Home missions THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 344
assured hope of independence and self support. The churches of the East have never tired in this work. The fear, the hope, the purpose of early New England have been loyally inherited by her sons and daughters, the fear of barbarism, the hope of prevention, and the wide spread conviction that America's day of judgment is in the West, a judgment to be determined only by the planting of churches and Christian schools.
The missionary history of the Northwest Territory and the Louisiana Purchase was repeated when, about midway in the century, the
ro. Work Oregontreaty made sure possession of
in Later the Far Northwest and the discovery
Accessions. of gold opened the Californias to the world. Home missionaries, ordained in the East, promptly started for the Pacific Coast, reaching their destination by way of Cape Horn and the Sandwich Islands. The strategic position of the coast missions, as related to foreign missions in China and Japan, was keenly appreciated by the churches of the East and their missionary boards; money was contributed more freely than ever, and many of their ablest preachers went forth cheerfully to lay the foundations of Christian society on the sunset shores of the republic. The Mexican Cession, one of the fruits of the Mexican war, including Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah, opened still another belt of peculiar missionary need, which, in spite of ancient superstitions and modern delusions, has proved a rich and rewarding field of missionary effort. Perhaps the most significant feature of these early missionary movements thus far considered was their close connection with the historic development of the nation. Yet " connection " is hardly the word to describe their real influence. More truly they were an integral and saving part of that development.
Two events belonging to the latter half of the nineteenth century were destined to have a marked influence on home missionary history.
ii. Work The close of the Civil War introduced,
for at the South, a missionary problem ab
Negroes solutely new, which immediately st
and tracted, and continues to absorb, the
Immigrants. attention of the Northern churches to
an extraordinary degree. Four million
blacks. hitherto inaccessible to missionary effort,
were suddenly emancipated. At once the National
Government opened its bureaus of relief, and mis
sionary boards of the North hurried forward preach
ers and teachers. To the missionary himself there
was in this call a certain element of peril which, so
far from checking, only stimulated his zeal. At first
received by the white of the South; social ostracism
was their frequent lot, and even violence to their
persons and destruction of their property were not
uncommon in the early days. An ugly spirit of caste
included the teacher of the negro with the negro
himself, and young women, delicately reared in the
best homes of the North, suffered, not merely from
social neglect, but occasionally from open indignity.
These early conditions have greatly softened and
are passing away. Appreciation, and even gratitude,
have taken their place as the results of these mis
sionary efforts have become more apparent. Such fruits appear, not only in organized churches for the negro race, but in a long array of universities, colleges, academies, normal institutes, and industrial schools, opened exclusively for the benefit of the blacks, all of them specifically Christian, and all of them originally planted and supported by the freewill offerings of the North. Howard, Hampton, Fisk, Atlanta and Tougaloo, Talladega and Straight, Shaw and Richmond, Nashville and Bishop, Wayland and Leland, and a host beside, are names that are becoming as familiar to the educational world as Harvard, Yale, or Princeton. They were all made possible by negro emancipation, and they are all the creation of home missions. See MIS$IONs AMONG THE HEATHEN, B, III., 1, § 3. Another fact, as marked in its influence upon the home missionary spirit of the churches, has been foreign immigration, beginning to attract attention as early as 1840, and growing, decade by decade, in its insistent demand for treatment, until to day it vies with the missionary call of the West and South for prompt, wise, and far sighted consideration on the part of the churches and their missionary boards. The figures used to measure the volume of this problem are too familiar to need rehearsal here. Sufficient to say that up to 1840 the total of foreign immigration had not exceeded 500,000 in the previous history of the country, while during the year 1906 alone more than twice that number were landed