omberg Synod Friday by the priest and the entire clergy in procession Trom the side altar to the main altar. The origin of this " mass of .the presanctified " lies, without doubt, in the East, where, on certain days of the week, the " service of the preaanctified " is still celebrated, the elements of which are sanctified on the preceding Sunday. In the Roman Catholic Church Good Friday is not a holiday, and therefore the performance of daily work is allowed. The liturgical name of Good Friday, especially among the Latins, is " day of preparation." Among the Jews that was the name for every Friday as the day of preparation for the following Sabbath. The Christians, too, often designated any Friday by this expression, but finally it was restricted to Good Friday. The Greeks call this Friday as every day of the holy and great week, the " holy and great " Friday or " the great preparation." At an earlier time it was designated by " Pascha of the crucifixion," in distinction from " Pascha of the resurrection," the Easter festival (Augustine, De trinitate, in MPL, xhi. 894). The Italians call it venerdi santo, the French vendredi saint. In Germany, beside the name " Good Friday," there was current also the term " White Friday."
On the ceremonies of Holy Saturday or Easter Saturday see EASTER, I., 4, §§ 2 3. In the Greek
Orthodox Church the " great Sabbath "
6. Holy was esteemed more highly than Good
Saturday. Friday. Until the time of vespers it
still bears the character of mourning and earnestness; therefore it is a day of the strictest fasting. The liturgical service of this day has a specially dramatic character. The most important ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church on Holy Saturday are at the present time the consecration of the new fire, the consecration of the Easter candle, the consecration of water, the litany and the mass which, to a certain extent, still bears the impress of penitence and mourning; but this mass is celebrated with white paraments and the singing of the Gloria and the Hallelujah (see LITuRoIcs, III.). The lessons refer to the resurrection. The liturgical name of Holy Saturday is Sabbatum sanctum; the Italians therefore call it sabato canto, and the Frenchmen aamedi saint, while in Germany it is known as Osteraonnabend or Karsamstag.
The Lutheran Reformation brought about the general abolishment of the Roman Catholic cere
monies of the week. Luther had so
q. Protes great an aversion against them that tant Usage. in the Formula. miss&, of 1523 he did
not mention at all the celebration. In Wittenberg, therefore, these customs seem to have disappeared at a very early time. But from sermons of Luther dating from the years 1521 and 1522 it is evident that at that time Holy Thursday and Good Friday were distinguished by special services with sermons in Wittenberg. All Roman Catholic abuses in connection with the celebration of Holy Week were removed, but the traditional Evangelical pericopes of Passion week were adhered to. The Wittenberg church order of 1533 prescribes even double preaching for Holy Wednesday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday. It is a characteristic trait of the sixteenth and seventeenth
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
centuries that Holy Thursday and Good Friday were treated as being of an entirely equal value. Sometimes they are considered half holidays, at other times whole holidays; then again they are not mentioned at all as days specially to be celebrated, but Good Friday is never valued more highly than Holy Thursday. The custom of celebrating Holy Week was in no way uniform in the first decades of the Reformation. There were territories in which it was celebrated as closely as possible in connection with the old Catholic customs. Good Friday developed only gradually into a full holiday. In the first half of the seventeenth century it began, in public estimation, to take precedence of Holy Thursday. In the Reformed Church the regulations of Zwingli had a decisive influence. Accordingly, Holy Thursday and Good Friday belonged from the beginning to the official days of the administration of the Lord's Supper. It must be assumed that the customs and ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church soon disappeared in Zurich. In the Reformed German territories of to day Holy Thursday is considered a half holiday and Good Friday a full holiday. In the Anglican Church the entire week is distinguished by special church services. This is nowhere the case now in German Evangelical territories. Palm Sunday is in many state churches the customary Sunday for confirmation. Holy Thursday is nowhere any longer a legal holiday, but is characterized only by the celebration of the Lord's Supper. Good Friday is generally a full holiday, celebrated with great earnestness. [In the Evangelical churches of Great Britain and the United States other than those named above, the observances of the week as a whole are disregarded. There is, however, a very decided tendency in several of the denominations to make Good Friday a day of special service. The usages of the churches are also affecting social and business life shown in the former by refraining from participation in amusements, in closer attendance upon public worship, and in acts of self denial, and in the latter by such customs as the closing of exchanges, banks, and even of the offices of corporations.]
