HASTINGS, THOMAS SAMUEL: Presbyterian; b. at Utica, N. Y., Aug. 28, 1827. He was educated at Hamilton College (B.A., 1848) and Union Theological Seminary (1851). He then held pastorates at Mendham, N. J. (1852 56), and West Presbyterian Church, New York City (1856 81). From 1881 to 1904 he was professor of sacred rhetoric in Union Theological Seminary, of which he had already been a trustee since 1864, and president from 1888 to 1897. In 1904 he became emeritus professor, but continued to lecture on pastoral theology. He collaborated with his father, Thomas Hastings, in the preparation of Church Melodies
Psalms and Hymns, with Music for Congregations (New York, 1858).
HATCH, ABRAM:Mormon bishop; b. at Lincoln, Vt., Jan. 3, 1830. He was educated in the public schools of Lincoln and Bristol, but while still a boy went to Nauvoo, Ill., where the entire family embraced Mormonism. He studied Mormon theology at Utah with Brigham Young, and from 1864 to 1867 was in Great Britain, working in the interests of Mormonism. Shortly after his return to the United States he was appointed bishop, with his residence at Heber City, Utah, and held this office until his resignation in 1900. He was for four years a probate judge, and for twenty three years a member of the Utah Legislature. Since 1900 he has been engaged in farming and in business.
HATCH, EDWIN:English theologian; b. at Derby Sept. 4, 1835; d. at Oxford Nov. 10, 1889. He was graduated at Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1857, was classical professor in Trinity College, Toronto, Canada, rector of a high school at Quebec, and fellow of McGill University, Montreal, during the years 1859 66. From 1881 to 1885 he was vice principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and in 1883 became rector of Purleigh, Essex, though he continued to reside at Oxford. In 1884 he was appointed secretary of the boards of the faculties; for some years before his death he was the editor of the University Gazette; and in 1881 he published the official Students' Handbook to the University and Colleges o f Oxford. In 1880 the university appointed him Greenfield lecturer on the Septuagint,
Hatch THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 188
Hauck in which capacity he delivered one lecture each term
for about four years. In 1883 the delegates of the
Common University Fund founded for him a lec
tureship in church history, which he held up to the
time of his death. He delivered the Bampton lec
tures in 1880, and the Hibbert lectures in 1888.
His first book was published in London in 1881, as
the outcome of the Bampton lectures of 1880, on The
Organization o f the Early Christian Churches (Germ.
transl. by A. Harnack, Giessen, 1883). Hatch
pursued the same topic in The Growth of Church
Institutions (London, 1887; Germ. transl. by A.
Harnack, Giessen, 1888). The year 1889 brought
his Essays in Biblical Greek, published at Oxford,
which dealt especially with the Septuagint. The
Hibbert lectures above referred to were published
by A. M. Fairbairn after Hatch's death under the
title The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon
mankind. Chronicles, Esther, and particularly Judith betray this ethical retrogression.
The " vindictive " or " imprecatory " Psalms (such as xli., lxix., cix.) undoubtedly invoke malediction upon the wicked; though by the wicked morally evil and wilfully impenitent men are meant. In such instances the individual cause is frequently identified with the cause of Yahweh.
According to the New Testament, God's love in Christ has overcome the natural enmity of man to deity, although this enmity is still in existence (James iv. 4; Rom. v.10). Passages like Matt. xxii. 44 indicate judicial punishment of this enmity. But grace precedes judgment. Consequently love is the permeating principle of Christian ethics for the conquest of all manner of enmity. Jesus openly declared this in Matt. v. 43 aqq., it is illustrated in Luke x. 26 aqq., and practically applied in Luke ix. 54 sqq. It is an error to suppose Christian ethics in an absolute opposition to heathen ethics in this respect; but the new feature of Christian ethics is the universal requirement of loving one's enemies.
Christian ethics enlarges upon the Scriptural foundation. The spirit of Christ is to operate among human families in the nature of leaven. But much remains to be overcome; certain peoples have not yet entirely renounced blood vengeance; nor must contemporary national Chauvinism, race hatred, and class antipathies be forgotten. The ancient world produced virtuosi of hate, such as Nero or Caligula; and the modern world knows a hatred of Christ which leads to the persecution of his followers (Matt. v. 10 12). ARNOLD Rt?EGG.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Cremer, Biblico theological Lexicon of the New Testament, s.v. 'eXepos, Edinburgh, 1888; DB, ii.
308 309; DCG, i. 704 708 (contains good list of refer
ences); and, in general, works on ethics.