in the United States. Here is a gigantic problem, sufficient to tax not only the wisdom of rulers and lawmakers, but appealing in a special way to the missionary spirit of the churches and to the thoughtful interest of every lover of his country. It is only true to say that the exigency of this problem revolutionized the home missionary appeal. To the peril of domestic heathenism, which stirred the zeal of Connecticut and Massachusetts in 1798, has now been added the larger fear of imported barbarism; and thus for several recent years foreign missions in America have come to be of burning interest to American home missions. All branches of the Church, without exception, have taken part in this work through their organized agencies. No nationality has been overlooked; Germans, Scandinavians, Bohemians, Poles and Russians, Hollanders and Hebrews, Spanish, French and Italians, Armenians, Syrians, Japanese and Chinese every sort and condition of foreigner, however apparently hopeless, has been made the subject of home missionary effort and culture. The results have astonished the most sanguine; they have rebuked the most despairing, and have all but silenced the prophets of evil, ever ready to foretell the direst consequences from the infusion of so much foreign blood into the moral, social, and political life of the nation. Many times over it has been demonstrated that every grade of alien is susceptible to religious development, is entirely capable of being both civilized and Christianized, and is in fact being rapidly assimilated into a hopeful type of American life. Twenty five years ago there was hardly a foreign speaking missionary in the employ of any home missionary society. To day they are numbered by the thousands, who preach and teach in twenty different
34$ RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Home Xissdons tongues, planting Protestant churches for the foreign born and gathering into them intelligent members by tens of thousands. It is beginning to be recognized that one powerful solvent of the evils of immigration has been found. Great migrations are not the dread they were forty years ago. Disturbing fears have been quieted, and, with all the natural apprehension that remains and must remain, our native American people are viewing with less and less alarm what but a few years ago almost crazed them with apprehension. This era of hopefulness is due, in no small measure, to the undoubted success of American home missions in enlightening and Christianizing adopted citizens. See EMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS, MISSION WORK AMONG, II.; and SLAVIC MISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.
To attempt any adequate summary of the fruits of home missions at the end of 100 years would require a survey of the history of
tions directly to home missions. It is admitted that about nine tenths of all the Evangelical churches in this country were either planted or, in periods of distress, were helped and maintained, by the aid of home missionary grants. It becomes, therefore, a fair question to ask, what and where, but for home missions, would be these great ecclesiastical bodies, which are acknowledged to be the conservers of American Christianity? But what does all this mean in the religious development of the country? The figures at this point palpitate with life. In the year 1800, when home missions began, the United States had one Evangelical communicant in 14.50 of the population. In. 1850 that ratio had grown to one in 6.57; in 1870, to one in 5.78; in 1880, to one in 5; in 1890, to one in 4.53; and in 1900, to one in 4.25; which is to say, that in less than 100 years Evangelical church membership increased thirty eight fold, while the population grew only eleven and eight tenths fold. Church membership increased three and one half times faster than the population, and this in spite of the foreign flood. It is no vain boast, but an obvious truth, that by far the larger part of this magnificent growth is due to the direct agency of American home missions, since in its own carefully planted gardens most of this splendid growth has taken place.
J. B. CLARK.
