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BrnwoaaAP87: Sources are: Epist. Franeisci Lamberti Aeenionensis ad Colonisnsea, Feb. 16, 1627, ed. E. C. Draud, Giessen, 1730; the Acts synodi were never pub­lished: W. Muse, in Zeitschrift des Vervains far hesaisdie Gesshiehte, vol. 1. supplement 2, pp. 123 139, Csssel. 1849; the Kirdranordnuny, not preserved in the original, was fast published from an old MS. by F. C. Schminke in Monimenta Hassioca, ii. 588 886, ib. 1748, and a second copy was edited by K. A. Credner, in Philipp du Groes­mitthipen Hessiaaha KirehemWormationsordnunp, Giessen, 1852, cf. K5hle1, in ZHT, zaavii (1867), 217 sqq. Con­sult: C. von Rommel, Geschiedts eon Hessen, 3 vols., Cassel, 1827; F. W. Hassencamp, Hessisehe Kirchsflpe­echichis exit den Zeitalter der Reformation, 2 vols., Frank­fort, 1864; H. Heppe, Airclurngeschichts beider Hawn, Marburg, 1876; T. Brieger, Die anpeblichs Afarburper Kir­dmwrdnunp, in ZKG, iv (1881), 549 eqq.; K. Rieker, Die redhtdiehe Stellunp der esanpelixksn Kireha Deutsehlands in Arer gsxhirhtlidhen Enhoicklunp, pp. 75 eqq., Leipsie. 1893; J. Friedrich, Luther and die Kirduneerfassunp der Refornwtio eccteaiarum Hessice, Darmstadt, 1894 (im­provement of Credner's edition); idem, Entstehunp der Wormatio aedssiarum Hesaior, Giessen, 1905; W. K5h­ler, Heasitdu Kirdhenewfamunp im Zeifalter der Reforma­tion, Giessen, 1894; A. Laval, Le Synods de Hombera, Paris, 1894; G. Conrad, Die Refornwtioruordnunp ffir die Gemeinden Heaaens con 1688, Halle, 1897.

Spanish Missions (¢ 1).

French Missions (¢ 2).

Missionary Purpose of English Settlers (f 3).

Organisation of Congregations! Effort, 1798 1807 (1 4). Other Early Denominational Organisations (¢ 5).

Work in the Northwest Territory (¢ 6).

The American Home Missionary Society (1 7). Denominational Societies (5 8).

Effect of the Louisiana Purchase (1 9). Work in Later Aooessions (4 10).

Work for Negroes and Immigrants (1 11). Summary (5 12).

The religious movement known as American

Home Missions may be said to have begun with the

discovery of the country. Columbus

i. Spanish was both explorer and missionary. His

Missions. first act upon landing on the wooded

island which he named San Salvador

was to erect two standards; one, the ancient flag of

Leon and Castile, and, by its side, the elder banner

of the Cross, thus dedicating the New World at its

southern entrance 0 civil rule and to the spiritual

dominion of the Church. On his second voyage

(1494) he brought with him twelve Franciscan

monks, whose sole business was to be the conversion

of the native races to Christianity. This dual pur­

pose of Spain is repeatedly recognized in the early

patents issued by the Spanish Court to successive

bands of emigrants. Charles V., successor to Fer

dinand and Isabella, in one of these royal patents


plainly declares: " You are bidden to attract the natives to receive preachers who shall inform and instruct them in the affairs of our holy Catholic faith, that they may become Christians; " and he significantly adds: " Our principal intent in the discovery of new lands is that the inhabitants and natives thereof, who are without the light of the knowledge of faith, may be brought to understand the truth of our holy Catholic faith, and that they may come to, the knowledge thereof and become Christians and be saved." For more than 200 years this double intent, civil conquest and spiritual dominion, was persistently followed, the one as devotedly as the other. Whatever may be thought of the religious creed of Franciscan and Dominican monks, or of their some time violent methods of church extension, their missionary zeal has never been questioned. To make a convert they counted no cost and dared every danger. Sacrifices became luxuries. They undertook long and perilous journeys which led them into the heart of hostile and cruel tribes, where the reward was often death or torture worse than death, which they bore with composure. And everywhere they went missions were established, chapels and convents sprang up, whose ruins still bear silent witness to the devotion of these men. They patiently conquered the native dialects that they might add the printed page to the spoken word. They put the Christian truths into meter, and meter into music. It is little wonder that they made converts or that their heroic labors, and more especially their personal bravery and contempt for every form of terror, commend­ed them to the admiration of these children of the wilds. In 300 years Spain had extended her domain from the Atlantic to the Pacific, south of the thirty eighth degree of latitude, a territory in­cluding the present States of Florida, Alabama, Texas, New Mexico, and California, and in all that vast and rapid advance missionaries were pioneers. " Over a hundred thousand of the aborigines," says T. O'Gorman, the Catholic historian, "were brought to the knowledge of Christianity, and introduced, if not into the palace, at least into the antechamber, of civilization " (American Church History Series, ix. 112, New York, 1895). Such were the early con­quests of Spain, civil and religious; but, with all their promise, they were destined to ultimate failure. The same historian confesses the Spanish defeat in language equally true and pathetic: " As we look around to day we find nothing of it that remains. Names of saints in melodious Spanish stand out from maps in all that section where the Spanish monk toiled, trod, and died. A few thousand Christian Indians, descendants of those they con­verted and civilized, still survive in New Mexico and Arizona, and that is all."