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Orapines, XXI., i. 24 32 (excellent
se a historical review); J. C. W. Augusti, Denkwurdipkeiten, i. 157 163, Leipaic, 1817; A. J. Binterim, Denkw~2rdigkeiten, v., i., 173 233, Mainz, 1829; G. F. H. B,heinwald, Die kirchliche ArchMogie, pp. 190 sqq., Berlin, 1830; T. Kliefoth, Liturpiache Abhandlunpen, vols. ii. iv., Schwerin, 1859 61; H. Alt. Der christliche Cultus, ii. 22 31, 214 218, 352 364, Berlin, 1880; P. Gu4ranger, Das Kirchenjahr, vol. vi., Mainz, 1890; V. Thalhofer, Handbuch der katholischen Liturpik, ii. 540 550, Freiburg, 1890; D. Sokolow, Darstellung des Gottesdienstes der . . . Kirche des Horpenlandes, pp. 105 eqq. Berlin, 1893; S. Bikumer, Geschichte des Breviers, pp. 112 sqq., Freiburg, 1895; E. C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der praklischen Theoloqie, i. 288 sqq., Leipeic, 1898; A. von Maltzew, Fasten and Bluraen Triodion, pp. lxxviii. sqq., 329 sqq., Berlin, 1899; E. Wiefen, Palmsonntagsprozessionen and Palmead Bonn, 1903; F. Cabrol, Les Oripines liturriques, pp. 173 eqq., Paris, 1900; H. Kellner Heortolopie, pp. 44 aqq., Freiburg, 1908; Maximilian of Saxony, Pralectiones de liturpicis orientalibus, i. 105 sqq., Freiburg, 1908; J. H. Feaeey,
Ancient English Holy Week Ceremonial, London, 1897.
HOLZHAUSER, BARTHOLOMAEUS.See BARTHOLOMITEB, .2.
337 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Holy Week
Sr.. berg Synod
HOM13ERG SYNOD AND CHURCH ORDER OF 1526.
I. The Homberg Synod. II. The Homberg Church Order.
Chapters i. xiv., Ritual, Worship, etc. ($ 1).
Chapters xv. xxviii., Church Organisation and Government (¢ 2).
Chapters xmx. mtiv., Instruction (§ 3).
The Church Order never Officially Adopted (¢ 4).
Excellences and Defects of the Church Order (§ 5).
Its Models and Sources (§ 6).
I. The Homberg Synod:Even before Luther's dramatic appearance, the lords of the State in Germany, no less than in France and England, had extended their prerogatives into the sphere of ecclesiastical affairs. The decision of the Diet of Speyer, Aug. 27, 1526, which allowed every sovereign authority, pending the meeting of a council, to decide matters of faith for itself and its province, recognizing its accountability to God and the emperor, conceded, even though in limited terms, a canonical basis for the application of territorialism in favor of the Reformation. Landgrave Philip of Hesse had the sagacity to utilize the situation in a judicious manner and convened an assembly of spiritual and temporal estates at Homberg (20 m. s.w. of Cassel) Oct. 20, 1526, " to deal in the grace of the Almighty with Christian matters and disputes." The proceedings were opened in the church at Homberg on Sunday, Oct. 21. To promote discussion, the former Franciscan Franz Lambert (q.v.), of Avignon, had put forth 158 articles of debate (paradoxa), which had already been posted on the church doors. After the opening speech by the chancellor, Johann Feige, Lambert read his theses, and proceeded to substantiate them from Scripture and to enumerate the abuses of the Church. In the afternoon Adam Krafft, of Fulda, translated Lambert's theses into German, and challenged whoever found them at variance with God's Word to declare himself. Only the Franciscan prior Nicholas Ferber, of Marburg, came forward, and took the floor the following morning. He flatly contested the landgrave's authority to hold a synod, to undertake ecclesiastical changes, and to pass any measures in the affairs of the Christian faith; since this was altogether the privilege of the pope, the bishops, and the Church. When the chancellor urged the duty of the civil authorities to abolish abuses and idolatry Ferber still more sharply contested the assembly's competency to. deal with an ecclesiastical question, and finally he attacked the prince's character for laying hands on the goods of the Church. He did not succeed, however, in giving another turn to the proceedings; nor did he attempt to refute the proffered articles of debate. He soon afterward left Hesse, and issued at Cologne Aasertianes trecentat ac viginta adversus Fr. Ldmherti paradoxa impia; and subsequently Amertiones alive. On the following day (Tuesday, Oct. 23), when the synod was on the point of closing, there appeared unexpectedly Master Johann Sperber, of Waldau, near Cassel, and made a vain attempt to justify the invocation of Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, by the angelic salutation in Luke i.
