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HASTINGS, THOMAS SAMUEL: Presbyterian; b. at Utica, N. Y., Aug. 28, 1827. He was educated at Hamilton College (B.A., 1848) and Union Theo­logical Seminary (1851). He then held pastorates at Mendham, N. J. (1852 56), and West Presby­terian Church, New York City (1856 81). From 1881 to 1904 he was professor of sacred rhetoric in Union Theological Seminary, of which he had al­ready been a trustee since 1864, and president from 1888 to 1897. In 1904 he became emeritus pro­fessor, but continued to lecture on pastoral the­ology. He collaborated with his father, Thomas Hastings, in the preparation of Church Melodies

Psalms and Hymns, with Music for Congregations (New York, 1858).

HATCH, ABRAM: Mormon bishop; b. at Lin­coln, Vt., Jan. 3, 1830. He was educated in the public schools of Lincoln and Bristol, but while still a boy went to Nauvoo, Ill., where the entire family embraced Mormonism. He studied Mormon theol­ogy at Utah with Brigham Young, and from 1864 to 1867 was in Great Britain, working in the inter­ests of Mormonism. Shortly after his return to the United States he was appointed bishop, with his residence at Heber City, Utah, and held this office until his resignation in 1900. He was for four years a probate judge, and for twenty three years a member of the Utah Legislature. Since 1900 he has been engaged in farming and in business.
HATCH, EDWIN: English theologian; b. at Derby Sept. 4, 1835; d. at Oxford Nov. 10, 1889. He was graduated at Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1857, was classical professor in Trinity College, Toronto, Canada, rector of a high school at Quebec, and fellow of McGill University, Montreal, during the years 1859 66. From 1881 to 1885 he was vice principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and in 1883 became rector of Purleigh, Essex, though he continued to reside at Oxford. In 1884 he was appointed secretary of the boards of the faculties; for some years before his death he was the editor of the University Gazette; and in 1881 he published the official Students' Handbook to the University and Colleges o f Oxford. In 1880 the university ap­pointed him Greenfield lecturer on the Septuagint,



in which capacity he delivered one lecture each term

for about four years. In 1883 the delegates of the

Common University Fund founded for him a lec­

tureship in church history, which he held up to the

time of his death. He delivered the Bampton lec­

tures in 1880, and the Hibbert lectures in 1888.

His first book was published in London in 1881, as

the outcome of the Bampton lectures of 1880, on The

Organization o f the Early Christian Churches (Germ.

transl. by A. Harnack, Giessen, 1883). Hatch

pursued the same topic in The Growth of Church

Institutions (London, 1887; Germ. transl. by A.

Harnack, Giessen, 1888). The year 1889 brought

his Essays in Biblical Greek, published at Oxford,

which dealt especially with the Septuagint. The

Hibbert lectures above referred to were published

by A. M. Fairbairn after Hatch's death under the

title The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon

the Christian Church (London, 1890; Germ. tranal.

by A. Harnack, Freiburg, 1892). His widow and

his brother published also a volume of poems,

Towards Fields of Light. Sacred Poems (London,

1889); a volume of sermons, The God of Hope (1890);

and Memorials of Edwin Hatch (1890). He did a

great deal of work on the Hatch Redpath Concord­

ance to the Septuagint (Oxford, 1891 97).

Hatch was a man of encyclopedic knowledge and

of unbounded mental activity. He had plans enough

to fill a dozen lives. Many a young man at Oxford

felt this as a fetter. Plan after plan for work

offered by others was set aside because Hatch said

that he had made collections or done preparatory

work and the thing would soon be ready to pub­

lish though many of these things never reached the

light. As a Churchman Hatch was rather broad,

and his publications touching the early church

were not at all to the mind of High churchmen.

It was, indeed, his liberal views that prevented

him from advancing more rapidly in. the univer­


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Edwin Hatch, Memorials, edited by his

Brother (S. C. Hatch), London, 1900; Biographical No­

tices, also edited by his brother, are prefixed to the volume

of Sermons, Overcoming the World, New York, 1891;

DNB, xxv. 149 150.