The French entered America at the northern gate,

by way of the St. Lawrence, and with the same

double purpose of conquest and con 

s. French version. Their missionaries were Jesuit

Missions. priests who treated the Indian with

great kindness, seeking to make him

a friend and partner in their plans of conquest.

Not less brave or devoted than their Franciscan

predecessors, they were more shrewd and politic,

with the result that their success was proportion­ately rapid. Eighty years from the founding of Quebec the French posts, " military, commercial, and religious," had been pushed westward to Lake Superior. The vast domain of Canada, half the present territory of Maine, half of Vermont, more than half of New York, the entire valley of the Mississippi, and the whole of Texas became a vast French possession, " in which," says O'Gorman, " all the North American Indians were more or less extensively converted." It is impossible not to admire the flaming zeal, the tireless devotion, the almost superhuman bravery which accomplished these astounding results in less than 300 years. Their converts were still multiplying when the ambitious schemes of both Spain and France were brought to an end by the opening of the Seven Years' War, which prepared the way for a new civilization and another type of missionary enter­prise which were destined to survive. [For addi­tional matter on this and the preceding paragraph see INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, MISSIONS TO; MISSIONS AMONG THE HEATHHN, A.]

To the English pioneers was reserved the middle way of approach. First at Jamestown in 1607, and later at New York, Plymouth, and

3. Mission  Boston; and again it is to be noticed

ary   that the spirit of civil conquest and Purpose of missionary zeal moved hand in hand.

English Perhaps no nation in history, unless it

Settlers. be the chosen people, was ever more

distinctly religious and missionary in

the character of its early settlers than the United

States. The different charters and commissions

under which they emigrated from the Old World

contain, almost, without exception, an explicit

recognition of the divine claim. " The thing is of

God," said the London Trading Company, in its

letters patent to the Plymouth Pilgrims. " In the

name of God, amen!" are the opening words of

the Mayflower compact, and the full meaning of

that document is summed up in the phrase following

For the glory of God and the advancement of the Christian faith." The signers of this historic compact paused on the threshold of their great enterprise, " at a time," says Bancroft, " when everything demanded haste," to keep a Sabbath of prayer and praise on Clark's Island. Governor Bradford, in his history of the Plymouth Colony, declares that the colonists " had a great hope and inward zeal of laying some good foundation for propagating and advancing the Gospel of the king­dom of Christ in these remote parts of the world, yea," he adds, " though it should be as stepping­stones to others." In this germinant and prophetic sentence lies hidden the seed of all the wonderful missionary history of the nineteenth century. The early settlers of North and South Carolina declared themselves to be actuated " by a laudable zeal for the propagation of the Gospel." Even Virginia, not always regarded as a distinctly religious colony, urges upon its first governor " the using of all pos­sible means to bring over the natives to a love of civilization and to a love of God and of his true religion." Georgia, the last of the colonies to be settled, was a religious enterprise from the start,


dominated by godly Moravians from Germany and Presbyterians from the Highlands of Scotland. Thus, for continuous years, a soil was being prepared into which in due time the seed of organized home and foreign missions should fall and spring up again to make glad the City of God.

