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9017 Week

omberg Synod

Friday by the priest and the entire clergy in pro­cession Trom the side altar to the main altar. The origin of this " mass of .the presanctified " lies, without doubt, in the East, where, on certain days of the week, the " service of the preaanctified " is still celebrated, the elements of which are sanctified on the preceding Sunday. In the Roman Catholic Church Good Friday is not a holiday, and therefore the performance of daily work is allowed. The liturgical name of Good Friday, especially among the Latins, is " day of preparation." Among the Jews that was the name for every Friday as the day of preparation for the following Sabbath. The Christians, too, often designated any Friday by this expression, but finally it was restricted to Good Friday. The Greeks call this Friday as every day of the holy and great week, the " holy and great " Friday or " the great preparation." At an earlier time it was designated by " Pascha of the crucifix­ion," in distinction from " Pascha of the resurrec­tion," the Easter festival (Augustine, De trinitate, in MPL, xhi. 894). The Italians call it venerdi santo, the French vendredi saint. In Germany, beside the name " Good Friday," there was current also the term " White Friday."

On the ceremonies of Holy Saturday or Easter Saturday see EASTER, I., 4, §§ 2 3. In the Greek

Orthodox Church the " great Sabbath "

6. Holy was esteemed more highly than Good

Saturday. Friday. Until the time of vespers it

still bears the character of mourning and earnestness; therefore it is a day of the strictest fasting. The liturgical service of this day has a specially dramatic character. The most important ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church on Holy Saturday are at the present time the consecration of the new fire, the consecration of the Easter candle, the consecration of water, the litany and the mass which, to a certain extent, still bears the impress of penitence and mourning; but this mass is celebrated with white paraments and the singing of the Gloria and the Hallelujah (see LITuRoIcs, III.). The lessons refer to the resurrection. The liturgical name of Holy Saturday is Sabbatum sanctum; the Italians therefore call it sabato canto, and the Frenchmen aamedi saint, while in Germany it is known as Osteraonnabend or Karsamstag.

The Lutheran Reformation brought about the general abolishment of the Roman Catholic cere 

monies of the week. Luther had so

q. Protes  great an aversion against them that tant Usage. in the Formula. miss&, of 1523 he did

not mention at all the celebration. In Wittenberg, therefore, these customs seem to have disappeared at a very early time. But from ser­mons of Luther dating from the years 1521 and 1522 it is evident that at that time Holy Thursday and Good Friday were distinguished by special services with sermons in Wittenberg. All Roman Catholic abuses in connection with the celebration of Holy Week were removed, but the traditional Evangelical pericopes of Passion week were adhered to. The Wittenberg church order of 1533 prescribes even double preaching for Holy Wednesday, Holy Thurs­day, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday. It is a characteristic trait of the sixteenth and seventeenth



centuries that Holy Thursday and Good Friday were treated as being of an entirely equal value. Sometimes they are considered half holidays, at other times whole holidays; then again they are not mentioned at all as days specially to be cele­brated, but Good Friday is never valued more highly than Holy Thursday. The custom of cele­brating Holy Week was in no way uniform in the first decades of the Reformation. There were terri­tories in which it was celebrated as closely as pos­sible in connection with the old Catholic customs. Good Friday developed only gradually into a full holiday. In the first half of the seventeenth cen­tury it began, in public estimation, to take prec­edence of Holy Thursday. In the Reformed Church the regulations of Zwingli had a decisive influence. Accordingly, Holy Thursday and Good Friday belonged from the beginning to the official days of the administration of the Lord's Supper. It must be assumed that the customs and ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church soon disappeared in Zurich. In the Reformed German territories of to day Holy Thursday is considered a half holiday and Good Friday a full holiday. In the Anglican Church the entire week is distinguished by special church services. This is nowhere the case now in German Evangelical territories. Palm Sunday is in many state churches the customary Sunday for confirmation. Holy Thursday is nowhere any longer a legal holiday, but is characterized only by the celebration of the Lord's Supper. Good Friday is generally a full holiday, celebrated with great earnestness. [In the Evangelical churches of Great Britain and the United States other than those named above, the observances of the week as a whole are disregarded. There is, however, a very decided tendency in several of the denomina­tions to make Good Friday a day of special service. The usages of the churches are also affecting social and business life shown in the former by refraining from participation in amusements, in closer atten­dance upon public worship, and in acts of self denial, and in the latter by such customs as the closing of exchanges, banks, and even of the offices of cor­porations.]