II. The Homberg Church Order: As a result of the deliberations of a committee appointed prior to the closing of the synod, there was issued the V: 22
Homberg church order, or Reformatio Heasice, which in thirty four chapters deals with the entire sphere of church life. Foremost stands i. Chapters the declaration that the Word of God
i. xiv., shall be the only norm (i. if.). It is
Ritual, affirmed in the passage concerning the
Worship, Lord's Supper (iii. iv.) that " Christ etc. is present in this supper, God and man " ; provision is made for administration of the sacrament under both kinds; and the observance of the " ritual which Martin Luther has just written in German " (i.e., Die deutsche Mesas, 1526) is ordered. The wearing of a mass gown, the lighting of candles, and the use of a suitable cup are recommended; but the recitation of the canon of the mass and of all prayers in which the terms " sacrifice " and " host " occur, the invocation of the saints, and the like are forbidden. It is also enjoined that the organ be played not at all, or only very seldom, because it ministers to the ear alone; and, furthermore, that the pompous peal of bells be avoided. At daily morning and evening service, held in the native language, the Old and New Testament Scriptures are to be read (v.). Obligatory confession and the avowal of separate sins (vi.), with fasting, are repealed, but fast days may be appointed by the civil ruler and by the congregation; in the latter case, however, not in the way of obligation (vii.). Chapter viii., " Concerning Festivals," reduces their number, and sets forth that for the faithful all days, properly considered, are alike, save that Sunday and the other festival days are sanctioned to the end that God's Word may be freely heard by the whole congregation. The important social principle is declared that on such days, apart from the hours of divine service, and without scruple of conscience, it is allowable to ply one's calling, since this is better than idleness; but one has no right to compel hired people to work at such times. No tolerance is socorded to images and altars in the churches only the altar from which the Lord's Supper is administered shall remain, and it shall be called not altar, but table; it is temperately subjoined, however, that these things are not to be removed by the civil authority until the congregation may have neglected to remove them, after, the Gospel shall have been preached some considerable time (ix.). " Superstitious benedictions " of bread, wine, water, salt, etc., are forbidden, and in place of them grace at meals is recommended, though not as :e matter of compulsion (x.). The passage on baptism (xi.), visitation of the sick (xii.), form of burial (xiii.), and marriage (xiv.) follow, and then come the provisions affecting the congregational and ecclesiastical organization (xv. aqq.), the clauses which have made this church order famous.
Their dominating ideas are as follows: The congregations of the faithful are the foundation of the entire Church (xv.); and they are constituted by means of a separation of the true brethren from the false. The organization of these congregations shall be preceded by a more or less prolonged proclaiming of the Gospel; and, furthermore, by a preparatory season of one month, during which the prospective organization shall be advertised
Homberg SsaodTHE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 888
Home ~~isslons on Sundays and festivals. The hope is enter
tained that by virtue of this preaching a congrega
tion of the faithful may be formed in
a. Chapters advance of its actual organization.
xv. xxviii., The latter shall then be effected by
Church the following process: on the duly
Organiza appointed day those who desire to be
tion and reckoned in the number of the saints
Govern make public announcement thereof,
meat. and at the same time promise their
submission to Holy Scripture and
the church discipline. One who by his man
ner of life or by his doctrine provokes offense
is not to be admitted among the number of
the faithful unless, within a period of two weeks,
he succeeds, by repentance, in removing the ob
jections against him. Congregational activity
is to be exercised in assemblies and by means of
constituted officers. This assembling of the faithful
he should not be buried in the cemetery of the faith
ful (xvi.). Absolution of sinners is to be granted
before the entire congregation, upon public con
fession of sins, and subject .to open repentance
(xvii.). The congregations become incorporated as
a part of the Hessian State Church by the action of
a synod to be convened annually at Marburg, reg
ularly on the third Sunday after Easter, for which
a session of three days at the longest was prescribed
(xviii.). The synod was to be composed of the
bishops, the congregational delegates each con
gregation electing one delegate from its own mem
bers the princes, counts and lords (nobilea). It
devolved on the synod to pass upon all matters of
administering and ordering the Church according to
the Word of God, which is the only binding canon;
all decisions rendered by the synod are but so many
interpretations. To cover the interval between the several synods, an executive committee of thirteen members was to be chosen by the synod from its members, and this committee had charge of instituting and directing the synods, and of devising provisional arrangements to be duly submitted to the synod itself. The synod, furthermore, was to elect three vi&itatorm (xxii.), upon whom it devolved to visit all the Hessian congregations once a year; to test, with a view to their fitness, those elected as bishops; to confirm the worthy and remove the unworthy; to support the congregations and bishops agreeably to the Word of God; and to inculcate respect for the Word of God and the synod's resolutions. In urgent matters the committee should. confer with the inspectors for joint action. Very significant of the spirit of this church order is the declaration (xxvi.) that none of the church officials, neither the executive committee nor the inspectors, neither bishops nor deacons, hold priority of rank; while any striving to that end was to be punished with forfeiture of office; provision is made for rotation of office to be observed in the synods.