HATE: An emotion in which selfishness manifests

its dislike and abhorrence of some person or some

object, which, if left to itself, it is disposed to

destroy. Hatred of evil, indeed, is the good man's


The Bible has much to say of hate, enmity. and

hostility. In the national and social relationships

of Israel hate naturally played a large part. No

less remarkable, however, is the moral loftiness

toward which the great prophets sought to elevate

God's people. If even in the language the concep­

tions of stranger and enemy run interchangeably

together, it is still emphasized that the stranger

should not be an object of hatred (cf. the Book of

Ruth, and I Kings viii. 41 13). Moderation is ob­

ligatory in relation to one's particular foe (Deut.

xx. 10 sqq.). As the Jewish people became op­

pressed and embittered, it is true, this moral lofti­

ness no longer asserted itself; the national hatred,

inculcated as a virtue, degenerated at last into

fanaticism, and rendered the Jews hateful to all

mankind. Chronicles, Esther, and particularly Ju­dith betray this ethical retrogression.

The " vindictive " or " imprecatory " Psalms (such as xli., lxix., cix.) undoubtedly invoke male­diction upon the wicked; though by the wicked morally evil and wilfully impenitent men are meant. In such instances the individual cause is fre­quently identified with the cause of Yahweh.

According to the New Testament, God's love in Christ has overcome the natural enmity of man to deity, although this enmity is still in existence (James iv. 4; Rom. v.10). Passages like Matt. xxii. 44 indicate judicial punishment of this enmity. But grace precedes judgment. Consequently love is the permeating principle of Christian ethics for the conquest of all manner of enmity. Jesus openly declared this in Matt. v. 43 aqq., it is illustrated in Luke x. 26 aqq., and practically applied in Luke ix. 54 sqq. It is an error to suppose Christian ethics in an absolute opposition to heathen ethics in this respect; but the new feature of Christian ethics is the universal requirement of loving one's enemies.

Christian ethics enlarges upon the Scriptural foundation. The spirit of Christ is to operate among human families in the nature of leaven. But much remains to be overcome; certain peoples have not yet entirely renounced blood vengeance; nor must contemporary national Chauvinism, race hatred, and class antipathies be forgotten. The ancient world produced virtuosi of hate, such as Nero or Caligula; and the modern world knows a hatred of Christ which leads to the persecution of his followers (Matt. v. 10 12). ARNOLD Rt?EGG.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Cremer, Biblico theological Lexicon of the New Testament, s.v. 'eXepos, Edinburgh, 1888; DB, ii.

308 309; DCG, i. 704 708 (contains good list of refer 

ences); and, in general, works on ethics.


byterian; b. at Elizabethtown, N. J., Jan. 9, 1807;

d. at Summit, N. J., Sept. 22, 1883. He studied at

Middlebury College, Vt. (B.A., 1829), and at An­

dover Theological Seminary (1829 31). He was pas­

tor of the Second Presbyterian Church, St. Louis,

(1832 35), of the Seventh Presbyterian Church,

New York (1835 56), and of the North Presbyterian

Church, New York (1856 63). He was stated clerk

of the New School Assembly (1846 70), and of the

united body (1870 83), and was elected moderator

in 1883. In 1866 he was a member of the Reunion

Committee of the New School Assembly. He was

special agent for the Union Theological Seminary

1864 66, and again 1870 73, and bequeathed his

library of 6,000 volumes to that institution. His

more important works are: Memoir o f Elihu yY.

Baldwin (New York, 1843); St. Helena and the

Cape o f Good Hope (1852); The History o f Elizabeth

N. J. (1868); and The Church Hymn Book, with

Tunes (1872).