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Orapines, XXI., i. 24 32 (excellent

se a historical review); J. C. W. Augusti, Denkwurdip­keiten, i. 157 163, Leipaic, 1817; A. J. Binterim, Denk­w~2rdigkeiten, v., i., 173 233, Mainz, 1829; G. F. H. B,heinwald, Die kirchliche ArchMogie, pp. 190 sqq., Berlin, 1830; T. Kliefoth, Liturpiache Abhandlunpen, vols. ii. iv., Schwerin, 1859 61; H. Alt. Der christliche Cultus, ii. 22 31, 214 218, 352 364, Berlin, 1880; P. Gu4ranger, Das Kirch­enjahr, vol. vi., Mainz, 1890; V. Thalhofer, Handbuch der katholischen Liturpik, ii. 540 550, Freiburg, 1890; D. Sokolow, Darstellung des Gottesdienstes der . . . Kirche des Horpenlandes, pp. 105 eqq. Berlin, 1893; S. Bikumer, Geschichte des Breviers, pp. 112 sqq., Freiburg, 1895; E. C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der praklischen Theoloqie, i. 288 sqq., Leipeic, 1898; A. von Maltzew, Fasten  and Bluraen Triodion, pp. lxxviii. sqq., 329 sqq., Berlin, 1899; E. Wiefen, Palmsonntagsprozessionen and Palmead Bonn, 1903; F. Cabrol, Les Oripines liturriques, pp. 173 eqq., Paris, 1900; H. Kellner Heortolopie, pp. 44 aqq., Freiburg, 1908; Maximilian of Saxony, Pralectiones de liturpicis orientalibus, i. 105 sqq., Freiburg, 1908; J. H. Feaeey,

Ancient English Holy Week Ceremonial, London, 1897.



Sr.. berg Synod


I. The Homberg Synod. II. The Homberg Church Order.

Chapters i. xiv., Ritual, Worship, etc. ($ 1).

Chapters xv. xxviii., Church Organisation and Gov­ernment (¢ 2).

Chapters xmx. mtiv., Instruction (§ 3).

The Church Order never Officially Adopted (¢ 4).

Excellences and Defects of the Church Order (§ 5).

Its Models and Sources (§ 6).

I. The Homberg Synod: Even before Luther's dramatic appearance, the lords of the State in Ger­many, no less than in France and England, had ex­tended their prerogatives into the sphere of eccle­siastical affairs. The decision of the Diet of Speyer, Aug. 27, 1526, which allowed every sovereign au­thority, pending the meeting of a council, to decide matters of faith for itself and its province, recog­nizing its accountability to God and the emperor, conceded, even though in limited terms, a canonical basis for the application of territorialism in favor of the Reformation. Landgrave Philip of Hesse had the sagacity to utilize the situation in a judicious manner and convened an assembly of spiritual and temporal estates at Homberg (20 m. s.w. of Cassel) Oct. 20, 1526, " to deal in the grace of the Almighty with Christian matters and disputes." The pro­ceedings were opened in the church at Homberg on Sunday, Oct. 21. To promote discussion, the former Franciscan Franz Lambert (q.v.), of Avignon, had put forth 158 articles of debate (paradoxa), which had already been posted on the church doors. After the opening speech by the chancellor, Johann Feige, Lambert read his theses, and proceeded to substantiate them from Scripture and to enumerate the abuses of the Church. In the afternoon Adam Krafft, of Fulda, translated Lambert's theses into German, and challenged whoever found them at variance with God's Word to declare himself. Only the Franciscan prior Nicholas Ferber, of Mar­burg, came forward, and took the floor the following morning. He flatly contested the landgrave's au­thority to hold a synod, to undertake ecclesiastical changes, and to pass any measures in the affairs of the Christian faith; since this was altogether the privilege of the pope, the bishops, and the Church. When the chancellor urged the duty of the civil authorities to abolish abuses and idolatry Ferber still more sharply contested the assembly's com­petency to. deal with an ecclesiastical question, and finally he attacked the prince's character for laying hands on the goods of the Church. He did not succeed, however, in giving another turn to the proceedings; nor did he attempt to refute the prof­fered articles of debate. He soon afterward left Hesse, and issued at Cologne Aasertianes trecentat ac viginta adversus Fr. Ldmherti paradoxa impia; and subsequently Amertiones alive. On the following day (Tuesday, Oct. 23), when the synod was on the point of closing, there appeared unexpectedly Master Johann Sperber, of Waldau, near Cassel, and made a vain attempt to justify the invocation of Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, by the angelic salutation in Luke i.

