BrnwoaaAP87: Sources are: Epist. Franeisci Lamberti Aeenionensis ad Colonisnsea, Feb. 16, 1627, ed. E. C. Draud, Giessen, 1730; the Acts synodi were never published: W. Muse, in Zeitschrift des Vervains far hesaisdie Gesshiehte, vol. 1. supplement 2, pp. 123 139, Csssel. 1849; the Kirdranordnuny, not preserved in the original, was fast published from an old MS. by F. C. Schminke in Monimenta Hassioca, ii. 588 886, ib. 1748, and a second copy was edited by K. A. Credner, in Philipp du Groesmitthipen Hessiaaha KirehemWormationsordnunp, Giessen, 1852, cf. K5hle1, in ZHT, zaavii (1867), 217 sqq. Consult: C. von Rommel, Geschiedts eon Hessen, 3 vols., Cassel, 1827; F. W. Hassencamp, Hessisehe Kirchsflpeechichis exit den Zeitalter der Reformation, 2 vols., Frankfort, 1864; H. Heppe, Airclurngeschichts beider Hawn, Marburg, 1876; T. Brieger, Die anpeblichs Afarburper Kirdmwrdnunp, in ZKG, iv (1881), 549 eqq.; K. Rieker, Die redhtdiehe Stellunp der esanpelixksn Kireha Deutsehlands in Arer gsxhirhtlidhen Enhoicklunp, pp. 75 eqq., Leipsie. 1893; J. Friedrich, Luther and die Kirduneerfassunp der Refornwtio eccteaiarum Hessice, Darmstadt, 1894 (improvement of Credner's edition); idem, Entstehunp der Wormatio aedssiarum Hesaior, Giessen, 1905; W. K5hler, Heasitdu Kirdhenewfamunp im Zeifalter der Reformation, Giessen, 1894; A. Laval, Le Synods de Hombera, Paris, 1894; G. Conrad, Die Refornwtioruordnunp ffir die Gemeinden Heaaens con 1688, Halle, 1897.
Spanish Missions (¢ 1).
French Missions (¢ 2).
Missionary Purpose of English Settlers (f 3).
Organisation of Congregations! Effort, 1798 1807 (1 4). Other Early Denominational Organisations (¢ 5).
Work in the Northwest Territory (¢ 6).
The American Home Missionary Society (1 7). Denominational Societies (5 8).
Effect of the Louisiana Purchase (1 9). Work in Later Aooessions (4 10).
Work for Negroes and Immigrants (1 11). Summary (5 12).
The religious movement known as American
Home Missions may be said to have begun with the
discovery of the country. Columbus
i. Spanish was both explorer and missionary. His
Missions. first act upon landing on the wooded
island which he named San Salvador
was to erect two standards; one, the ancient flag of
Leon and Castile, and, by its side, the elder banner
of the Cross, thus dedicating the New World at its
southern entrance 0 civil rule and to the spiritual
dominion of the Church. On his second voyage
(1494) he brought with him twelve Franciscan
monks, whose sole business was to be the conversion
of the native races to Christianity. This dual pur
pose of Spain is repeatedly recognized in the early
patents issued by the Spanish Court to successive
bands of emigrants. Charles V., successor to Fer
dinand and Isabella, in one of these royal patents
Home Xiesions THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 340
plainly declares: " You are bidden to attract the natives to receive preachers who shall inform and instruct them in the affairs of our holy Catholic faith, that they may become Christians; " and he significantly adds: " Our principal intent in the discovery of new lands is that the inhabitants and natives thereof, who are without the light of the knowledge of faith, may be brought to understand the truth of our holy Catholic faith, and that they may come to, the knowledge thereof and become Christians and be saved." For more than 200 years this double intent, civil conquest and spiritual dominion, was persistently followed, the one as devotedly as the other. Whatever may be thought of the religious creed of Franciscan and Dominican monks, or of their some time violent methods of church extension, their missionary zeal has never been questioned. To make a convert they counted no cost and dared every danger. Sacrifices became luxuries. They undertook long and perilous journeys which led them into the heart of hostile and cruel tribes, where the reward was often death or torture worse than death, which they bore with composure. And everywhere they went missions were established, chapels and convents sprang up, whose ruins still bear silent witness to the devotion of these men. They patiently conquered the native dialects that they might add the printed page to the spoken word. They put the Christian truths into meter, and meter into music. It is little wonder that they made converts or that their heroic labors, and more especially their personal bravery and contempt for every form of terror, commended them to the admiration of these children of the wilds. In 