HATTEM, POlYTIAAN VAN, HATTE3dISTS: A Dutch sect and their founder. The latter was born at Bergen op Zoom (15 m. n. of Antwerp) Jan. 16, 1641; d. there Sept., 1706. He studied theology in Leyden, and in 1667 was licensed to preach in the Reformed Church He spent some time abroad,

and in Nov., 1670, was in Oxford. In 1672 be



became preacher of St. Philipsland in Zealand. He

esteemed a pious and holy life more highly than

purity of doctrine, and in 1680 reports of his het­

erodoxy were circulated. He was tried for heresy,

and in 1683 was deposed from his office, charged

with deviating from the orthodox doctrine in his

views of the essence and punishment of sin, of

redemption and justification, faith, conversion,

gratitude, and prayer. Banished from St. Philips­

land, he settled in Bergen op Zoom, and worked

there quietly under the protection of the civil

authorities. He held conventiclea, and the circle

of his followers gradually expanded and included

some of the respected citizens of the town. He

preached his new gospel even in Amsterdam and

The Hague, and influenced larger circles by an ex­

tended correspondence. Among his adherents, how­

ever, there soon arose divergent views and devia­

tions from the doctrines of Hattem, and by 1760

the Hattemists had disappeared.

Hattem has been frequently considered a disciple

of Spinoza, but unjustly. He was no philosopher,

but intent primarily upon the advancement of prac­

tical piety. He preached a passive Christianity.

Man must not seek his salvation, because in that case

he seeks himself; he must acknowledge ,with a

grateful heart that Christ has sought and found him.

But he can not believe this unless God grants him

faith, and it shows the greatest ingratitude not to

recognize the love of God by which he has given

himself to man. Only the regenerated has been

purified of this ingratitude and is able to love God

and his fellow man. With regeneration there orig­

inates a clear perception of divine truth. The re­

generate, in virtue of his faith, is assured of his

salvation and therefore need not deplore any longer

his sinful condition, for he is one with God and his

Son, so that by faith he sees himself " in the Son of

God." He is not more inclined toward evil, but

fulfils the will of God spontaneously. This is not

the result of struggle and effort, but an outcome of

the work of the Holy Spirit within the heart. Thus

God becomes everything and man nothing.

(S. D. vAN VEEN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The most important of Hattem's works,

ed. J. Roggeveen, appeared vol. i., The Hague, 1718,

vols. ii. iii., Amsterdam, 1719, vol. iv., n.p., 1727. On

Hattem consult: W. C. van Manen, in De Gida, iii (1885),

357 429, iv (1886), 85 115; idem, in Archief voor Neder­

landache Kerkgeaehiedenie, i. 273 348. On the Hattem­

ists consult: T. Hasieus, De nupere Schoriatarum in Belgio

secta eiuaque auctoribua relatio, in Museum hiat. phil. theolog.

Bremenee, ii. 144 172; J. Borsius, in Nederlandach

Archief voor kerkeliyke Geachiedenia, i (1841), 287 362;

J. van Leeuwen, in the same, viii (1848), 57 169; A. W.

W ybrands, in Archief voor Nederlandache Kerkgeachiedenia,

i. 51 128; KL, v. 1527; J. L. von Mosheim, Institutes

of Ecclesiastical History, ed. W. Stubbs, iii. 390, London,


HATTO OF MAINZ: Archbishop of Mainz; b.,

probably in Swabia, about the middle of the ninth

century; d. May 15, 913, although the place of his

death is unknown. He was educated either at

Ellwangen or Fulda, and in 889 was elected abbot

of Reichenau. In the following year he became

abbot of Ellwangen, and two years later, while still

retaining these and other benefices, he was conse­

crated archbishop of Mainz at the desire of King

Amulf, to whom he had rendered important serv 

ices. He twice accompanied Arnulf to Italy (894, 896), and on the latter occasion received from Pope Formosua the pallium, and relics of St. George for his monastery of Reichenau. When Arnulf died and his young son, Louis the Child, ascended the throne in 900, Hatto's power became still greater. To­gether with Adelbero, bishop of Augsburg, he acted as regent throughout the brief reign of Louis (900­911), devoting his chief energies to the welfare of the kingdom and the preservation of peace; and his influence suffered little diminution at the hands of Conrad I., whom he himself had proposed as the successor of Louis.

