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The Christian Reformed Church (Chrietelifke Ciereformeerde gerken)

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2. The Christian Reformed Church (Chrietelifke Ciereformeerde gerken): At the general synod of 1816 (see above) a slight, though important, change in the subscription form for candidates gave occa­sion for a great controversy. The question arose whether the standards of doctrine were authoritative because they agreed with the Word of God, or so far as they agreed therewith. The synod of 1835 gave the right to every candidate to decide this for himself. This, it was believed, gave liberty for the introduction of all manner of error, as well as for its propagation. Royal mandates also often inter­fered with the internal affairs of the Church. The " New Regulations " adopted in 1816 and the ad­ministrative committees then formed controlled everything. With the deposition of one of the Evangelical ministers; De Cock, because he would not conform in certain matters, a crisis came in 1834, and the Evangelical party came into conflict with the authorities, and a secession was resolved upon. The movement was supported by Da Costa and Groen van Prinsterer, although they never left the old Church. It was embarrassed, however, by an ancient law, forbidding the assembling together of more than twenty persons, outside the recognized churches, for public worship. In 1836 a royal decree, repeated in 1841, confirmed this law, yet it pointed out a way by which new congregations could be legally constituted. The seceders organized the Christian Reformed Church, declaring that they did not wish to secede from the Church, but only from the bureaucratic administrative committee. Large multitudes soon joined them. In 1836 their first synodical meeting was held. Revivals followed the purer preaching of the Word, and new churches were organized; but many fines and imprisonments followed. The result was that emigration was determined upon by several pastors with their entire flocks. These began to come to America about 1846, settling in Michigan and other States of the Middle West. After half a century these pilgrim Dutch churches, partly under their own name and partly under the Reformed Church in America, now num­ber about 400 (see REFORMED CHURCHES). New decrees in Holland, in 1849, 1852, 1868, abrogated all restrictions. The separated churches at length secured a legal standing, except that they received no support from the state. These churches adhere to the doctrine and discipline of the Synod of Dort, and thus stand in agreement with the Reformed Church in America. Their general synod meets tri­ennially. In 1854 they established their theological school at Kampen; and in 1879 arrangements were also made for higher education by the founding of


the Free University of Amsterdam. This thriving seceder Church in Holland had 276 churches in 1860 and 400 in 1900. It,has exerted a most happy in­fluence upon the old Reformed Church by reviving the power of the Reformation faith in that body.

In 1892 a union was effected between the Synod of " The Christian Reformed Church " with the ex­ception of a small protesting body and a certain Provisional Synod of " Dutch Reformed Churches," known as the " Doleerende Kerken," originating in 1886, and claiming to be the successors in doctrine of the Synod of Dort of 1619. These united bodies style themselves the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (" de Gereformeerde Kerken in.Neder­land "). They have more than 700 churches and represent one tenth of the entire population. This knew body at once gave Notice to all other Reformed or Presbyterian churches, in all lands, of its formar tion, its doctrine and polity, and invited corre­spondence and exchange of delegates. The Reformed Church in America at once entered into corre­spondence with this body, and appoints delegates regularly to its triennial general synods.