300 years Spain had extended her domain from the Atlantic to the Pacific, south of the thirty eighth degree of latitude, a territory including the present States of Florida, Alabama, Texas, New Mexico, and California, and in all that vast and rapid advance missionaries were pioneers. " Over a hundred thousand of the aborigines," says T. O'Gorman, the Catholic historian, "were brought to the knowledge of Christianity, and introduced, if not into the palace, at least into the antechamber, of civilization " (American Church History Series, ix. 112, New York, 1895). Such were the early conquests of Spain, civil and religious; but, with all their promise, they were destined to ultimate failure. The same historian confesses the Spanish defeat in language equally true and pathetic: " As we look around to day we find nothing of it that remains. Names of saints in melodious Spanish stand out from maps in all that section where the Spanish monk toiled, trod, and died. A few thousand Christian Indians, descendants of those they converted and civilized, still survive in New Mexico and Arizona, and that is all."
with the result that their success was proportionately rapid. Eighty years from the founding of Quebec the French posts, " military, commercial, and religious," had been pushed westward to Lake Superior. The vast domain of Canada, half the present territory of Maine, half of Vermont, more than half of New York, the entire valley of the Mississippi, and the whole of Texas became a vast French possession, " in which," says O'Gorman, " all the North American Indians were more or less extensively converted." It is impossible not to admire the flaming zeal, the tireless devotion, the almost superhuman bravery which accomplished these astounding results in less than 300 years. Their converts were still multiplying when the ambitious schemes of both Spain and France were brought to an end by the opening of the Seven Years' War, which prepared the way for a new civilization and another type of missionary enterprise which were destined to survive. [For additional matter on this and the preceding paragraph see INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, MISSIONS TO; MISSIONS AMONG THE HEATHHN, A.]
To the English pioneers was reserved the middle way of approach. First at Jamestown in 1607, and later at New York, Plymouth, and
3. Mission Boston; and again it is to be noticed
ary that the spirit of civil conquest and Purpose of missionary zeal moved hand in hand.
English Perhaps no nation in history, unless it
Settlers. be the chosen people, was ever more
distinctly religious and missionary in
the character of its early settlers than the United
recognition of the divine claim. " The thing is of
God," said the London Trading Company, in its
letters patent to the Plymouth Pilgrims. " In the
name of God, amen!" are the opening words of
the Mayflower compact, and the full meaning of
that document is summed up in the phrase following
For the glory of God and the advancement of the Christian faith." The signers of this historic compact paused on the threshold of their great enterprise, " at a time," says Bancroft, " when everything demanded haste," to keep a Sabbath of prayer and praise on Clark's Island. Governor Bradford, in his history of the Plymouth Colony, declares that the colonists " had a great hope and inward zeal of laying some good foundation for propagating and advancing the Gospel of the kingdom of Christ in these remote parts of the world, yea," he adds, " though it should be as steppingstones to others." In this germinant and prophetic sentence lies hidden the seed of all the wonderful missionary history of the nineteenth century. The early settlers of North and South Carolina declared themselves to be actuated " by a laudable zeal for the propagation of the Gospel." Even Virginia, not always regarded as a distinctly religious colony, urges upon its first governor " the using of all possible means to bring over the natives to a love of civilization and to a love of God and of his true religion." Georgia, the last of the colonies to be settled, was a religious enterprise from the start,
341 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Home Missions
dominated by godly Moravians from Germany and Presbyterians from the Highlands of Scotland. Thus, for continuous years, a soil was being prepared into which in due time the seed of organized home and foreign missions should fall and spring up again to make glad the City of God.