The reader should compare the articles on CITY MISSIONS; JEws, MISSIONS TO THE; and, for home mission work in Germany, INNERE MISSION.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The literature is extensive; only a selection of the later works is attempted here. A useful view can be obtained, from the denominational standpoint, of early mission work in America from the American Church Histort' Series, 13 vole. (especially vol. xiii., L. W. Bacon, Hist. of American Christianity), New York, 1893 97. Useful and from another point of view is the American Commonwealth Series, Boston, 1901 sqq. (still in progress). Consult further: L. Bacon, Genesis of the New England Churches, New York, 1874; W. Salter, Life of Joe. W. Pickett, Iowa City, 1881; W. F. Bainbridge, Along the Line at the Front ; . . Baptist Home and For eipn Missions, Philadelphia, 1882; The Church Revived; . Parochial Missions in England, Canada, and the United States, New York, 1886; S. Loomis, Modern Cities, ib. 1887; A. HaygOOd, Pleas for Progress, ib. 1889; G. F. Magoun, Life and Times of Asa Turner, Boston, 1889; R. Storrs, The Puritan Spirit, Boston, 1890; H. Caswell, Life among the Iroquois Indians, ib. 1892• J. Strong, Our Country, New York, 1891; idem, The New Era, ib. 1893; D. Dorchester, The Problem of Religious Progress, ib. 1895; W. Puddefoot, The Minute Man on the Frontier ib. 1895; A. Dunning, Congregationalists in America, Boston, 1897; S. L. Gulick, Growth of the Kingdom q% God, New York, 1897 R. Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico, ib. 1898; B. T. Washington, UP from Slavery, ib. 1901; W. Mowry, Marcus Whitman and the Early Days of Oregon, ib. 1901; E. H. Abbott, Religious Life in America, ib. 1902; E. Adams, The Iowa Band, Boston, 1902; L. W. Bef, The Leaven in a Great City, New York, 1902; S. Doyle, Presbyterian Home Missions. Philadelphia, 1902; J. Riis, The Battle with the Slums, New York, 1902; R, Thompaon, The Hand of God in American History, ib. 1902 J. Tillinghast The Negro in Africa and America, ib. 1902; G. Warneck, H(atory of Protestant Missions, ib. 1902; H. Whipple, Lights and Shades of a Long Episcopate, ib. 1902; J. Clark, Leavening the Nation, ib. 1903; W. Du Bois, Souls of Black Folk Chicago, 1903 R. Hitch~ok, The Louisiana Purchase, Boston, 1903; B. Brandenburg, Imported Americans ew York, 1904; J. Horton, The Burden of the City, ib 1904; H. B. Gross, Incoming Millions ib. 1905; P. F. Hall, Immigration and its Effects upon the United States, ib. 1906; H. Holt, Life Stories of Undietinpuished Americana, ib. 1906; A. L. Phillips, Call
Handletics THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 848
of the Home Land; A Study of Home Miesiom, ib. 1906;
A. M. GubrnseY. Citiaens of Tomorrow, ib. 1907. Further
literature in to be dieooveted in the histories of the eeps
rate denominations, most of which deal with the home
mission work of the respective denominatki,
The Terms Employed (§ 1). Theory of Homiletics (1 2). Edification the Object of the Sermon (; 3). Balation of the Sermon to Scripture and the Creeds (1 4).
Subject and Basis of the Sermon (4 5). Varieties of Sermons (; 6).
The Structure of the Sermon (E 7). Preparation and Delivery (1 8).
The Occasional Address (1 9).
History of the Occasional Address (f 10).
Homiletics in Great Britain and America (§ 11). Definition and Treatment (1 12).
Homiletics as the name of a discipline is of late origin, since only in recent times have theologians begun to treat in special works the r. The theory of the sermon. Gregory of Terms Em Nazianaen, Chrysostom, Ambrose, and
ployed. Gregory the Great offer only occasional
remarks on the subject. Augustine,
in the fourth book of his De dodgy ins Chriatiana, first
treated the subject explicitly, and he was followed
by Rabanus Maurus, who, in the third book of De
insOutione clerimmm treated the liberal arts as
related to ecclesiastics. Humbertus de Romanis
(fl. c. 1275) dealt with the subject more extensively
in his Enidrttio rdigiosorum prtedwestorum. Finally,
toward the end of the Middle Ages Ulrich Surgant
wrote a Manvale auratorum which treats the sermon
especially with reference to technique, structure, and
delivery. The transition to the homiletics of the
churches of the Reformation was formed by the
Ecclesiaatm of Erasmus (1535). Of the works of
Protestant theologians on homiletics from the six
teenth century may be mentioned: Andreas Ger
hard Hyperius, De formandis concionslua sacris
(1553); Lucas Osiander, De rations concicrnandi
(1597); Jacob Andrefi, Mdhodus concionarudi, ed.
P. Lyser (1594); and Egidius Hunnius, Methodua
concionandi (1596). The term " homiletics " 8e the
designation of a special discipline seems to have
originated with the Methodologies homildicce (1672)
of Sebastian G6bel and the Compendium theologise
homtZeticce (1677) by J. W. Bajer; but other names
and homilies were used of the sermon in the earliest
times (cf. Eusebius, Hist. eccl., VI. xix.). The word
homtZia passed over into the Occident; but in the
Middle Ages the terms sermo and prteddiwre with its
derivatives were frequently used. For the churches
of'the Reformation Preduo and "sermon" became
the established designations in the church orders.