8. The Lutheran Church: The Reformation in Holland started simultaneously with, but inde­pendently of, the Lutheran Reformation in Ger­many; but Lutherans soon penetrated also into Holland. This form of Protestantism, however, was always of minor importance in that country. The first congregation was at Woerden, which adopted the Augsburg Confession in 1566. In 1605 a union was effected among seven Lutheran ministers, who agreed on a system of faith and a liturgy. This union developed by 1612 into the so called " Lu­theran Brotherhood," which held conventions once in five years. The last Lutheran synod under the Republic met in 1696. In 1818 King William I. gave a new organization to the Evangelical Lutheran Church. This was modified in 1855 and again in 1859, so as to render the Church independent of all state control. Since 1819 their synod has held annual meetings, consisting of fifteen members, eight of whom are ministers. Each local church is governed by a consistory. At first their ministers were all educated in Germany, but in 1816 a Lu­theran seminary was founded in Amsterdam. Like all other Protestant bodies, this church was affected, more or less, by the rationalism of the period. A reaction began about 1791, and a rupture occurred between the rationalists and those who insisted on returning to the old confessions and liturgy. An " Old Lutheran Church " finally obtained legal standing in 1835, and further legal confirmation in 1866. Its affairs are directed by an assembly of seventeen members, nine of whom must be ministers. Candidates for the ministry were at first instructed in different schools in Amsterdam, but since 1877 in the University of Amsterdam, where a Lutheran minister teaches theology. The sharp differences between the two bodies gradually subsided, and in 1874 they were reunited. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is divided into the seven districts of Amster­dam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, Haarlem, Groningen, and Hertogenbosch, and numbers at present forty nine congregations and nine mission congregations, with sixty one active ministers. The

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seminary of this body is connected with the Univer­sity of Amsterdam. The Revived (Hersteld) Evan­gelical Lutheran Church has at present eight con­gregations with eleven active pastors. All these congregations are free to call their pastors and are independent in government. There are also churches styled the Evangelical Brotherhood at Zeist and Haarlem, and German Evangelical churches at The Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam.

4. Baptists: This body is often called Mennonites from Menno Simons (q.v.). They rejected infant baptism. For a time they had no central organiza­tion, and hence several divisions existed among them, but these were harmonized in 1650. Doc­trinal differences subsequently sprang up. The orthodox took the name of Zonists, and the liberals that of Lamists. The names were derived from the armorial bearings of their respective localities; but in 1801 the two divisions reunited. One special feature of this Church is its confessional freedom. There is no common standard of doctrine. Whoever makes a sincere confession of sin, and promises to lead a righteous life, is admitted to membership, without regard to his views of the person and work of Christ. As a rule, only regularly educated persons enter the ministry, but there is also. a class of " ex­horters." In 1811 a General Society was formed for the encouragement of theological education and for the support of the ministry among the poorer congregations. At the same time they enlarged the curriculum of their seminary, which was founded in 1731. They had in 1898 116 congregations. All the congregations have perfect freedom in calling ministers and are independent in government. See MENNONITES. [There are in the Netherlands sev­eral Baptist churches of the Anglo American type.

A. H. N.]

6. Remonstrants: This body, dating from about 1618, in regulations revised in 1879 set forth the aim of the body to be " to further the Christian life on the basis of the Gospel, while at the same time hold­ing fast to freedom and toleration." The control of the body is vested in an assembly which meets annually. It is composed of the professors, all the ministers, delegates from the congregations, and a few others. A permanent committee of five mem­bers executes the resolutions of the assembly, and supervises the administration. But this body is gradually declining. The Church of Rotterdam is their principal church, having about 600 memklers. They have freedom in making calls and are inde­pendent in government. See REmoNsTRANTs.

II. The Roman Catholic Church: At the time of the Reformation the Netherlands belonged to the bishopric of Utrecht. In 1559 this was made an archbishopric. After the death of Ferdinand Schenk van Toutenberg in 1580, the last archbishop, the ecclesiastical affairs of Holland were adminis­tered by apostolic vicars. From 1717 onward papal legates took control. They were called vice superi­ors and dwelt at Cologne or Brussels. Since 1840 Dutch ecclesiastical affairs have been under a papal internuncio at The Hague, and three apostolic vicars, located at Hertogenbosch, Breda, and Lim­bursch. The overthrow of the State Church in 1796 led to renewed activity among the Romanists. The


hierarchy was reestablished in 1853, with a great increase of priests. Many of the priests are engaged in schools and administration. In the reconstituted hierarchy Holland forms one province, divided into five dioceses, namely, the archbishopric of Utrecht, with suffragans at Haarlem, Hertogenbosch, Breda, and Roermond. Each diocese has a chapter, con­sisting of a dean and eight canons, who are the bishop's council and who meet monthly. In case of vacancies they name three persons, from whom the pope selects the successor. Each diocese has a seminary for priests, under the bishop, who names all the professors.