II. The Homberg Church Order: As a result of the deliberations of a committee appointed prior to the closing of the synod, there was issued the V: 22

Homberg church order, or Reformatio Heasice, which in thirty four chapters deals with the entire sphere of church life. Foremost stands i. Chapters the declaration that the Word of God

i. xiv., shall be the only norm (i. if.). It is

Ritual, affirmed in the passage concerning the

Worship, Lord's Supper (iii. iv.) that " Christ etc. is present in this supper, God and man " ; provision is made for ad­ministration of the sacrament under both kinds; and the observance of the " ritual which Martin Luther has just written in German " (i.e., Die deutsche Mesas, 1526) is ordered. The wear­ing of a mass gown, the lighting of candles, and the use of a suitable cup are recommended; but the recitation of the canon of the mass and of all prayers in which the terms " sacrifice " and " host " occur, the invocation of the saints, and the like are forbidden. It is also enjoined that the organ be played not at all, or only very seldom, because it ministers to the ear alone; and, further­more, that the pompous peal of bells be avoided. At daily morning and evening service, held in the native language, the Old and New Testament Scrip­tures are to be read (v.). Obligatory confession and the avowal of separate sins (vi.), with fasting, are repealed, but fast days may be appointed by the civil ruler and by the congregation; in the latter case, however, not in the way of obligation (vii.). Chapter viii., " Concerning Festivals," reduces their number, and sets forth that for the faithful all days, properly considered, are alike, save that Sunday and the other festival days are sanctioned to the end that God's Word may be freely heard by the whole con­gregation. The important social principle is declared that on such days, apart from the hours of divine service, and without scruple of conscience, it is allowable to ply one's calling, since this is better than idleness; but one has no right to compel hired people to work at such times. No tolerance is so­corded to images and altars in the churches  only the altar from which the Lord's Supper is admin­istered shall remain, and it shall be called not altar, but table; it is temperately subjoined, however, that these things are not to be removed by the civil authority until the congregation may have neglected to remove them, after, the Gospel shall have been preached some considerable time (ix.). " Supersti­tious benedictions " of bread, wine, water, salt, etc., are forbidden, and in place of them grace at meals is recommended, though not as :e matter of com­pulsion (x.). The passage on baptism (xi.), visitation of the sick (xii.), form of burial (xiii.), and marriage (xiv.) follow, and then come the provisions affecting the congregational and ecclesiastical organization (xv. aqq.), the clauses which have made this church order famous.

Their dominating ideas are as follows: The con­gregations of the faithful are the foundation of the entire Church (xv.); and they are constituted by means of a separation of the true brethren from the false. The organization of these congregations shall be preceded by a more or less prolonged proclaiming of the Gospel; and, furthermore, by a preparatory season of one month, during which the prospective organization shall be advertised


Home ~~isslons

on Sundays and festivals. The hope is enter­

tained that by virtue of this preaching a congrega­

tion of the faithful may be formed in

a. Chapters advance of its actual organization.