In modern times " sermon " has become the collec
tive name, while " homily " is restricted to a special
kind of sermons.
Homiletics, treats of the discourse or address customarily delivered in the church service of the Christian congregation. There was early mani
fested a tendency to incorporate homiletics in the theory of rhetoric; even Augustine was governed
by the classical theories of rhetoric, 2. Theory of and the medieval custom of subordiHomiletica nating the liberal arts to the service of
theology brought about a still closer union with rhetoric. Melanchthon established in the interest of the sermon a new rhetorical genus, the 9en didascolicum, but the opportunity to raise homiletics to the rank of an independent discipline was not seized. Hyperius, in his attempt to base the theory of the sermon upon Scripture, found no imitators and successors. It is impossible to arrive at a worthy treatment of this theological discipline until the starting point is sought within systematic theology and in the churchly community. Thus considered, homiletics branches off as a apeeial discipline. The Christian community has come into being, is in a state of growth and therefore of imperfection, consequently exposed to the influences of sin and evil. Since now the possession of spiritual blessings in the congregation must be continually kept alive and the influences of sin and evil combated, the Word adapted to the needs of the congregation is the means to accomplish the one ss well as the other. The mere possession of Holy Scripture is not sufficient; it must be used and applied to the needs of the congregation; hence the necessity for preaching. Even if the congregation could ever leave behind its imperfection, the very possession of Christian truth would still necessitate a continual presentation of the Word (cf. Schleiermacher, Der christliche G7aube, § 134, 3, Berlin, 1821). This presentation originates therefore in the pedagogical and practical needs of the congregation, and is an essential factor in its upbuilding. Alexander Schweizer distinguished between general or theoretical, material and formal, homiletics, a division which correctly designates the course which homiletics must take, and the writers on homiletics adhere to it, treating first the conception of the sermon, then its content, and finally its diction and delivery.
The teachers of the primitive church cared little for theoretical questions concerning the conception
and purpose of the sermon. Preaching 3. Edifica was usually considered as teaching,
tion the even by Augustine and throughout the
Object of Middle Ages. Melanchthon'e concepthe tion of the sermon was essentially the
Sermon. same, and even later writers adhered
to this idea. This conception may be explained easily from the fact that until the time of the Reformation, and even far beyond it, only imperfect means of religious instruction existed. The Protestants, indeed, had a higher conception of the congregation of Christ; Luther, for instance, speaks of a congregation of pure saints, under one head Christ, called together by the Holy Spirit, in one faith, sense, and understanding, but this new conception had as yet no influence upon the problem of the sermon. Only in modern times have theologians rightly concluded from this higher estimation of the congregation that it can be in no way the exclusive or principal task of the sermon to teach the ignorant and punish sinners. The actual con
847 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
dition of the congregation requires that in the sermon the communion with God as established by him be represented, and, after that, the attitude of the congregation toward him as conditioned by that relationship. In this sense the sermon, like Christian worship in general, may be regarded as an expository activity. Schleiermacher distinguishes between an expository and an effective activity; but it is impossible to exclude from the former the idea of effective purpose. A homiletics which admits the means of grace to be real powers of salvation can not refrain from putting the sermon into the category of effective activity. Thus the question is raised in what the effect of the sermon should consist. It has been shown that instruction is not simply and solely the purpose of the sermon. But it must be admitted that lack of knowledge is a prominent and pervading defect of personal Christianity, to remove which instruction is the only means, and this is accomplished most effectively in preaching. Moreover, the congregation has the promise that the Spirit of truth will guide it into all truth (John xvi. 13). Homiletics must therefore find a designation which does not exclude instruction. A comprehensive designation offers itself in the word " to edify," which leaves room for instruction (I Cor. xiv. 4). This indication of purpose was not unknown to the older church, and has been correctly explained in Mosheim's Anweisung erbaulich xu predigen, Vorb., 1 2 (Erlangen, 1771) : The