. She attended a private school at Worcester, and afterward spent a year in the Luisenschule, Diisseldorf, Germany, attaining proficiency in several modern languages, and also in Greek and Hebrew, which she learned in order to be able to read the Bible in the original. She began writing verse at the age of seven, and soon her poems found their way into Good Words and other religious periodicals. Her hymns, for which she also furnished the tunes, are now included in all collec­tions, the most familiar being the deeply suggestive consecration hymn, " Take my life and let it be." Her own life was spent in doing aggressive religious and philanthropic work, and in singing the love of God and the way of salvation. She published sev­eral collections of poems and hymns, including: The Ministry of Song (London, 1870); Under the Surface (1874); Loyal Responses (1878); and Under His Shadow (1879). Her prose writings include: Morning Bells and Little Pillows (1875); My King (1877); Kept for the Master's Use (1879); and Swiss Letters (1881). Her Poetical Works were edited by her sister, M. V. G. Havergal (2 vols., 1884).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Her Letters were edited by her sister, M. V. G. Havergal, London, 1885. Consult: M. V. G. Haver­gal, Memorials of Prances Ridley Haverpal, ib. 1880; E. Davies, Prances Ridley Havergal; Sketch of her Life, Reading, Mass., 1884; S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 189 et passim, New York, 1886; Miss L. B. Earle, Miss Haverpal'a Story, Boston, 1887; M. V. G. Havergal, Au­tobiography, with Journals and Letters, London, 1887; G. F. Bushnell, Miss Havergal'a Secret, New York, 1894; C. Bullock, The Sisters . . . Prances Ridley Havergal, Maria y. G. Havergal, London, 1896; N. Smith, Hymns historically Famous,, chap. xxvii., Chicago, 1901; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 496 498.



Area, Population, Extent First Missionary Work

(§ 1). (§ 3).

History (§ 2). Missions. 1827 62 (§ 4).

Missions since 1862 (§ 5).

The Hawaiian Islands are a group of five large

and three small volcanic islands in the north Pacific

Ocean, latitude 18050' 2305' north, and

I. Area, longitude 154040' 160050' west, ex­

Population, tending from northwest to southeast

Extent. for 350 miles, and having a total land

area of 5,900 square miles, and a popu­

lation (1900) of 154,001. Hawaii, the largest and

most southern of the islands, is 70 by 90 miles in

extent; area, 4,015 square miles; population (1900),

46,843; elevation, 13,835 feet. . Maui, midway

between Hawaii and Oahu, is 48 miles long, and

from 8 to 25 miles wide; area, 620 square miles;

population (1900), 24,797; elevation, 10,000 feet.

Lanai (area, 135 square miles) and Kahulawe (area,

69 square miles) are two small islands near Maui.

Molokai, 8 miles northwest, is 40 by 7 miles

in extent; area, 190 square miles; population

(1900), 2,504. Oahu, 23 miles north of. Molokai, is

46 by 25 miles in extent; area, 530 square miles;

population (1900), 58,504. Honolulu, the capital

and largest city of the group, is located on the south­

east coast. Seventy eight miles northwest is Kauai,

25 by 22 miles in extent; area, 544 square miles;

population (1900), 20,562. At the extreme north

of the group and west of Kauai is the small island

of Niihau; area, 97 square miles; population (1900), 172. Distances from various world ports are: San Francisco, 2,100 miles; Panama, 4,720 miles; Fiji, 2,700; Samoa, 2,290; Auckland, 3,810; Hongkong, 4,920; Yokohama, 3,400; Guam, 3,300; Manila via n.e. cape, 4,890.

The islands were discovered in 1542 by Juan Gae­tano, a Spanish navigator, and rediscovered by Captain James Cook on Jan. 18, 1778.