xv. xxviii., The latter shall then be effected by

Church the following process: on the duly

Organiza  appointed day those who desire to be

tion and reckoned in the number of the saints

Govern  make public announcement thereof,

meat. and at the same time promise their

submission to Holy Scripture and

the church discipline. One who by his man­

ner of life or by his doctrine provokes offense

is not to be admitted among the number of

the faithful unless, within a period of two weeks,

he succeeds, by repentance, in removing the ob­

jections against him. Congregational activity

is to be exercised in assemblies and by means of

constituted officers. This assembling of the faithful

 women were allowed to be present, but not to

speak should occur every Sunday, at a suitable

place. The faithful are particularly entrusted with

the election of bishops and deacons, and the exercise

of church discipline, but, with reference to bishops

(=pastors), the qualification is made that " for this

year, and until the congregations are instructed by

God's Word" they shall be called, installed, or de­

posed by the civil sovereign and the visitatores (see

below). The bishops' duties include administration

of Word and sacrament, cure of souls, and presiding

at conventions. Eligible as bishops are devout,

learned, and blameless men of every estate, but not

princes, lords, and government officials. Deacons

are of two kinds those who assist the bishop, and

" deacons of the church," who care for the poor and

administer church property. Fervent interest is

manifested in behalf of the poor (xxvii.). Provision

is made for those who have been driven from home

for the sake of their faith (xxviii.). Besides the

episeopi. and diaeaai, seniores are mentioned (xii.,

xv., xx., xxi.), but only in the position of men of

trust in the congregation, not as officers. The per­

manent cause of rectitude in the congregation was

promoted by the church discipline, which could pro­

ceed as far as excommunication and was exercised

by direct naming of the guilty. Excommunication

consisted in exclusion from the weekly meetings and

from intercourse with the faithful, and if one who

had incurred it was overtaken by death impenitent

he should not be buried in the cemetery of the faith­

ful (xvi.). Absolution of sinners is to be granted

before the entire congregation, upon public con­

fession of sins, and subject .to open repentance

(xvii.). The congregations become incorporated as

a part of the Hessian State Church by the action of

a synod to be convened annually at Marburg, reg­

ularly on the third Sunday after Easter, for which

a session of three days at the longest was prescribed

(xviii.). The synod was to be composed of the

bishops, the congregational delegates   each con­

gregation electing one delegate from its own mem­

bers the princes, counts and lords (nobilea). It

devolved on the synod to pass upon all matters of

administering and ordering the Church according to

the Word of God, which is the only binding canon;

all decisions rendered by the synod are but so many

interpretations. To cover the interval between the several synods, an executive committee of thirteen members was to be chosen by the synod from its members, and this committee had charge of insti­tuting and directing the synods, and of devising provisional arrangements to be duly submitted to the synod itself. The synod, furthermore, was to elect three vi&itatorm (xxii.), upon whom it devolved to visit all the Hessian congregations once a year; to test, with a view to their fitness, those elected as bishops; to confirm the worthy and remove the un­worthy; to support the congregations and bishops agreeably to the Word of God; and to inculcate respect for the Word of God and the synod's resolu­tions. In urgent matters the committee should. confer with the inspectors for joint action. Very significant of the spirit of this church order is the declaration (xxvi.) that none of the church officials, neither the executive committee nor the inspectors, neither bishops nor deacons, hold priority of rank; while any striving to that end was to be punished with forfeiture of office; provision is made for rota­tion of office to be observed in the synods.

After church organization comes the matter of instruction. It is declared (xxix.) that nothing shall be taught at the new university (uni­3. Chapters versale stadium) which it was proposed xxix. xxxiv., to found at Marburg " which may be Instruction. prejudicial to the interests of the king­dom of God." Schools for boys are to be erected in the various towns and villages (xxx.); likewise, schools for girls (xxxi.), if possible, in the country as well, to train up capable housekeepers. The Reformatio closes with provisos .affecting cloisters and monks (xxxiv.); provision shall be made for all who withdraw, while in the main tolerance is the portion of those that stay behind, though they are subject to serious limitations of their freedom. In the case of vacated cloisters, either schools are to be inaugurated or, if the con­gregation so decides, they shall be applied to church or public objects.

Forasmuch as the Reformatio had not been formally accepted by the Homberg Synod, but was only the draft of a committee serv 

o. The ing by the synod's appointment, there

Church was need of some special act of legis 

Order latibn to secure official validity in Hem

Never for this private labor. Such reeog­

Ofcially nition, however, was never conceded.