Yet it was not until 1798, nearly 200 years after the Pilgrim landing, that American home missions began to assume this organ4. Organiza ized form. Previous, to that date
tion of missionary efforts had been mostly
Congrega sporadic. Before the war of the Revo
tional lution individual churches of the Con
Effort, gregational order in Connecticut were
x798 r8o7. sending out their pastors on missionary errands to what were then known as the New Settlements (Vermont, New York, and Ohio)For this service they were paid four and one half dollars a week, and were allowed four dollars more for the supply of their pulpits during their absence, which usually covered about four months at a time. These missionary pastors followed the new settlers to their forest or prairie homes, preaching the Word, administering the ordinances, setting up the Church and the Sunday school, and carrying the greeting of old friends and neighbors to their distant kindred on the frontier. Yet it was something more than mere kinship and friendship that prompted these missionary journeys. There was also a great fear of barbarism, a profound dread of new States gathering strength and coming into the Union without churches or schools, without the Christian sabbath or the Christian home. Such fears seemed to haunt the churches of Connecticut and Massachusetts, which at that time were predominantly Congregational, until, in 1798, organization against an evil so threatening became a necessity. In June of that year the Missionary Society of Connecticut was organized, and one year later the Massachusetts Missionary Society came into being. These two organizations, with slight changes of name, are in existence to day. Both of them were Congregational in origin, and, for more than a hundred years, they have been the twin springs from which an everbroadening stream of home missionary interest and effort has flowed. It is important to remember that both these mother societies, while bearing the names of the States where they originated, and supported by the States whose names they bear, were not primarily for the benefit of Connecticut and Massachusetts. The object of the Connecticut society, as defined in its charter, was " to Christianize the heathen (Indians) of North America, and to support and promote Christian knowledge in the new settlements of the United States." The charter of the Massachusetts Society describes its object as being " to diffuse the Gospel among the heathen (Indians) as well as other people in the remote parts of our country." Both societies, therefore, while local in their origin and support, were truly national in spirit and aim. Other New England States followed the lead of Connecticut and Massachusetts; New Hampshire in 1801, Rhode Island in 1803, Maine and Vermont in 1807. Thus, within ten years of the first movement, the Congregational churches of the six New England States
were organized for home missions. The four States last named were animated by the same broad spirit as Connecticut and Massachusetts. If they attempted less for the new settlements to the westward than their elder neighbors, it was only because they were themselves new settlements, needing more help than they were able at that stage to bestow.
To the same fruitful decade belongs the origin of Baptist home missions in New England. Its genesis is singularly like that of the Congrega
g.Other tionalists. The Massachusetts DoEarly mestic Society, the first organization
Denomina of its kind among American Baptists, tional dates from 1802. Its object, as de
Organiza fined by its constitution, was " to furtions. nish occasional preaching and to promote the knowledge of evangelistic truth in the new settlements of the United States, or further, if circumstances should reader it proper." This organized movement was preceded, as in the case of Connecticut and Massachusetts, by intermittent effort on the part of individual churches. Indeed, the significant feature of all these early organizations is that they were the natural outgrowth of an evangelistic spirit within the churches, and in no single instance were they forced upon the churches by outside influence. Baptist home missionary effort, like Congregational, looked beyond the place of birth, sending its missionaries into Maine, lower Canada, western New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. To the same year, 1802, belongs the first systematic effort of the Presbyterians of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, acting under the same broad charter with the movement of Congregationalists and Baptists in New England, namely, " to send forth missionaries well qualified to be employed in mission work on the frontiers, for the purpose of organizing churches, administering ordinances, ordaining elders, collecting information concerning the state of religion in those parts, and preparing the best means of establishing a Gospel ministry among the people." Meanwhile the Reformed Church of America had not been idle. Sporadic missionary work began with them as early as 1786, culminating in 1882 in the organizing of the Missionary Society of the Reformed Dutch Church, differing nothing in spirit from its forerunners, but with wider scope, as it included home and foreign missions under a single organization. Methodist and Episcopalian missions, as well as Lutheran and those of the Disciples of Christ, belonged necessarily to a later period.