About the name of so prominent a statesman and

ecclesiastic a mass of legend soon grew up, and

many tales were current of dark deeds and plans in

which he was said to have been involved. He was

said to have been the chief character in the treach­

erous murder of Count Adalbert of Badenberg, a

rebel against the king, whom the archbishop induced

to surrender under promise of protection. While

Hatto was accompanying Conrad to the Rhine in

912, his Thuringian and Saxon estates were attacked

by Duke Henry of Saxony, thus giving rise to the

tradition that Hatto, unable to gain revenge openly,

strangled Henry with a chain of gold. On the other

hand, he is represented in many sources as irre­

proachable in affairs of both Church and State. He

convened the important Synod of Tribur (895),

built the church of St. George at Reichenau, and

beautified the cathedral at Mainz. Concerning

his death there were many traditions. According to

Ekkehard of St. Gall, he died of " Italian fever ";

according to Thietmar, his death was sudden; and

according to Widukind, he expired of chagrin at the

failure of his plans against Henry of Saxony. Later

traditions relate that he was killed by lightning, or

snatched up by the devil and hurled into the cra­

ter of Etna. The most popular legend, however,

represents him as eaten by mice in his tower at

Bingen on the Rhine because of his cruelty to the

poor. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A letter of his to Pope John IX. is in MPL, exxxi.; J. F. B6hmer, Repeats archiepiecoporum Mogun­tinenaium, i., pp. xxvii. Sqq., 84 eqq., Innsbruck, 1877. Consult: F. L. Dammert, Hatto L, Programm, Freiburg, 1864 65. On the legends: S. Baring Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 447 470. London, 1872; C. J. C. Will, in Monatsechrift fur rhein westpheliache Geschichtaforachung, i (1875), 205 eqq.; Hauck, KD, iii. 7, 10 11, et passim.



HAUCK, ALBERT: German Lutheran; b. at Wassertrudingen (19 m. s. of Ansbach) Dec. 9, 1845. He was educated at the universities of Erlangen and Berlin from 1864 to 1868, and after being pastor at Frankenheim from 1875 to 1878 was appointed associate professor of theology at Erlangen, where he became full professor four years later. Since 1889 he has been professor of church history at Leipsic, where he was rector in 1898 99 and dean in 1904 05. In theology he is an Evangelical of the scientific school. He has written: TertuWans Leben and Schriften (Erlangen, 1877); Die Bisehofswahlen unter den Merowingern (1883); Die Entstehung des



Christustypus in der abendldndischen Kunst (Heidel­

berg, 1880); and Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands

(4 vols., Leipsic, 1886 1905), in addition to a

number of briefer contributions. In 1880 he suc­

ceeded G. T. Plitt as joint editor of the second edi­

tion of the Herzog Plitt Realeneykloplidie, and on

the death of J. J. Herzog in 1882 became sole editor

of the encyclopedia, which he carried to a conclu­

sion in 1888. He was sole editor of the third edi­

tion, 1896 1909, the basis of the present work.


d. at Berleburg (28 m. sx.e. of Arnsberg), West­

phalia, 1753. He first appears at Strasburg, where

he received his master's degree, and was expelled

from the city by the church authorities for holding

a conventicle of Philadelphians (see LEAD, JANE)

and other mystic Separatists. Later he found refuge

in the castle of Count Casimir at Berleburg, where

he remained till his death, directing a Philadelphian

organization that extended throughout western

Germany. In 1730 Count Zinzendorf visited Berle­

burg and sought to unify the diverse elements that

Haug had brought together; but after a few years

the new organization fell to pieces and Haug and

other Separatists reverted to their former customs.

Haug believed that ultimately all things would be

restored, and that Christ would reign on earth for

a thousand years. In the interest of mysticism he

made the revision of the Bible known as the Berle­

burg Bible (see BIBLES, ANNOTATED, I., § 3). He is

said to have been a man of great piety and charming

personality, and was regarded by Count Casimir as

a prophet of God.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. G6bel, Geschichte des chriatlichan Lebens,

iii, 103 eqq., Coblentz, 1860; ADB, s. v.