Ill. The Jansenist Church: For an account of this body the reader is referred to the article JANSENIST CHURCH IN HOLLAND.

IV. The Jews: The number of Jews in Holland was not large until Holland had gained her inde­pendence. They came principally from the Iberian Peninsula and Germany. After the Union of Utrecht in 1579 Jews of Spain and Portugal fled to Holland, became strong supporters of the House of Orange, and received from it corresponding protec­tion. The Portuguese Jews in Holland were richer and more refined than the German Jews, but the latter were far more numerous. Between these two bodies there was at first but little intercourse; but the German Jews gradually increased in wealth and culture, while the Portuguese Jews in their affluence either stood still or retrograded. There were also some differences in their ritual and ceremonies, and in the pronunciation of the Hebrew language. These circumstances tended to prevent close relationship at first; but in 1814 a union was effected, and rab­binical vacancies were thenceforth filled from either nationality.

The German Jews incorporated their brethren, who were already settled in the Netherlands, with themselves, and subsequently many other Jewish refugees from eastern Europe. All these collectively now constitute the Netherlandish Israelite Society. The German Jews began to enter Holland in con­siderable numbers about 1615; and although they were never so highly esteemed nor had enjoyed such privileges as the Portuguese Jews, yet their congrega­tion at Amsterdam, established in 1636, is the cen­tral congregation of Jews in Holland. Their petition in 1648 to be allowed to build a synagogue was at first refused. But their ranks were so largely in­creased during the two or three decades follow­ing that permission was granted them, and (in 1671) they erected a great synagogue in Amsterdam, which stands to this day. In this they are all united to form one great congregation. Political equality was not secured by them until 1796. The first decree for the management of their affairs was issued in 1808. This made one supreme consistory over all German Jews in Holland. When the country became a French province in 1813 this consistory was for a time subordinate to the central Jewish consistory at Paris; but in 1816 William I. appointed " A General Commission of Advice " for all Jews in the kingdom. A definite organization was not at­tained until 1870. The affairs of the Netherlandish Israelite Society are now in the hands of a central board, which meets annually, while a permanent

committee of three sitting in Amsterdam attends to current business. The Portuguese Jews were per­mitted to build a synagogue at Amsterdam as early as 1597. Others were soon built, including one at The lftague. Their school, established at Amsterdam in 1639, developed into a rabbinical seminary, and still exists. Since 1870 their affairs are managed by a central board. The society at The Hague has one rabbi, while that at Amsterdam has a college with three associates. In 1900 the number of Jews in Holland was 103,988. Of these, 64,748 were Holland Jews, 5,645 were Portuguese Jews.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: General and statistical are: P. H. Wick­steed, The Ecclesiastical Institutions of Holland, London, 1875; J. R. Gunning, Het Protestanache Nederland onzer Dapen, Groningen, 1889; M.. W. L. van Alphen, Nieuw Kerkehjk Handboek (annual). For the Protestants con­sult: G. Brandt, Hist. of the Reformation in and about the Low Countries, 4 vols., London, 1720; J. M. Neale, Hist. of the So called Janwnist Church of Holland, ib. 1858 J. Knappert, De Nederlandeche Hervmmde Kerk, Leyden, 1883; M. G. Hausen, The Reformed Church in the Netherlands, New York, 1884; G. J. Vos, De tepen­woordipe inricting der Vaderlandache Kerk, Dort, 1884; D. van Pelt, A Church and her Martyrs, New York, 1889; J. L. Motley, Rise of the Dutch Republic, and His­tory of the United Netherlands, in his Works 7 vols., New York, 1900; H. J. A. Copeens, Alpemeen Ovxzicht der Kerkgeschiedenis van Noord Nederland, Utrecht 1902; Hvon' Hoffmann, Das Kirchenverfaseunperecht der nie­drl8ndiechen Reformierten bis 1618, Leipsie, 1902; J. Kui­per, Oeschiedenis van hit godedienatip en Kerkehjk Leven van hat Nederlandache Volk, Nijkerk, 1902 03; Neder­land8che evanpelisch protestantache Vereenipung, 1863­1808, The Hague, 1903; C. W. van Boetselser van Dub­beldam, De pereformeerde Kerken in Nederland en de Zen­ding in Oost India in de dapen der Ooshlndische compagnie, Utrecht, 1906; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neueden Kir­chengeschichle, iv. 451 479, Berlin, 1901. For the Catho­lics and Old Catholics: De Oud Katholieken in Nederland, The Hague, 1872; Bijdragen voar de geachiedenie der Roomach Katholieks Kerk in Nederland, Rotterdam 1888; F. A. van Kerkhoff, Ben Terugblik op hit heretel der Hier­archic in Nederland, Vlaardingen, 1893; P. H. Albers, Ge­achiadenis van hot hratel der Hierarchic in do Nederlanden, 2 vols., Nijmegen, 1903 04; F. Nippold, ut sup., ii. 412­430.