HATFIELD, EDWIN FRANCIS: American Pres
byterian; b. at Elizabethtown, N. J., Jan. 9, 1807;
d. at Summit, N. J., Sept. 22, 1883. He studied at
Middlebury College, Vt. (B.A., 1829), and at An
dover Theological Seminary (1829 31). He was pas
tor of the Second Presbyterian Church, St. Louis,
(1832 35), of the Seventh Presbyterian Church,
New York (1835 56), and of the North Presbyterian
Church, New York (1856 63). He was stated clerk
of the New School Assembly (1846 70), and of the
united body (1870 83), and was elected moderator
in 1883. In 1866 he was a member of the Reunion
Committee of the New School Assembly. He was
special agent for the Union Theological Seminary
1864 66, and again 1870 73, and bequeathed his
library of 6,000 volumes to that institution. His
more important works are: Memoir o f Elihu yY.
Baldwin (New York, 1843); St. Helena and the
Cape o f Good Hope (1852); The History o f Elizabeth
N. J. (1868); and The Church Hymn Book, with
HATTEM, POlYTIAAN VAN, HATTE3dISTS:A Dutch sect and their founder. The latter was born at Bergen op Zoom (15 m. n. of Antwerp) Jan. 16, 1641; d. there Sept., 1706. He studied theology in Leyden, and in 1667 was licensed to preach in the Reformed Church He spent some time abroad,
The Hague, and influenced larger circles by an ex
tended correspondence. Among his adherents, how
ever, there soon arose divergent views and devia
tions from the doctrines of Hattem, and by 1760
the Hattemists had disappeared.
Hattem has been frequently considered a disciple
of Spinoza, but unjustly. He was no philosopher,
but intent primarily upon the advancement of prac
tical piety. He preached a passive Christianity.
Man must not seek his salvation, because in that case
he seeks himself; he must acknowledge ,with a
grateful heart that Christ has sought and found him.
But he can not believe this unless God grants him
faith, and it shows the greatest ingratitude not to
recognize the love of God by which he has given
himself to man. Only the regenerated has been
purified of this ingratitude and is able to love God
and his fellow man. With regeneration there orig
inates a clear perception of divine truth. The re
generate, in virtue of his faith, is assured of his
salvation and therefore need not deplore any longer
his sinful condition, for he is one with God and his
Son, so that by faith he sees himself " in the Son of
God." He is not more inclined toward evil, but
fulfils the will of God spontaneously. This is not
the result of struggle and effort, but an outcome of
the work of the Holy Spirit within the heart. Thus
God becomes everything and man nothing.
(S. D. vAN VEEN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The most important of Hattem's works,
ed. J. Roggeveen, appeared vol. i., The Hague, 1718,
vols. ii. iii., Amsterdam, 1719, vol. iv., n.p., 1727. On
Hattem consult: W. C. van Manen, in De Gida, iii (1885),
357 429, iv (1886), 85 115; idem, in Archief voor Neder
landache Kerkgeaehiedenie, i. 273 348. On the Hattem
ists consult: T. Hasieus, De nupere Schoriatarum in Belgio
secta eiuaque auctoribua relatio, in Museum hiat. phil. theolog.
Bremenee, ii. 144 172; J. Borsius, in Nederlandach
Archief voor kerkeliyke Geachiedenia, i (1841), 287 362;
J. van Leeuwen, in the same, viii (1848), 57 169; A. W.
W ybrands, in Archief voor Nederlandache Kerkgeachiedenia,
i. 51 128; KL, v. 1527; J. L. von Mosheim, Institutes
of Ecclesiastical History, ed. W. Stubbs, iii. 390, London,
HATTO OF MAINZ: Archbishop of Mainz; b.,
probably in Swabia, about the middle of the ninth
century; d. May 15, 913, although the place of his
death is unknown. He was educated either at
Ellwangen or Fulda, and in 889 was elected abbot
of Reichenau. In the following year he became
abbot of Ellwangen, and two years later, while still
retaining these and other benefices, he was conse
crated archbishop of Mainz at the desire of King
Amulf, to whom he had rendered important serv
ices. He twice accompanied Arnulf to Italy (894, 896), and on the latter occasion received from Pope Formosua the pallium, and relics of St. George for his monastery of Reichenau. When Arnulf died and his young son, Louis the Child, ascended the throne in 900, Hatto's power became still greater. Together with Adelbero, bishop of Augsburg, he acted as regent throughout the brief reign of Louis (900911), devoting his chief energies to the welfare of the kingdom and the preservation of peace; and his influence suffered little diminution at the hands of Conrad I., whom he himself had proposed as the successor of Louis.