At the opening of the nineteenth century the new settlements, so called, were found mainly in northern New England, eastern and cen
6. Work tral New York, and in northern and in the southern Ohio, and these were naturalNorth ly the first points of home missionary west attack. The opening of the Northwest
Territory. Territory (including the present States
of Ohio Indiana Illinois Michigan and
Wisconsin) and the passage by Congress of the ordinance of 1787 attracted a stream of immigration from the East, mingled with a considerable element from Great Britain, Holland, Scandinavia, Germany
moms 3asdaaw THE NEW SCHAFF HERZZOG 842
and Moravia, Belgium and Switzerland. The earlier settlers of New York, Ohio, and Illinois, were generally Protestant in their sympathies, but unable at once, with a new country to settle and homes to be built, to provide for themselves the institutions of worship. To the help of these hopeful but destitute settlers came the organized missionary societies of the East. Their missionaries were hurried forward to every needy point, not only in the wilds of New York and Ohio, but to the remoter sections of Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. They even found their way down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and they crossed the northern borders into Canada. A specially promising field of effort was the section of Ohio bordering on Lake Erie, which had been settled chiefly by families from Connecticut, and for that reason commonly known as New Connecticut. At the beginning of the century this tract contained about 1,400 inhabitants. In 1804 it had 400 families. One year later the 400 had grown to 1,100, one half of them from New England. In less than thirty years from the beginning of organized home missions ninety churches had been planted in this section, all of them by missionaries sent out and supported by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York. To sum up in a sentence, the Missionary Society of Connecticut, at the end of thirty years of work, had employed 200 missionaries, by whom 400 churches had been established in the new settlements of the nation. With what wear and tear of body, with what sacrifice of comforts in the wilderness, with what patience of hope and courage of faith and labors of love no words could fully portray. Not a mile of railway had been built. The river and canal, the stage coach, the emigrant wagon, and the saddle were the only conveniences of travel, and to these the missionary often added foot sore and weary tramps from settlement to settlement. No Franciscan, Dominican, or Jesuit missionary of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, toiling over the same ground on missionary errands, accomplished a grander service or endured hardships more cheerfully.
All the earlier efforts above described were marked by a commendable absence of sectarian rivalry. The vastness of the problem
7. The forbade all such trifling. Prompt,
American united action was demanded. Denom
Home inational supremacy was buried under
Missionary the all absorbing issue whether New
Society. America should be a heathen or a
Christian nation. Between Presbyte
rians and Congregationalists, at that time the strong
est church bodies in the land, the spirit of union
was particularly active. For the long period of
fifty years, between 1801 and 1851, these two
churches carried on their missionary work in the
new settlements under a " Plan of Union " so called,
mutually agreed to, by which the churches of either
order, wherever formed, might worship in the same
house, elect and listen to the same pastor, and
profess the same creed, while each body was left
free to govern itself by the church polity it loved
and preferred. In 1826 Congregational, Presby
terian, Reformed, and Associate Reformed churches
still further illustrated their unsectarian spirit by uniting in the organization of a national society, known as the American Home Missionary Society. The growth and needs of the home missionary movement made this step a necessity. Hitherto State societies had been doing national work, each in its own wag. But these organizations, operating independently, had resulted in an unequal distribution of both men and money. Some regions were oversupplied, while others were left entirely destitute. Moreover, the laborers themselves inevitably came into conflict with each other. Obviously the time had arrived for federation and coordination under one national society; and that society, as above stated, was organized May 26, 1826, with headquarters in New York, the various state societies making themselves auxiliaries to the national organization. Perhaps nothing more potential in the progress of the home missionary movement, up to this date, belongs to its history than this act. For years the churches forming this alliance labored together in fraternal unity, contributing to a common treasury, and governed by a single board of directors. Receipts rapidly increased, the missionary force doubled and trebled in number, and instead of being an itinerant preacher, the home missionary became a settled pastor, bearing the commission of a national society, dwelling continually among his people, and building them up in unity and strength. It was only when these cooperating church bodies had grown strong that they amicably withdrew from this federation to organize separate societies of their own, leaving the Congregationalists to inherit the name and good will of this honored society. In fact, it was not until many years later that " American" was dropped from its charter name and " Congregational," which had become more truly descriptive of its nature, was substituted.