HOLLAND, HENRY SCOTT: Church of England; b. at Ledbury (13 m. e. of Hereford), Herefordshire, Jan. 27, 1847. He studied at Balliol College, Oxford, (B.A., 1870), and was senior student at Christ Church, Oxford, from 1870 to 1885, and theological tutor in the same college from 1872 to 1885. In 1883,84 he was honorary canon of St. Petroc in Truro Cathedral and examining chaplain to the bishop of Truro in 1883 1904. He was commissary to the bishop of Brisbane from 1885 to 1903, and has been examining chaplain to the bishop of St. Andrews since 1893, and to the bishop of Oxford since 1901. Since 1884 he has been a canon of St. Paul's Cathedral. In addition to editing Com­monwealth since 1899 and contributing Faith to Charles Gore's Lux Mundi (London, 1889), and Church and State to the same theologian's Essays in Aid of the Reform of the Church, (1898), as well as The Obligation of Civil Law to J. E. Hand's Good Citizenship (1899), he has written The Apostolic Fathers (London, 1878); Four Addresses on the Sacrifice of the Cross (1879); Logic and Life, with Other Sermons (1882); Good Friday Addresses at St. Paul's Cathedral (1884); Christ or Ecclesiastes (1887); Creed and Character (1887); On Behalf of



Belief (1888); Memoir of Madame Jenny Lind­

Goldschmidt (in collaboration with W. S. Rockstro;

2 vols., 1891); Pleas and Claims for Christ (1892);

God's City and the Coming of the Kingdom (1894);

Old and New (1900); Personal Studies (1905); and

Vital Values (1906). A selected collection of his

writings was edited by J. H. Burn under the title

Helps to Faith and Practice (London, 1900).


dogmatician; b. at Wulkow, near Stargard (21 m.

e.s.e. of Stettin), in Pomerania, 1648; d. at Jakobs­

hagen (15 m. e. of Stargard) Apr. 17, 1713. He

studied at Erfurt and Wittenberg, and became

preacher at Patzeriin near Stargard in 1670, at

Stargard in 1681 (in 1683 also conrector), rector in

Colberg in 1684, and pastor in Jakobshagen in 1692:

His principal work is his Examen theologicum acro­

amaticum (Rostock afterward Stockholm and

Leipsic, 1707; 7th and 8th eds. by Romanus Teller,

1750 and 1763). The work is the last of the strict

Lutheran systems of dogmatics. Hollatz knows

Pietism, but does not mention it, although he refutes

mysticism. The system is divided into qucestiones,

which are explained by probationes; these are fol­

lowed by antitheses, against which the different

inatantia are brought forward. Hollatz also pub­

lished Scrutinium veratatis in mysticorum dogmata

(Wittenberg, 1711); Ein gottgeheiligt dreifaehes

Kleeblatt (Leidender Jesus) (1713); a collection of

sermons; and other works.