About the name of so prominent a statesman and
ecclesiastic a mass of legend soon grew up, and
many tales were current of dark deeds and plans in
which he was said to have been involved. He was
said to have been the chief character in the treach
erous murder of Count Adalbert of Badenberg, a
rebel against the king, whom the archbishop induced
tradition that Hatto, unable to gain revenge openly,
strangled Henry with a chain of gold. On the other
hand, he is represented in many sources as irre
proachable in affairs of both Church and State. He
convened the important Synod of Tribur (895),
built the church of St. George at Reichenau, and
beautified the cathedral at Mainz. Concerning
his death there were many traditions. According to
Ekkehard of St. Gall, he died of " Italian fever ";
according to Thietmar, his death was sudden; and
according to Widukind, he expired of chagrin at the
failure of his plans against Henry of Saxony. Later
traditions relate that he was killed by lightning, or
snatched up by the devil and hurled into the cra
ter of Etna. The most popular legend, however,
represents him as eaten by mice in his tower at
Bingen on the Rhine because of his cruelty to the
poor. (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A letter of his to Pope John IX. is in MPL, exxxi.; J. F. B6hmer, Repeats archiepiecoporum Moguntinenaium, i., pp. xxvii. Sqq., 84 eqq., Innsbruck, 1877. Consult: F. L. Dammert, Hatto L, Programm, Freiburg, 1864 65. On the legends: S. Baring Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 447 470. London, 1872; C. J. C. Will, in Monatsechrift fur rhein westpheliache Geschichtaforachung, i (1875), 205 eqq.; Hauck, KD, iii. 7, 10 11, et passim.
HATTO OF REICHENAU AND BASEL. See HArrO.
HATTO OF VERCELLI. See ATro.
HAUCK, ALBERT: German Lutheran; b. at Wassertrudingen (19 m. s. of Ansbach) Dec. 9, 1845. He was educated at the universities of Erlangen and Berlin from 1864 to 1868, and after being pastor at Frankenheim from 1875 to 1878 was appointed associate professor of theology at Erlangen, where he became full professor four years later. Since 1889 he has been professor of church history at Leipsic, where he was rector in 1898 99 and dean in 1904 05. In theology he is an Evangelical of the scientific school. He has written: TertuWans Leben and Schriften (Erlangen, 1877); Die Bisehofswahlen unter den Merowingern (1883); Die Entstehung des
Haug THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 170
Havelberg Christustypus in der abendldndischen Kunst (Heidel
berg, 1880); and Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands
(4 vols., Leipsic, 1886 1905), in addition to a
number of briefer contributions. In 1880 he suc
ceeded G. T. Plitt as joint editor of the second edi
tion of the Herzog Plitt Realeneykloplidie, and on
the death of J. J. Herzog in 1882 became sole editor
of the encyclopedia, which he carried to a conclu
sion in 1888. He was sole editor of the third edi
tion, 1896 1909, the basis of the present work.
HAUG, JOHANN HEINRICH: German mystic;
d. at Berleburg (28 m. sx.e. of Arnsberg), West
phalia, 1753. He first appears at Strasburg, where
he received his master's degree, and was expelled
from the city by the church authorities for holding
a conventicle of Philadelphians (see LEAD, JANE)
and other mystic Separatists. Later he found refuge
in the castle of Count Casimir at Berleburg, where
about as lay preachers; and the general result was
profitable to the State Church, although here and
there instances of spiritual extravagance and fanati
Hauge's was a highly practical nature; he took
great interest in trade and industry, and promoted
progress in these fields also. His religious activity
encountered strong opposition from the clergy, who in a rationalistic age looked coldly on the feelings which inspired the peasant lay preacher. To meet the charge of vagrancy brought against himself and his friends, he stationed his friends at many different places in the country, finding for them good properties at low rates, or instructing them to carry on various industrial pursuits, that they might entertain the traveling lay preachers, and that the process of edification might be carried on under a " house father's " supervision. The result was a sort of chain of small brotherhoods, closely interlinked.
In 1804 Hauge was arrested in Christiania, and
remained in prison till 1811, with the exception of
seven months in 1809, when he was released to
promote, with his practical insight, the manufacture
of salt. In Dec., 1814, he was condemned to two
years of hard labor on the charge of violating the
conventicle act. He appealed to the supreme court,
which commuted the sentence to a heavy fine and
the payment of costs. After his release from prison
he lived quietly at Bredtvedt. In his " testament
to his friends " he advised them to affiliate with the
church pastors and the existing ecclesiastical order.
The voluntary activity of laymen which Hauge
initiated has wrought much for the church life in
Norway. Norwegian immigrants to the United
States sympathizing with his views have organ
ized " Hauge's Synod " in the Northwest (see Lu
THERANS). T. G. B. ODLAND.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief work is A. C. Bang, Hans Nielsen
Hauge og hans i3amtid, Christiania, 1875, substantially reproduced in Zeitachrift frr Diakonie, 1880. A complete bibliography of Hauge literature is by J. B. Halvorsen, Norsk Porfatterlezikon, ii. 571 sqq., cf. i. 163, iii. 213, iv. 330, 1814 80.