Meanwhile the Methodist Church, growing in strength and burning , to have a part in national evangelization, organized its mission
8. Denom ary society in 1819, which covered both
inational home and foreign work; the Episcopal
Societies. Church, its Domestic and Foreign Mis
sionary Society in 1821, also national;
the Baptists, their American Baptist Home Mission
ary Society in 1832; the Lutherans, their Home
Missionary Society of the General Synod in 1845; and
have their homeland organizations, doing an inval
uable work in the Southern States. Other church
bodies, Evangelical in character, will be found
enumerated in the table given below, which have
taken their part 8180, and are still intensely con
cerned, in this great home missionary movement.
Thus, by a steady; natural evolution of national
need and evangelistic interest two societies have
grown to be more than thirty; all the leading
church bodies of America have gradually become
organized for home evangelization, and a movement
which began in New England in 1798 for the Chris
tian enlightenment of a few kindred or neighbors
moving westward has developed into a system as
broad as the national domain, by which the stronger churches of the land have shared, and are continuing to share, the burden of their weaker brethren, and, by a united.,effort, are strengthening those forms of Christian civilization upon which the safety of the nation depends.
The following table is taken by permission from Social Progress, New York, 1906, ed. J. Strong, W. H. Tolman, and W. D. P. Bliss. No later figures than these of 1904 have been tabulated.
a moment's hesitation the missionary organizations of the East and Middle West, with the loyal support of the churches, threw themselves into the breach. Emigration from the East and the Middle West began at once, and the missionary was not slow in following the trail. The order of missionary progress through the Louisiana Purchase bas been strictly along the lines of immigration and settlement. There is not a State in that vast tract which the home missionary did not enter while it was yet a
Miseionary Society of Methodist Episcopal Church .. . .... . . . . . . . .
Church Eatenaion Board .....................................
Freedmen's Aid Society ......................................
Women's Home Missionary Society of Methodist Episcopal Church. Moravian',...................................................... Presbyterian:
Board of Home Missions of Presbyterian Church, U. 8. A. . . . . . . . .
Women's Board of Home Missions of Presbyterian Church . . . . . . . .
Board of Church Erection .................................... Southern Presbyterian ....................................... Examining Committee General AesemblY ....................... Protestant Episcopal ............................................ Reformed Church:
1 Churches sided. 2 Work carried on by the church, not by a society. s In addition to the amount expended there were given for diocesan missions during the three years ending Sept. 30, 1904, 11,413,117.
Another mighty impulse in the same direction as
chase gave us the mouth of the Mississippi and un
disturbed possession of its entire course. It carried
our western boundaries from Lake Superior to the
Rocky Mountains. Fourteen States and Territories
have been carved out of this imperial 'tract. They
include the vast corn and wheat belts of the United
States, which are capable of feeding the world,
while their underground treasures are among the
richest on the globe. Here was a new and mag
nificent opportunity for home missions, and without
Territory, and always in the first and feeblest stages of settlement. From Missouri to Iowa, from Iowa to Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska, thence to the Dakotas, and on from these points to Wyoming and 'Colorado and Montana, and, last of all, to Oklahoma until every square mile inhabited by men has been sown with Sunday schools, churches, and other institutions of education and religion. Something of the volume of this work may be gathered from the fact that on the one hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase, by a careful investigation, about 30,000 Protestant churches were enumerated within the bounds of this purchase, holding property valued at $58,000,000, sad having, approximately, 2,000,000 communicants. With rare exceptions this church growth was the fruit of home missionary culture, begun and maintained and ceasing only when the need ceased, or continuing to day in the