2. Grandson of the preceding, preacher at Giin­

tersberg, near Zachau, in Pomerania from 1730

till his death, June 14, 1771. He wrote devotional

books which were much read, often translated, and

are still being edited and republished (e.g., Gebahnte

Pilgerstrasse nach dem Berge Zion, Basel, 1866;

Evangelische Gnadenordnungen, Basel, 1894; Eng.

transl., The Order of Evangelical Grace in the

Economy of Salvation, London, 1838; Verherr­

lichung Christi in seinem theueren and unschatz­

baren Blute, Basel 1894). After a controversy

between Hollatz and S. J. Baumgarten of Halle the

orthodox looked upon him with disfavor. He

steadily receded more and more from the church

doctrines and adopted the views of the Moravians,

among whom he found greater sympathy. His

Samtliche erbauliche Schriften were published in

2 parts at G6rlitz, 1772 73, and Frankfort, 1782.

(P. WOL1rP'.)


copal missionary bishop of Haiti; b. at Washington,

D. C., Oct. 3, 1829. His parents were colored Ro­

YAan Catholics, and he was educated at Washing­

ton, New York, Buffalo, and Detroit. At the age

of twenty one he became a convert from the Roman

Catholic to the Protestant Episcopal Church, and

after being associate editor of The Voice of the

Fugitive at Windsor, Ont., from 1851 to 1853, and

principal of a public school in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1854,

he was ordered deacon in 1855 and ordained priest

in the following year. He was then rector of St.

Luke's, New Haven, Conn., for five years (1856 61),

after which he was a missionary at Haiti (1861 74).

In 1874 he was consecrated bishop of Haiti. He

was also consul of Liberia at Port au Prince, Haiti, from 1864 to 1874.

HOLIM, ROBERT: English Biblical scholar; b. in London 1748 (baptized at St. Martin's in the­Fields Nov. 30); d. at Oxford Nov. 12, 1805. He was educated at Winchester College, and at New College, Oxford (B.A., 1770; M.A., 1774; B.D., 1787; D.D., 1789). In 1770 he obtained a fellowship in New College, and subsequently the college rectory of Stanton St. John's, Oxfordshire. He was Bamp­ton lecturer in 1782, and in 1783 he succeeded John Randolph as professor of poetry. He received prebends in Salisbury Cathedral (1790), Hereford Cathedral (1791), and Christ Church, Oxford (1795). He was elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1797, and was made dean of Winchester in 1804. He pub­lished his Bampton lectures, On the Propheciesand Testimony of John the Baptist, and the Parallel Prophecies of Jesus Christ (Oxford, 1782), and several theological tracts and sermons. Most of these wri­tings were included in Treatises on. Religious and Scriptural Subjects (1806). His great work, how­ever, was his collation of the text of the Septuagint, Vetus Testamentum Gracum cum variis lectionxbus (5 vols., 1798 1827; see BIBLE VERsIoNs, A, 1., 1, § 2). In this important undertaking, to which he devoted the last seventeen years of his life, Holmes was assisted by many scholars in the libraries through­out Europe, and supported financially by the dele­gates of the Clarendon Press. After his death the work of editing the 142 manuscript volumes of col­lations, which had been deposited in the Bodleian Library, was completed by James Parsons. During the progress of the work annual reports were pub­lished, which are of bibliographical interest.

BIBLIOGRAPHT: DNB, xxvii. 197 198; T. H. Horne, In­troduction to the Holy Scriptures, bibliographical appen­dix, I., section v., ¢ 2, no. 15, New York 1867; E, Riehm, Einkitung in das A. T., pp. 501 sqq., Halle, 1890; C. A. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture, pp. 207 et passim, New York, 1899; H. B. $wete, Introduction to the O. T. in Greek, pp. 185 sqq., Cambridge, 1900.