Yet it was not until 1798, nearly 200 years after the Pilgrim landing, that American home missions began to assume this organ­4. Organiza  ized form. Previous, to that date

tion of missionary efforts had been mostly

Congrega  sporadic. Before the war of the Revo 

tional lution individual churches of the Con 

Effort, gregational order in Connecticut were

x798 r8o7. sending out their pastors on missionary errands to what were then known as the New Settlements (Vermont, New York, and Ohio)­For this service they were paid four and one half dollars a week, and were allowed four dollars more for the supply of their pulpits during their absence, which usually covered about four months at a time. These missionary pastors followed the new settlers to their forest or prairie homes, preaching the Word, administering the ordinances, setting up the Church and the Sunday school, and carrying  the greeting of old friends and neighbors to their distant kindred on the frontier. Yet it was something more than mere kinship and friendship that prompted these missionary journeys. There was also a great fear of barbarism, a profound dread of new States gather­ing strength and coming into the Union without churches or schools, without the Christian sabbath or the Christian home. Such fears seemed to haunt the churches of Connecticut and Massachusetts, which at that time were predominantly Congrega­tional, until, in 1798, organization against an evil so threatening became a necessity. In June of that year the Missionary Society of Connecticut was organized, and one year later the Massachusetts Missionary Society came into being. These two organizations, with slight changes of name, are in existence to day. Both of them were Congrega­tional in origin, and, for more than a hundred years, they have been the twin springs from which an ever­broadening stream of home missionary interest and effort has flowed. It is important to remember that both these mother societies, while bearing the names of the States where they originated, and sup­ported by the States whose names they bear, were not primarily for the benefit of Connecticut and Massachusetts. The object of the Connecticut society, as defined in its charter, was " to Chris­tianize the heathen (Indians) of North America, and to support and promote Christian knowledge in the new settlements of the United States." The charter of the Massachusetts Society describes its object as being " to diffuse the Gospel among the heathen (Indians) as well as other people in the remote parts of our country." Both societies, therefore, while local in their origin and support, were truly national in spirit and aim. Other New England States followed the lead of Connecticut and Massachusetts; New Hampshire in 1801, Rhode Island in 1803, Maine and Vermont in 1807. Thus, within ten years of the first movement, the Con­gregational churches of the six New England States

were organized for home missions. The four States last named were animated by the same broad spirit as Connecticut and Massachusetts. If they at­tempted less for the new settlements to the west­ward than their elder neighbors, it was only because they were themselves new settlements, needing more help than they were able at that stage to bestow.

To the same fruitful decade belongs the origin of Baptist home missions in New England. Its genesis is singularly like that of the Congrega 

g.Other tionalists. The Massachusetts Do­Early mestic Society, the first organization

Denomina  of its kind among American Baptists, tional dates from 1802. Its object, as de 

Organiza  fined by its constitution, was " to fur­tions. nish occasional preaching and to pro­mote the knowledge of evangelistic truth in the new settlements of the United States, or further, if circumstances should reader it proper." This organized movement was preceded, as in the case of Connecticut and Massachusetts, by inter­mittent effort on the part of individual churches. Indeed, the significant feature of all these early organizations is that they were the natural out­growth of an evangelistic spirit within the churches, and in no single instance were they forced upon the churches by outside influence. Baptist home mis­sionary effort, like Congregational, looked beyond the place of birth, sending its missionaries into Maine, lower Canada, western New York, Penn­sylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. To the same year, 1802, belongs the first systematic effort of the Presbyterians of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, acting under the same broad charter with the movement of Congregationalists and Bap­tists in New England, namely, " to send forth missionaries well qualified to be employed in mission work on the frontiers, for the purpose of organizing churches, administering ordinances, ordaining elders, collecting information concerning the state of re­ligion in those parts, and preparing the best means of establishing a Gospel ministry among the people." Meanwhile the Reformed Church of America had not been idle. Sporadic missionary work began with them as early as 1786, culminating in 1882 in the organizing of the Missionary Society of the Reformed Dutch Church, differing nothing in spirit from its forerunners, but with wider scope, as it included home and foreign missions under a single organization. Methodist and Episcopalian missions, as well as Lutheran and those of the Disciples of Christ, belonged necessarily to a later period.

At the opening of the nineteenth century the new settlements, so called, were found mainly in north­ern New England, eastern and cen 

6. Work tral New York, and in northern and in the southern Ohio, and these were natural­North  ly the first points of home missionary west attack. The opening of the Northwest