hearers are (1) to be confirmed in the knowledge of religion which they have already obtained, and this is to be extended; (2) to be awakened and exhorted to diligence and growth in godliness. This confirmation takes place through the exposition of Christian truth, which has edifying power through the testimony of the Holy Spirit. As a means of accomplishing this it is evident that, above all, the subject matter of the sermon must be edifying. Thus Hyperius requires that that should be preached which concerns faith, love, and hope. To faith belong all those religious subjects which are contained in the. Apostles' Creed. To love belong the doctrine of morals, the decalogue, especially the second table, the doctrine of the Church and of the sacraments. To hope belongs the doctrine of the last things. Hyperius, like other writers on homiletics, thus arrives at the catechism, guided by the correct idea that that should be preached which corresponds to the religious needs of the congregation. But even though the subjectmatter be properly chosen, this does not guarantee that the sermon is capable of edifying. The subjectmatter becomes edifying or unedifying according to its treatment by the preacher. It was rationalism which made the subject matter responsible for edification through the sermon, and as rationalism discarded catechetics, it excluded from the sermon the very matters upon which earlier times bad laid stress. Rent writers on homiletics again tend toward the opposite extreme by trying to eliminate from the sermon almost all social, economical, and merely philosophical questions. But all such subjects have a religious side, and are therefore subject to sermonic treatment. Theoretical homiletics must insist upon the fact that there is nothing which a priori may be excluded from the sermon as un
edifying. Edification lies not in the quality of the subject matter, but in the quality of the sermon; hence the doctrine of the edification of the sermon must be distributed over both material and formal homiletics.
But there are other problems which theoretical homiletics must try to solve. The congregation
possesses in Holy Scripture an authoc4. Relation itative norm, inasmuch as the Spirit of
of the God acts in it and through it. What,
Sermon to therefore, is the connection between Scripture sermon and Scripture? All theologians and the agree that the authority of Scripture Creeds. is higher than that of the sermon, but
a question which arises is whether the sermon is superfluous if Scripture is all sufficient. The answer must be that the Bible, without detriment to its authority, belongs to the past, though destined for all times, while the sermon is a testi. mony from the present life of the congregation and in its immediate object applies only to the present. This testimony must agree with Scripture, but must have an independent form, corresponding to modern needs. Therefore the. sermon is necessary alongside of Scripture. Theoretical homiletics also asks how far the preacher is bound to the confession of his Church. Protestant Church commmuties have in the past provided for their preachers certain norms of doctrine in which the sum total of Christian doctrine is expressed. These church communities were not contented merely to unite against the Catholic Church and to decide not to have anything in common with fanatics. They felt bound to explain why they dissented, to give to their better knowledge a definite positive expression, and this not merely from reasons of church polity, but because of pastoral interest in their own congregations. This is the deeper reason why preachers were always bound to teach according to such doctrinal standards. Homiletics may not surrender this obligation. It must admit, however, that not everything in the different confessional writings is to be regarded as an integrating constituent of the confession. But this concession does not involve the possibility that the Evangelical confessions will some time be abolished; for homiletics rests upon the presupposition that it is one and the same spirit, the spirit of Jesus Christ, who speaks in Scripture and leads his disciples to the knowledge of truth. From this it is self evident that the preacher is to be personally devoted to the faith and confession of his Church. It would be too little simply to keep within the limits of the confession without personal fidelity to it, although the effect of the sermon does not depend upon the personal attitude of the preacher to that which he preaches.
From these fundamental conceptions concerning the nature and purpose of the sermon in general,
homiletics passes to the treatment of g. Subject the quality of the individual sermon, and Basis i.e., material and formal homiletics. of the Since edification is the purpose of the
Sermon. sermon, while the possibility of edifica
tion through the individual sermon is dependent upon its quality, the first question is, What can homiletics teach in regard to the subject