HOLSTE (HOLSTENIUS), LUCAS: German con­vert from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism in the seventeenth century; b. at Hamburg 1596; d. at Rome Feb. 2, 1661. He was educated in his native city and after 1617 at Leyden, making special studies of the old geographers, and showing a pred­ilection for Platonic and Neoplatonic philosophy. Disappointed by his failure to attain a position as teacher in Hamburg, he went in 1622 to England and in 1624 to Paris, where he was made librarian of President de Mesmes, and under Jesuit influence adopted the Roman religion. The change has been explained as due to ulterior motives, but Holste himself ascribed his conversion to personal convic­tion resulting from his philosophical and theological studies. In 1627 he established himself in Rome, where he found a protector and friend in Cardinal Francesco Barberini, nephew of Urban VIII., and received a canonry in St. Peter's. Innocent X. made him librarian of the Vatican, and Alexander VII. a consultor of the Congregation of the Index. He helped to convert prominent Protestants, and was sent to give instructions to Queen Christina of


Holy Family


Sweden before her reception into the Church of

Rome. His literary undertakings, which were of

such a comprehensive nature that he could not

finish them before his death, were of great impor­

tance for the Liber pontifwalis, Ltber diurnus pony

tt'ficum Romanorum, the older martyrologies and

monastic rules (Codex regularum etc., 3 vols., Rome,

1661), papal briefs and acts of councils (Colledio

Romana veterum aliquot historice ecclesiasticor monu­

mentorum, 1662). (E. HErrREt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The reports concerning Holste are care­fully collected in J. Moller, Cimbria literata, iii. 321 342, Copenhagen, 1744. Consult: [N. Wilckens] Leben des getelerten Luc. Holetenii, Hamburg, 1723; ADB, aii. 778; A. Bass, Die Convertiten seit der Reformation, v. 186 sqq., Freiburg, 1867.

HOLSTEN, KARL CHRISTIAN JOHANN: Theo­logian of the Tubingen School; b. at Gtistrow (100 m. n.n.w. of Berlin), Mecklenburg, Mar. 31, 1825; d. at Heidelberg Jan. 26, 1897. He was educated at Leipsic, Berlin, and Rostock (Ph.D., 1853), and became teacher of religion, German, and Greek in the Rostock gymnasium (1852), remaining in this position until 1870. Through his writings on the Pauline theology he attracted the attention of the leaders of the theological Reformatory movement in Switzerland, and was called in 1870 to the Univer­sity of Bern. Besides his duties as professor he rendered great services to the development of the school system in that city. In 1876 he accepted a call to Heidelberg, where he held the chair of New Testament theology until liis death.

Holston's literary and academic activity lay chiefly in the sphere of Pauline theology, of the synoptic Gospels, and philosophy of religion. Like Pfleiderer, he traced the history of primitive Chris­tianity to a pantheistic basis. In the original con­gregation there were countercurrents of two forms of consciousness. After Jesus had awakened in Peter the spirit of the inwardness of the law and of indifference to its external forms, he preached the Gospel of salvation from sin through the death of Christ, and, in like manner, Paul successfully taught justification through the death of the Messiah. But under the influence of James there arose an anti­Pauline and judaistic Gospel. James counteracted the influence of Peter and the original apostles, and suppressed even the gospel of Paul, until with his death and the destruction of Jerusalem there came again into prominence the freer spirit of the original Gospel which binds to the law in its inward form, but loosens from its ritual bonds. Our Synoptic Gospels correspond to these three tendencies, and are, therefore, to he considered as Tendewwhriften. The original Gospels of Peter, Paul, and James, corresponding to our canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, have been lost. Within thirty years after the death of Jesus all consciousness of the historical facts of Christ's life had disappeared, and its representation was now made serviceable to dogmatic purposes by violating history. Our canon­ical Gospel of Matthew represents the Gospel of Peter and is based upon an anti Pauline and Juda­istic Gospel; it originated from a reaction of the Jewish Christianity of Peter against the anti Pauline Judaism of James. Our Gospel of Mark forms the counterpart of the Gospel of Matthew in being based