HAUPT, ERICH: German Protestant; b. at
Stralsund (149 m. n.n.e. of Berlin) July 8, 1841.
He was educated at the University of Berlin (1858
1861), and after teaching in a gymnasium at Kolberg
was called to Greifswald in the same capacity, and
since 1888 has been professor of New Testament
exegesis at Halle. In 1884 he became councilor
of the consistory at Stettin, and at,Magdeburg in
1902. He has written: Der erste Brief des Johannea
(Kolberg, 1869); Die alttestamentlichen Zitate in den
vier Evangelien (1871); Johannes derTdufer (Giiters
loh, 1874); Der Sonntag and die B7bel (Hamburg,
1877); Die Kirche and die akademische Lehrfreiheit
(Kiel, 1881); Die Bedeutung der heiligen Schri ft far
die evangelischen Christen (Bielefeld, 1891); Die es
chatologischen Reden Jesu (Berlin, 1895); Zum Ver
atdndnis des Apostolats im Neuen Testament (Halle,
1896); and Die Gefangenschdftsbriefe des Paulus
(Gottingen, 1897). He has likewise been a mem
ber of the editorial staff of the Deutsch: evange
lische Blotter since 1901, and of the Theologische
Studien and Kritiken since 1902.
HAUPT, PAUL: American Orientalist, layman; b. at Gorlitz (62 m. e. of Dresden), Germany, Nov. 25, 1858. He was educated at the universities of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1878) and Berlin. He became privat docent is the University of Gottingen in 1880
1'71 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ga%lberg and three years later was appointed associate pro
fessor. He retained this position until 1889, al
though he left Germany in 1883 to accept the pro
fessorship of Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins
University, continuing to lecture at Gbttingen in
the summer. He is director of the Oriental semi
nary in Johns Hopkins. In theology he is an ad
herent of the advanced critical school. One of
his latest propositions (1908) is to the effect that
Jesus Christ was an Aryan, not a Semite. He is
the editor of The Polychrome Bible (two series, one
of the Hebrew text, and the other of the English
translation; Baltimore, Md., 1893 aqq.); and is
one of the editors of the Johns Hopkins Contribu
tions to Assyriology and Comparative Semitic Gram
mar (1889 aqq.), as well as of the Beitrdge zurAssyri
ologie and semitischen Sprachwissenscha ft (Leipsic,
1889 aqq.), and of the Assyriologische Bibliothek
(1881 sqq.). He has written: Die sumerischen
Familiengesetze in Keilschrift, Transcription and
Uebersetzung (Leipsic, 1879); Akkadische and su
merische Keilschrifttexte (2 parts, 1881 82); Die
akkadische Sprache (Berlin, 1883); Das babylonische
Nimrodepos (2 parts, Leipsic, 1884 91); The Book
o f Canticles (Chicago, 1902); Koheleth (Leipsic,
1905); The Book of Ecclesiastes (Baltimore, 1905);
Hohelied Salomos (Leipsic, 1907).
HAUREAU, o"513"o', JEAN BARTHiLEMYFrench Roman Catholic; b. in Paris Nov. 9, 1812; d. there Apr. 29, 1896. He was educated at the Coll6ge Louis le Grand and the Collbge Bourbon, and after being a journalist for several years, became in 1838 editor of the Courrier de la Sarthe at Le Mans, where he was also municipal librarian. In 1845 he returned to Paris, where he was keeper in the Bibliothbque Nationale until the coup d'6tat of 1852. He then resigned his office, but in 1862 was appointed librarian of the Imprimerie Nationale, of which he was director from 1870 to 1882, when he retired from active life. Among his numerous writings, which made his reputation as the great authority on medixval history, special mention may be made of his Critique des hypothbses mEtaPhysiques de Mantis, de Pblage et de l' id6alisme transcendental de Saint Augustin (Le Mans, 1840); Manuel du clergE, ou examen de l'ouvrage de M. Bouvier, i;vbque du Mans: Dissertalio in sextum decalogi prteceptum (1844); De la philosophie scholastique (2 vols., Paris, 1850); Frangois Premier et sa cour (1853); Charlemagne et sa cour (1854); Hugues de Saint Victor (1859); Bernard Dblicieuz et l' inquisition albigeoise (1877); Les MElanges pobtiques d'Hildebert de Lavardin (1882); Des Pobmes latins attribues h Saint Bernard (1890); Le Pobme adressd par Ab6lard 2c son fall Astralabe (1893); and Le " Mathematicus " de Bernard Silvestris et la " Passio Sanctae Agnetis " de Pierre Riga (1895). He likewise prepared the greater portions of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth volumes of the Gallia chrastiana in provincial ecclesiastical distributa (Paris, 1856 65), and edited Notices et extraits de quelques manuscrits Wins de la Bibliothbque Nationals (6 vols., 1890 93).