Territory. Territory (including the present States

of Ohio Indiana Illinois Michigan and

, ,

Wisconsin) and the passage by Congress of the ordi­nance of 1787 attracted a stream of immigration from the East, mingled with a considerable element from Great Britain, Holland, Scandinavia, Germany

moms 3asdaaw THE NEW SCHAFF HERZZOG 842

and Moravia, Belgium and Switzerland. The earlier settlers of New York, Ohio, and Illinois, were gener­ally Protestant in their sympathies, but unable at once, with a new country to settle and homes to be built, to provide for themselves the institutions of worship. To the help of these hopeful but destitute settlers came the organized missionary societies of the East. Their missionaries were hurried forward to every needy point, not only in the wilds of New York and Ohio, but to the remoter sections of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. They even found their way down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and they crossed the northern bor­ders into Canada. A specially promising field of effort was the section of Ohio bordering on Lake Erie, which had been settled chiefly by families from Connecticut, and for that reason commonly known as New Connecticut. At the beginning of the century this tract contained about 1,400 inhab­itants. In 1804 it had 400 families. One year later the 400 had grown to 1,100, one half of them from New England. In less than thirty years from the beginning of organized home missions ninety churches had been planted in this section, all of them by missionaries sent out and supported by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. To sum up in a sentence, the Missionary Society of Con­necticut, at the end of thirty years of work, had employed 200 missionaries, by whom 400 churches had been established in the new settlements of the nation. With what wear and tear of body, with what sacrifice of comforts in the wilderness, with what patience of hope and courage of faith and labors of love no words could fully portray. Not a mile of railway had been built. The river and canal, the stage coach, the emigrant wagon, and the saddle were the only conveniences of travel, and to these the missionary often added foot sore and weary tramps from settlement to settlement. No Fran­ciscan, Dominican, or Jesuit missionary of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, toiling over the same ground on missionary errands, accomplished a grander service or endured hardships more cheerfully.

All the earlier efforts above described were marked by a commendable absence of sectarian rivalry. The vastness of the problem

7. The forbade all such trifling. Prompt,

American united action was demanded. Denom 

Home inational supremacy was buried under

Missionary the all absorbing issue whether New

Society. America should be a heathen or a

Christian nation. Between Presbyte­

rians and Congregationalists, at that time the strong­

est church bodies in the land, the spirit of union

was particularly active. For the long period of

fifty years, between 1801 and 1851, these two

churches carried on their missionary work in the

new settlements under a " Plan of Union " so called,

mutually agreed to, by which the churches of either

order, wherever formed, might worship in the same

house, elect and listen to the same pastor, and

profess the same creed, while each body was left

free to govern itself by the church polity it loved

and preferred. In 1826 Congregational, Presby­

terian, Reformed, and Associate Reformed churches

still further illustrated their unsectarian spirit by uniting in the organization of a national society, known as the American Home Missionary Society. The growth and needs of the home missionary move­ment made this step a necessity. Hitherto State societies had been doing national work, each in its own wag. But these organizations, operating in­dependently, had resulted in an unequal distribu­tion of both men and money. Some regions were oversupplied, while others were left entirely desti­tute. Moreover, the laborers themselves inevitably came into conflict with each other. Obviously the time had arrived for federation and coordination under one national society; and that society, as above stated, was organized May 26, 1826, with headquarters in New York, the various state societies making themselves auxiliaries to the national or­ganization. Perhaps nothing more potential in the progress of the home missionary movement, up to this date, belongs to its history than this act. For years the churches forming this alliance labored together in fraternal unity, contributing to a com­mon treasury, and governed by a single board of directors. Receipts rapidly increased, the mission­ary force doubled and trebled in number, and instead of being an itinerant preacher, the home missionary became a settled pastor, bearing the commission of a national society, dwelling con­tinually among his people, and building them up in unity and strength. It was only when these co­operating church bodies had grown strong that they amicably withdrew from this federation to organize separate societies of their own, leaving the Congre­gationalists to inherit the name and good will of this honored society. In fact, it was not until many years later that " American" was dropped from its charter name and " Congregational," which had become more truly descriptive of its nature, was substituted.

Meanwhile the Methodist Church, growing in strength and burning , to have a part in national evangelization, organized its mission 

8. Denom  ary society in 1819, which covered both

inational home and foreign work; the Episcopal

Societies. Church, its Domestic and Foreign Mis­

sionary Society in 1821, also national;

the Baptists, their American Baptist Home Mission­

ary Society in 1832; the Lutherans, their Home

Missionary Society of the General Synod in 1845; and

the Disciples, their American Christian Missionary

Society in 1849. The Southern Presbyterians,

Southern Baptists, and Southern Methodists also

have their homeland organizations, doing an inval­

uable work in the Southern States. Other church

bodies, Evangelical in character, will be found

enumerated in the table given below, which have

taken their part 8180, and are still intensely con­

cerned, in this great home missionary movement.