entirely upon the views of Paul. After the authority of Evangelical history had been shaken by these two different tendencies, Luke tried to establish it anew. We have therefore: (1) primitive Petrinism, which is related to Paulinism as being free from law, without drawing the last consequences; (2) Paulinism; (3) anti Pauline Judaism under James (until about the year 70); (4) the restitution of non legal Petrin­ism, especially in the beginning of the second cen­tury. The principal works in which Holston laid down these views are Das Evangelium des Paulus (Berlin, 1880); Die drei ursprunglichen, noch un­geschret'benen Evangelien. Zur &ynoptischen Frage (Carlsruhe and Leipsic, 1883); and Die 8ynoptiachen Evangelien nach der Form ihres Inhaltes (Heidelberg, 1885). The principal work of Holsten in the field of philosophy of religion is his Uraprung urtd We­sen  der Religion (Berlin, 1886). The influence of Schleiermacher which pervades all his works shows itself especially here, where he found the basis and essence of religion in feeling. (MEHLHORN.)

BInwoaRAPHT: Consult the memorial address of A. Haus­rath at Heidelberg, Jan. 29, 1897, Heidelberg, 1897, and P. Mehlhorn, Zum Geddchtniss Karl 11olstens, in Das Evanpelium des Paulus, part ii., Berlin, 1898.

HOLTZMANN, HEINRICH JULIUS: German Protestant; b. at Carlaruhe May 17, 1832. He was educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Ber­lin, and, after being a pastor in Baden from 1854 to 1857, became privat docent at Heidelberg in 1858. Three years later he was appointed associate pro­fessor and was advanced to a full professorship in 1865. In 1874 he accepted a call to Strasburg as professor of New Testament exegesis, a position which he retained until 1904, when he became pro­fessor emeritus. In theology he is one of the leading representatives of the critical school. Among his writings special mention may be made of his Kanon and Tradition (Basel, 1859); Die synoptischen Evan. gelien, ihr Uraprung and geschichelicher Charakter (Leipsic, 1863); Geschichte des Volkes Israel and die Entstehung des Christentums (in collaboration with G. Weber; 2 vols., 1867); Kritik der Epheser  and Kolosserbriefe auf Grund einer Analyse ihrer Ver­wand8chaft8verhdUniase (Leipsic, 1872); Die Paetoral­briefe, kratisch and exegetisch behandelt (1880); Lexi­kori fitr Theologie and Kirchenwesen (in collaboration with R. Z6pffel; 1882); Lehrbuch der hiatorischkriti­achen Einleitung in das Neue Testament (Freiburg, 1885); Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Theologie (2 vols., 1896 97); R. Rothea speculatives System (1899); Gesammelte Predigten (Carlarahe, 1901); Die Entatehung des Neuen Testaments (Halle, 1905); and Das messianiache Bemuastsein Jesu (Tiibingen, 1907). He likewise contributed the volumes on the Apocrypha and the New Testament to C. C. J. Bunsen's BZelwerk (2 vols., Leipsic, 1866, 1869), on John, the Synoptic Gospels, Acts, the Johannine Epistles, and Revelation to the Hand Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, which he edited in collabora­tion with R. A. Lipsius, P. W. Schmiedel, and H. von Soden (Freiburg, 1889, 1890, 1891; 3d ed. of the Commentary on the Johannine writings, Tii­bingen, 1908), and assisted K. Budde in editing Eduard Reuss' Briefwechsel mit aeinem Schiller und Freunde Karl Heinrich Grdf (Giessen, 1904).

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