2. History. He estimated the population to be

about 350,000. The Hawaiian people

were probably of Aryan stock, migrating from

central Asia through India, Sumatra, and Java, and

scattering through the various island groups of the

South Pacific. The first known arrival was in the

sixth century, when a chief named Nanaula came

with a party from Tahiti and Samoa, followed by

others, bringing with them their priests and gods,

with all their attendant evils of polygamy, infanti­

cide, the offering of human sacrifices, and a most

oppressive taboo system. During the tenth and

eleventh centuries communication with the south

was frequent, but near the close of the twelfth cen­

tury it ceased. Then came Gaetano in 1542, fol­

lowed by other white men at infrequent intervals,

till with the visit of Captain Cook, in 1778, and

his revisit, Jan. 17, 1779, which ended in his tragic

death at Kaawaloa, Feb. 14, 1779, the Hawaiian

Islands began their part in the history of the

world. At this time they were a number of in­

dependent principalities, under feudal authority;

during the next few years rival chiefs were con­

tinually fighting for supremacy. These wars

culminated in a victory for Kamehameha, a chief

of Hawaii, in 1795, and he became ruler of the

united islands under the title of Kamehameha I.

He thoroughly organized the government, encour­

aging agriculture and all known industries, while

vigorously suppressing robbery and murder, and

forbidding the offering of human sacrifices. He

nevertheless maintained the most rigid ceremonial

etiquette, and enforced the taboo. On his death, in

1819, his son, Liholiho, succeeded him as Kame­

hameha II., and he carried to a greater extent the

reforms begun by his father. With the strong

influence of the dowager queen and the high priest

back of him, he decreed the destruction of temples

and idols, and abolished the taboo. Thus were the

people in the peculiar position of being without a

religion. At this time the population numbered

not more than 150,000, and the numerous aban­

doned villages gave the impression that fully two­

thirds of the people had disappeared. The prev­

alence of new and virulent diseases, the wars of

Kamehameha I., and the practise of human sacrifice

and infanticide, all contributed to this result.

Interest in these islands had been awakened in 1810. by the arrival in New England of several Hawaiian boys who had escaped from

3. First the tribal wars of Kamehameha I.

Missionary Among them was Henry Obookaiah,

Work. who, becoming a Christian, earnestly

desired an education that he might go

back and teach his people. He made an attempt

to reduce the Hawaiian language to writing, begin­

ning a spelling book, dictionary, and grammar, and

Hawaiian Islands THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 174


also translated the Book of Genesis. His death in 1817, with this desire unfulfilled, led Hiram Bing­ham (q. v.) and Asa Thurston to offer their services to the American Board for work in these islands. They were joined by fifteen others, and on Oct. 15, 1819, the Mission Church of Hawaii was formed in Boston, with seventeen members, three of whom were Hawaiian boys, and on Oct. 23 they sailed on the brig Thaddeus, arriving at the islands March 30, 1820, to find the taboo abolished, temples and idols destroyed, and the priesthood shorn of its diabolical power. In spite of all his sweeping reforms, Kame­hameha did not want the missionaries, or rather the white foreigners told him he did not; and it was with reluctance that he finally granted them permission to remain one year, as an experiment. They settled on Hawaii, Oahu, and Maui. Thus the first Christian Church in the Hawaiian Islands was transplanted from New Lngland. Eight months previously, however, a Roman Catholic priest on the French discovery ship Uranie had baptized the prime minister, Kalanimoku, and Boki, his younger brother. The former heartily welcomed the new­comers, and used his influence in their favor. The king was friendly and was one of the first to learn to read. On his death, in England, in 1824, the government passed into the hands of Kaahumanu, as queen regent, and the prime minister, Kalanimoku, both of whom were friendly, as were the majority of the high chiefs. This year several notable events occurred, all favorable to the mission. The chiefs agreed to observe the Sabbath, the ten cmmand­ments were taken as the basis of government, and the Princess Kapiolani made her memorable visit to the crater of Kilauea, defying the power of the fire­goddess Pele. Kaahumanu, the queen dowager, traveled to all parts of her kingdom, commanding the people to assist the "Kumus" and accept their teaching. Though the missionaries had large congre­gations and schools at all their stations, yet in 1825 there were but ten members in the native church.