Thus, by a steady; natural evolution of national

need and evangelistic interest two societies have

grown to be more than thirty; all the leading

church bodies of America have gradually become

organized for home evangelization, and a movement

which began in New England in 1798 for the Chris­

tian enlightenment of a few kindred or neighbors

moving westward has developed into a system as


Home Kisdons

broad as the national domain, by which the stronger churches of the land have shared, and are continuing to share, the burden of their weaker brethren, and, by a united.,effort, are strengthening those forms of Christian civilization upon which the safety of the nation depends.

The following table is taken by permission from Social Progress, New York, 1906, ed. J. Strong, W. H. Tolman, and W. D. P. Bliss. No later figures than these of 1904 have been tabulated.

a moment's hesitation the missionary organizations of the East and Middle West, with the loyal support of the churches, threw themselves into the breach. Emigration from the East and the Middle West began at once, and the missionary was not slow in following the trail. The order of missionary progress through the Louisiana Purchase bas been strictly along the lines of immigration and settlement. There is not a State in that vast tract which the home missionary did not enter while it was yet a


ip ~


1824 1877 1845
1828 1848
1853 1814
1849 1834 1882 1880
1819 1885
18890 1849
1818 1878 1844


1831 1854


1872 1885


American Baptist Home Missionary Society .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

American Baptist Publication 8ooletx..

Women's American Baptist Home Mission $ociety . . . . . . .

Women's Baptist Home Mission Society .. .. .. ...... .... . .

Southern Baptist Convention ..........

National Baptist Publication Board ... .

Con~re gational:

Home Missionary Society ........ ..

American Missionary Association . . . . . . .

Sunday school and Publishing Society .

Church Building Society . .. .. .. ... . . . .

Education Society ... Cumberland Presbyterian ................. Disciples of Christ:

American Christian Missionary Society .............. .... . .

Free Baptist ....................................................

Free Meodist..................................................

Mennonites .....................................................

Methodist Episcopal

Miseionary Society of Methodist Episcopal Church .. . .... . . . . . . . .

Church Eatenaion Board .....................................

Freedmen's Aid Society ......................................

Women's Home Missionary Society of Methodist Episcopal Church. Moravian',...................................................... Presbyterian:

Board of Home Missions of Presbyterian Church, U. 8. A. . . . . . . . .

Women's Board of Home Missions of Presbyterian Church . . . . . . . .

Board of Church Erection .................................... Southern Presbyterian ....................................... Examining Committee General AesemblY ....................... Protestant Episcopal ............................................ Reformed Church:

Board of Domestic Missions .. . . .

Church Building Department ....

Board of Publication . . . . . . . . . . . United Brethren ..'.............. United Presbyterian:

Board of Home Missions . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Board of Freedmen's Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .






















479,812 346,883 193,570 180,000 40,000


95,600 23,600

b00 85,000

105,000 67,530




















188 1,140





Added on Confession.






1,860 919





1 Churches sided. 2 Work carried on by the church, not by a society. s In addition to the amount expended there were given for diocesan missions during the three years ending Sept. 30, 1904, 11,413,117.

Another mighty impulse in the same direction as

that resulting from the opening of the Northwest

Territory followed the purchase of

g. Effect Louisiana in 1803. While the North­

of the west Territory was still in the first

Louisiana stages of occupation, even before the

Purchase. earlier settlers had obtained peaceful

possession of the soil, the area of the

nation was suddenly doubled. The Louisiana Pur­

chase gave us the mouth of the Mississippi and un­

disturbed possession of its entire course. It carried

our western boundaries from Lake Superior to the

Rocky Mountains. Fourteen States and Territories

have been carved out of this imperial 'tract. They

include the vast corn and wheat belts of the United

States, which are capable of feeding the world,

while their underground treasures are among the

richest on the globe. Here was a new and mag­

nificent opportunity for home missions, and without

Territory, and always in the first and feeblest stages of settlement. From Missouri to Iowa, from Iowa to Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebras­ka, thence to the Dakotas, and on from these points to Wyoming and 'Colorado and Montana, and, last of all, to Oklahoma until every square mile inhabited by men has been sown with Sun­day schools, churches, and other institutions of education and religion. Something of the volume of this work may be gathered from the fact that on the one hundredth anniversary of the Louisi­ana Purchase, by a careful investigation, about 30,000 Protestant churches were enumerated within the bounds of this purchase, holding property valued at $58,000,000, sad having, approximately, 2,000,000 communicants. With rare exceptions this church growth was the fruit of home missionary culture, begun and maintained and ceasing only when the need ceased, or continuing to day in the

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