After church organization comes the matter of instruction. It is declared (xxix.) that nothing shall be taught at the new university (uni3. Chapters versale stadium) which it was proposed xxix. xxxiv., to found at Marburg " which may be Instruction. prejudicial to the interests of the kingdom of God." Schools for boys are to be erected in the various towns and villages (xxx.); likewise, schools for girls (xxxi.), if possible, in the country as well, to train up capable housekeepers. The Reformatio closes with provisos .affecting cloisters and monks (xxxiv.); provision shall be made for all who withdraw, while in the main tolerance is the portion of those that stay behind, though they are subject to serious limitations of their freedom. In the case of vacated cloisters, either schools are to be inaugurated or, if the congregation so decides, they shall be applied to church or public objects.
Forasmuch as the Reformatio had not been formally accepted by the Homberg Synod, but was only the draft of a committee serv
o. The ing by the synod's appointment, there
Church was need of some special act of legis
Order latibn to secure official validity in Hem
Never for this private labor. Such reeog
Ofcially nition, however, was never conceded.
Adopted. Landgmve Philip accounted it advi
sable to submit the same to the great
Reformer for a judicial opinion. In a communica
tion dated Jan. 7, 1527, Luther counseled not to
circulate the constitution in printed form, but first
to supply the parishes and schools with good and
worthy incumbents, and furnish them with very
brief directions. He advised not to begin with
the promulgation of finished laws, which people
could not carry out; on the contrary, let the laws
grow out of practical experience and usage. This
letter settled the fate of the church order. It not
only did not appear in print, but, as the sole two
manuscripts which have been hitherto discovered
prove, it was evidently kept discreetly in the back
ground. The formerly much agitated question as
889 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA HomHomber~ 8ynod
e l~ss~as to whether it was at least provisionally in legal operation, is decided negatively. by the instructions to the visikttores at Pentecost, 1527, wherein with express reference to the Homberg Constitution it is declared that no other rule shall be valid than the Word of God, and that no other scheme of regulations shall be expected.
Luther's verdict was justified in fact, and the landgrave acted wisely in heeding the same. True enough, the constitution embodies
ecclesiastical jurisdiction to a sypod it pointed out
a new course for the organization of Evangelical
congregations which became legally recognized as
time advanced. It was none the less encumbered
with grave drawbacks. The most serious objection
is the one emphasized by Luther, to the effect that
the constitution was not suited to the actual situa
tion of affairs in Hesse, but that it outlined theoret
ically a finished constitution for a church as yet to
be founded. Along with this formal and structural
blunder, the fundamental design of the Reformatio
to establish the entire Church on the basis of elect
congregations was at fault, since it amounted to
the renouncing of a popular Church, and issued in
the creation of conventicles. By the privileged
status conceded to the civil ruler and the nobility,
which they enjoyed without, as full members of
the congregation, the responsibilities appointed for
others, the constitution provided a check on its own
principles, but at the same time demonstrated its
The church order being no original product, the question arises, where are its prototypes and sources to be sought? The assumption of a 6. Its dependent connection between it and
Models Luther has been made, and an Upper and German origin is armed; the " spir
Sources. itualism " of the Franciscans has been
adduced; likewise Waldensian in
fluence, and certain Wyclifian and Bohemian in
fluences; the tendency of Gallican Christianity has
been discovered, with its emphasis on ecclesiastical
discipline; and some have referred to the general
consciousness of the Reformation, and to the tract
by Eberlin of Giinzberg, Die fttrefzehn Bundea
genoetren (see EBERLIN, JOHANN). Amid all these
hypotheses, which, in turn, occur in a more or less
combined form, one fact appears plainly, viz., that
the Reformatio was derived not merely from one
quarter. In any case, the decisive instigation ema
nated from Luther and from his tract Dmtsche
Meaae and Ordnung des GottesdienaW. That Luther's
influence, however, was not the only one at work
upon the Reformatio is patent from manifold par
ticulars of the church order (eg., the committee of
thirteen, which has been found analogous to local
arrangements at Metz, Strasburg, and among the
Bohemian Brethren). Just what these influences
were is the more perplexing since even in the matter of Luther's statements in the Deutwhe Messe the question arises, to what extent here also the counsel of alien (Anabaptist?) elements is demonstrable. Any systematic analysis of the sources of the Reformatio will have to reckon with the facts that it can neither be regarded as the landgrave's work nor as the exclusive work of Lambert, seeing he was attended by colaborers; that the proof of a relative dependency is not yet established; that in those days of great ferment many Biblical ideas, medieval adjuncts and theories were commingled and were still operative in such a way that it was impossible to undertake to separate them distinctly. CARL MIRBT.