In 1827 the first Roman Catholic missionaries arrived, but they were refused residence. They remained till 1831, when the govern­4. Missions, ment provided a vessel in which they

x827 62. were taken to California. The work

of the American mission was vigorously

prosecuted; reenforcements were sent out, more

schools opened, the printing press busily employed,

and a strong Evangelistic work carried on. For a

quarter of a century the American Mission was the

dominating influence in a rapidly increasing foreign

population; nevertheless such was the care exer­

cised that in 1836 there were but twenty churches,

with a membership of but 1,168. Then came the

revivals of 1836 39; during these three years, out of

a population of 125,000, nearly 20,000 members

were received into the church, the greater number

under the ministry of Titus Coan (q.v.). During

these years Messrs. Richards, Thurston, Bing­

ham, and Bishop had been translating the Bible,

and it was given to the people in 1839. This year

the French government intervened in behalf of the

Roman Catholics, and a mission was established by

them; in 1843 more priests were sent, and the

cathedral in Honolulu was dedicated. In 1850

Mormon missionaries arrived. The Hawaiian churches of the pioneer mission increased in strength and character; in 1852 they united with the Amer­ican Board in sending missionaries to Micronesia and the Marquesas; and as a result the general meeting of the missionary fathers became the Hawaiian Evangelical Association in 1854. In re­sponse to repeated requests of churchmen resident in the group, in 1862 a mission was established by the Church of England.

At this time there were 59 native churches, having a membership of 53,583; representatives of these churches were admitted to the Hawai­g. Missions ian Evangelical Association, having since x862: equal status with the missionaries, and the Hawaiian board was formed as its executive agency. The mission had become a col­ony, and it was becoming increasingly evident that the work could no longer be continued along the old lines. Accordingly, in 1863, the American Board decided to send no more missionaries, to grant autonomy to the churches, and to place them in the care of Hawaiian pastors. Coincident with this process of development in the native church, the Hawaiian nation had been passing through a re­markable period of evolution. Bill of rights was succeeded by constitution, the granting of property rights, the enactment of just laws, and all the out­ward evidences of a Christian civilization. The year 1863 marked the climax of prosperity for the Hawaiian Church. The Kamehameha dynasty passed; missionary leaders died, and their places remained unfilled. During the reigns of Kalakaua and Liliokulani new vices were born, and a fresh and vigorous alien paganism asserted itself; the clash came, and the nation lost its sovereignty, and the Church declined. But all was not lost; if the missionaries had died, they left behind them a goodly band of descendants who loyally helped their Hawaiian brethren. Churches for the white races were formed, to become the nucleus for a second great advance; the battle was pushed in new direc­tions; missions for Portuguese, Chinese, and Japan­ese were instituted and carried on with vigor; and at the jubilee of the mission in 1870, Hawaii was declared to be no longer missionary ground, but an Evangelized nation. Missionary and philanthropic work progressed henceforth along denominational lines; and after 1870 came the Methodist Episcopal, Christian, Lutheran, and Adventist churches, the Reorganized Mormon Church, the Salvation Army, Theosophists, and Buddhists. When the islands were annexed by the United States in 1898 a new era of home missions began, characterized by the dominance of the English language in all missionary activities, and for the first time in forty five years the membership in the Hawaiian Church has notably increased in spite of the decline in population. At the census of 1900 there were 27,000 Protestant communicants, 30,000 Roman Catholics, 6,000 Mor­mons, 55,000 Buddhists, 25,000 Confucianists, and 11,000 unclassified. THEODORA CROSBY BLI$B.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Bingham, Residence of _*i Years in the

Sandwich Islands, Hartford, 1847; 1'. N. Staley , Five

Years' Church Work in Hawaii, London, 1868; R. An­

derson. The Hawaiian Islands Boston, 1865; idem, Sand­

wich Islands Mission, ib. 1870; J. C. Bartlett, Historical

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