Adopted. Landgmve Philip accounted it advi­

sable to submit the same to the great

Reformer for a judicial opinion. In a communica­

tion dated Jan. 7, 1527, Luther counseled not to

circulate the constitution in printed form, but first

to supply the parishes and schools with good and

worthy incumbents, and furnish them with very

brief directions. He advised not to begin with

the promulgation of finished laws, which people

could not carry out; on the contrary, let the laws

grow out of practical experience and usage. This

letter settled the fate of the church order. It not

only did not appear in print, but, as the sole two

manuscripts which have been hitherto discovered

prove, it was evidently kept discreetly in the back­

ground. The formerly much agitated question as


e l~ss~as

to whether it was at least provisionally in legal operation, is decided negatively. by the instructions to the visikttores at Pentecost, 1527, wherein with express reference to the Homberg Constitution it is declared that no other rule shall be valid than the Word of God, and that no other scheme of regula­tions shall be expected.

Luther's verdict was justified in fact, and the landgrave acted wisely in heeding the same. True enough, the constitution embodies

g. Excel  many excellent ideas, nor does it by

lences and any means deserve the reproach of

Defects radicalism. In confining church dis 

of the cipline to notorious and flagrant sins,

Church without intruding upon the province

Order. of faith, it betokens great moderation

in comparison with other church enact­

ments of the Reformation, while by transfer of

ecclesiastical jurisdiction to a sypod it pointed out

a new course for the organization of Evangelical

congregations which became legally recognized as

time advanced. It was none the less encumbered

with grave drawbacks. The most serious objection

is the one emphasized by Luther, to the effect that

the constitution was not suited to the actual situa­

tion of affairs in Hesse, but that it outlined theoret­

ically a finished constitution for a church as yet to

be founded. Along with this formal and structural

blunder, the fundamental design of the Reformatio

to establish the entire Church on the basis of elect

congregations was at fault, since it amounted to

the renouncing of a popular Church, and issued in

the creation of conventicles. By the privileged

status conceded to the civil ruler and the nobility,

which they enjoyed without, as full members of

the congregation, the responsibilities appointed for

others, the constitution provided a check on its own

principles, but at the same time demonstrated its


The church order being no original product, the question arises, where are its prototypes and sources to be sought? The assumption of a 6. Its dependent connection between it and

Models Luther has been made, and an Upper and German origin is armed; the " spir 

Sources. itualism " of the Franciscans has been

adduced; likewise Waldensian in­

fluence, and certain Wyclifian and Bohemian in­

fluences; the tendency of Gallican Christianity has

been discovered, with its emphasis on ecclesiastical

discipline; and some have referred to the general

consciousness of the Reformation, and to the tract

by Eberlin of Giinzberg, Die fttrefzehn Bundea­

genoetren (see EBERLIN, JOHANN). Amid all these

hypotheses, which, in turn, occur in a more or less

combined form, one fact appears plainly, viz., that

the Reformatio was derived not merely from one

quarter. In any case, the decisive instigation ema­

nated from Luther and from his tract Dmtsche

Meaae and Ordnung des GottesdienaW. That Luther's

influence, however, was not the only one at work

upon the Reformatio is patent from manifold par­

ticulars of the church order (eg., the committee of

thirteen, which has been found analogous to local

arrangements at Metz, Strasburg, and among the

Bohemian Brethren). Just what these influences

were is the more perplexing since even in the matter of Luther's statements in the Deutwhe Messe the question arises, to what extent here also the counsel of alien (Anabaptist?) elements is demonstrable. Any systematic analysis of the sources of the Reformatio will have to reckon with the facts that it can neither be regarded as the landgrave's work nor as the exclusive work of Lambert, seeing he was attended by colaborers; that the proof of a relative dependency is not yet established; that in those days of great ferment many Biblical ideas, medieval adjuncts  and theories were commingled and were still operative in such a way that it was impossible to undertake to separate them distinctly. CARL MIRBT.

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