HAUGE, he'ge, HANS NIELSEN: Norwegian lay

preacher and revivalist; b. on his father's farm,

parish of Tune, south of Smaalenene (the s.e. corner

of Norway, Apr. 3,1771; d. on his estate, Bredtvedt,

near Aker (50 m. n. of Christiania), Mar. 29, 1824.

His childhood and youth were spent on his father's

farm, and his education included no more than the

scanty learning of a Norwegian peasant's son of

the time. In 1796 he was converted, and at once

resolved to preach for the conversion of others.

At the outset, he stayed at home, and spoke of

conversion and the way of salvation to individuals;

but after 1797 he appeared in public as a preacher

of righteousness and an exhorter. From 1798 to

1804 he traveled through Norway, chiefly on foot,

preaching twice and sometimes four times a day,

also writing hundreds of letters and composing

books. His speech was incisive and emotional,

and made a powerful impression on those who

heard him. His writings, though somewhat defect­

ive in form, gained wide circulation among the

people. He roused a popular religious movement

in Norway, many of his friends likewise traveling

about as lay preachers; and the general result was

profitable to the State Church, although here and

there instances of spiritual extravagance and fanati­

cism occurred.

Hauge's was a highly practical nature; he took

great interest in trade and industry, and promoted

progress in these fields also. His religious activity

encountered strong opposition from the clergy, who in a rationalistic age looked coldly on the feelings which inspired the peasant lay preacher. To meet the charge of vagrancy brought against himself and his friends, he stationed his friends at many differ­ent places in the country, finding for them good properties at low rates, or instructing them to carry on various industrial pursuits, that they might entertain the traveling lay preachers, and that the process of edification might be carried on under a " house father's " supervision. The result was a sort of chain of small brotherhoods, closely inter­linked.

In 1804 Hauge was arrested in Christiania, and

remained in prison till 1811, with the exception of

seven months in 1809, when he was released to

promote, with his practical insight, the manufacture

of salt. In Dec., 1814, he was condemned to two

years of hard labor on the charge of violating the

conventicle act. He appealed to the supreme court,

which commuted the sentence to a heavy fine and

the payment of costs. After his release from prison

he lived quietly at Bredtvedt. In his " testament

to his friends " he advised them to affiliate with the

church pastors and the existing ecclesiastical order.

The voluntary activity of laymen which Hauge

initiated has wrought much for the church life in

Norway. Norwegian immigrants to the United

States sympathizing with his views have organ­

ized " Hauge's Synod " in the Northwest (see Lu­


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief work is A. C. Bang, Hans Nielsen

Hauge og hans i3amtid, Christiania, 1875, substantially reproduced in Zeitachrift frr Diakonie, 1880. A complete bibliography of Hauge literature is by J. B. Halvorsen, Norsk Porfatterlezikon, ii. 571 sqq., cf. i. 163, iii. 213, iv. 330, 1814 80.
HAUPT, ERICH: German Protestant; b. at

Stralsund (149 m. n.n.e. of Berlin) July 8, 1841.

He was educated at the University of Berlin (1858­

1861), and after teaching in a gymnasium at Kolberg

in 1864 66, and Treptow in 1866 78, was appointed

professor of theology at Kiel. Five years later he

was called to Greifswald in the same capacity, and

since 1888 has been professor of New Testament

exegesis at Halle. In 1884 he became councilor

of the consistory at Stettin, and at,Magdeburg in

1902. He has written: Der erste Brief des Johannea

(Kolberg, 1869); Die alttestamentlichen Zitate in den

vier Evangelien (1871); Johannes derTdufer (Giiters­

loh, 1874); Der Sonntag and die B7bel (Hamburg,

1877); Die Kirche and die akademische Lehrfreiheit

(Kiel, 1881); Die Bedeutung der heiligen Schri ft far

die evangelischen Christen (Bielefeld, 1891); Die es­

chatologischen Reden Jesu (Berlin, 1895); Zum Ver­

atdndnis des Apostolats im Neuen Testament (Halle,

1896); and Die Gefangenschdftsbriefe des Paulus

(Gottingen, 1897). He has likewise been a mem­

ber of the editorial staff of the Deutsch: evange­

lische Blotter since 1901, and of the Theologische

Studien and Kritiken since 1902.

HAUPT, PAUL: American Orientalist, layman; b. at Gorlitz (62 m. e. of Dresden), Germany, Nov. 25, 1858. He was educated at the universities of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1878) and Berlin. He became privat docent is the University of Gottingen in 1880


and three years later was appointed associate pro­

fessor. He retained this position until 1889, al­

though he left Germany in 1883 to accept the pro­

fessorship of Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins

University, continuing to lecture at Gbttingen in

the summer. He is director of the Oriental semi­

nary in Johns Hopkins. In theology he is an ad­

herent of the advanced critical school. One of

his latest propositions (1908) is to the effect that

Jesus Christ was an Aryan, not a Semite. He is

the editor of The Polychrome Bible (two series, one

of the Hebrew text, and the other of the English

translation; Baltimore, Md., 1893 aqq.); and is

one of the editors of the Johns Hopkins Contribu­

tions to Assyriology and Comparative Semitic Gram­

mar (1889 aqq.), as well as of the Beitrdge zurAssyri­

ologie and semitischen Sprachwissenscha ft (Leipsic,

1889 aqq.), and of the Assyriologische Bibliothek

(1881 sqq.). He has written: Die sumerischen

Familiengesetze in Keilschrift, Transcription and

Uebersetzung (Leipsic, 1879); Akkadische and su­

merische Keilschrifttexte (2 parts, 1881 82); Die

akkadische Sprache (Berlin, 1883); Das babylonische

Nimrodepos (2 parts, Leipsic, 1884 91); The Book

o f Canticles (Chicago, 1902); Koheleth (Leipsic,

1905); The Book of Ecclesiastes (Baltimore, 1905);

The Book of Nahum (1907); and Das sogenannte

Hohelied Salomos (Leipsic, 1907).
HAUREAU, o"513"o', JEAN BARTHiLEMY French Roman Catholic; b. in Paris Nov. 9, 1812; d. there Apr. 29, 1896. He was educated at the Coll6ge Louis le Grand and the Collbge Bourbon, and after being a journalist for several years, be­came in 1838 editor of the Courrier de la Sarthe at Le Mans, where he was also municipal librarian. In 1845 he returned to Paris, where he was keeper in the Bibliothbque Nationale until the coup d'6tat of 1852. He then resigned his office, but in 1862 was appointed librarian of the Imprimerie Nationale, of which he was director from 1870 to 1882, when he retired from active life. Among his numerous writings, which made his reputation as the great authority on medixval history, special mention may be made of his Critique des hypothbses mEta­Physiques de Mantis, de Pblage et de l' id6alisme transcendental de Saint Augustin (Le Mans, 1840); Manuel du clergE, ou examen de l'ouvrage de M. Bouvier, i;vbque du Mans: Dissertalio in sextum decalogi prteceptum (1844); De la philosophie scho­lastique (2 vols., Paris, 1850); Frangois Premier et sa cour (1853); Charlemagne et sa cour (1854); Hugues de Saint Victor (1859); Bernard Dblicieuz et l' inquisition albigeoise (1877); Les MElanges pobtiques d'Hildebert de Lavardin (1882); Des Pobmes latins attribues h Saint Bernard (1890); Le Pobme adressd par Ab6lard 2c son fall Astralabe (1893); and Le " Mathematicus " de Bernard Sil­vestris et la " Passio Sanctae Agnetis " de Pierre Riga (1895). He likewise prepared the greater portions of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and six­teenth volumes of the Gallia chrastiana in provincial ecclesiastical distributa (Paris, 1856 65), and edited Notices et extraits de quelques manu­scrits Wins de la Bibliothbque Nationals (6 vols., 1890 93).

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