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world is good, or that the world would not be better,

the latter of which is true. Human life labors under

three illusions: (1) that happiness is possible in this

life, which came to an end with the Roman Empire;

(2) that life will be crowned with happiness in an­

other world, which science is rapidly dissipating;

(3) that happy social well being, although postponed,

can at last be realized on earth, a dream which will

also ultimately be dissolved. Man's only hope lies

in " final redemption from the misery of volition

and existence into the painlessness of non being

and non willing." No mortal may quit the task of

life, but each must do his part to hasten the time

when in the major portion of the human race the

activity of the Unconscious shall be ruled by in­

telligence, and this stage reached, in the simul­

taneous action of many persons volition will resolve

upon its own non continuance, and thus idea and

will will be once more reunited in the Absolute.



tionalist; b. at Frederick, Pa., Oct. 15, 1839. He

was educated at the University of Pennsylvania

(B.A., 1861) and at the New Brunswick Theolog­

ical Seminary (1864), after having served in the

Civil war as captain of the Eighteenth Pennsylvania

Volunteers. He held pastorates at the Dutch

Reformed Church, South Bushwick, N. Y. (186"6),

and at the Second Dutch Reformed Church, New

Brunswick, N. J. (1866 78), giving much attention

during the latter charge to oratorio. and choral

singing. From 1879 to 1888 he was Waldo pro­

fessor of ecclesiastical history in Hartford Theolog­

ical Seminary, of which he was president from 1888

to 1903, and has been honorary president there since

1903. He was also professor of Biblical theology in

the same institution from 1892 to 1897, and of

ecclesiastical dogmatics from 1897 to 1903. He has

revised the Anti Donatist writings of St. Augustine

and the " Ecclesiastical History " of Sozomen for

the American edition of The Nicene and Post Nicene

Fathers (New York, 1887, 1890). Of late years he

has resided in Germany, engaged in researches into

the early history of the Schwenckfelders, the re

sult of which is his editorship, assisted by 0. B.

Schlutter and E. E. Schultz, Johnson of Corpus

Schwenckfeldianorum (vol. i. Leipsic, 1907).


copal bishop; b. at Moline, Ill., June 1, 1842. He

was educated at Illinois Wesleyan University

(B.A.,1868) and Garrett Biblical Institute, Chicago

(1868), and was pastor at Pekin, Ill. (1868 69), and

New Orleans, La. (1870 72). From 1872 until

1882 he was presiding elder of the New Orleans

district and founder and editor of the South Western

Christian Advocate. He was assistant correspond­

ing secretary of the Southern Education Society of

his denomination from 1882 to 1887, and chief

secretary from 1888 to 1896. In 1897 he was

elected bishop for Africa. He was a member of the

Methodist Ecumenical conferences held at Washing­

ton in 1878 and at London in 1898. He is the author

of several sermons and of numerous addresses and

contributions to periodicals on educational and

racial topics connected with America and Africa.

HARTZHEIM, JOSEPH VON: Jesuit; b. at Cologne Jan. 11, 1694; d. there Jan. 14, 1762. At the age of eighteen he became a novice of the Society of Jesus, and at the conclusion of his noviti­ate studied at the College of Luxemburg, and then taught Hebrew at the College of Cologne for a year, after which he traveled in Italy. Returning to his native city, he was first a teacher and then rector (1726 48) at the Gymnasium Tricoronatum. He remained cathedral preacher until his death. His chief work was his continuation and partial editing of the collection of the acts of the German councils begun by the Fulda scholar J. F. Schannat (b.1685; d. 1739), of which he published the first four vol­umes under the title Concilia Germanise quce . . . Jo. Frid. Schannat magna ex parts collegit, dein P. Jos. Hartzheim, S. J., plurimum auxit, continu­avit, notia, digressioni6us criticis, etc., illustravit (Cologne, 1759 63). The fifth volume, extending to 1500, appeared in the year of Hartzheim's death. Hartzheim wrote also: De inztio metropoleos eccle­siastiue Colonies, Claudice Augustm Aggripinensium (3 parts, Cologne, 1731 32); Dissertationes decem historico~icce in Sanctam Scripturam (1736 46); Bibliotheca scriptorum Coloniensium (1747); His­toria rei nummarim Coloniensis (1754); and Pro­dromus historice Universitatis Coloniensis (1759). A number of his writings, such as preliminary stud­ies for a Historic litteraria Germanise, as well as his Vita diplamatica Sancti Annonis and Historia gym­nasii tricoronati, exist only in manuscript.

(0. Z6CKLERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Elopium was prefixed to vol. v. of the Concidia. Consult: L. Ennen, Zeiibilder aus der neuem Geschickte der Stadt K87n, Cologne, 1859; A. and A. de Backer, BiblioWqus des 6crivains de la compagnie de J6aua, ii. 44 57 7 vols., Lidge, 1853 61; dDB, x.77,1 722; KL, v. 1523 26.
HARVARD, JOHN: Congregationalist minister of the Massachusetts colony, after whom Harvard College was named; b. in Southwark, London, Nov., 1607; d. at Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 14, 1638. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (B.A., 1631; M.A., 1635), and probably was or­dained as a dissenting minister shortly after leaving the university, though there is no record of this fact. He removed to New England in 1637, settled at Charlestown in August of that year, and became a freeman of Massachusetts on Nov. 2 following. For some time he filled the pulpit of the First Church at Charlestown as assistant to the Rev. Z. Symmes. Compared with his fellow colonists, he was a man of wealth; and that he was held in high esteem is shown by the fact that on Apr. 26, 1638, he was placed upon a committee to formulate a body of laws. He died of consumption after a residence of little more than a year in the colony, leaving his library of 320 volumes and about £400, half of his fortune, to the proposed college at New Towne, later Cambridge, for which the General Court had made an appropriation of £400 in Sept., 1636. With the aid of this legacy the building was begun; and in Mar., 1639, in commemoration of the young philanthropist, it was ordered that the new institu­tion should be called Harvard College. Harvard was justly styled by Edward Everett the " ever 



memorable benefactor of learning and religion in


B:BLmoaArar: Important documents are reprinted in the

New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July,

1885, cf. October, 1886. Consult: H. C. Shelley, John

Harvard and His Times, Boston, 1908; W. I. Budington,

History of the First Church of Charlestown, Boston, 1845;

J. Winthrop, Hist. of New England, ii. 105 419, ib. 1853;

Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 2 vole., ib. 1864 67;

F. 0. Vaille and H. A. Clark, Harvard Book, 2 vols., ib.

1875; J. F. Hunnewell, Records of the First Church, ib.

1880; G. G. Bush, Harvard: the first American Univer­

sity, ib. 1886; W. R,. Thayer, Harvard University, ib.

1893; C. E. Norton, Four American Universities, New

York, 1895; J. L. Chamberlain, Universities and ,heir

Sons; Harvard University, vol. i., Boston, n.d.; A. Davis,

John Harvard's Life in America; or social and political

Life in New England, 1887 1888, Cambridge, Mass., 1908;

DNB, xxv. 77 78.

HASE, hiil'ze, gARLALFRED VON: German Prot­

estant; b. at Jena July 12,1842. He was educated

at the university of his native city (Ph.D., 1865),

and also studied at Rome and Geneva. After being

court deacon at Weimar from 1865 to 1870, he was

divisional chaplain in the Franco Prussian War,

and was then divisional pastor at Hanover for five

years (1871 76). From 1876 to 1889 he was chief

military chaplain and consistorial councilor at

K6nigsberg, and from 1889 to 1893 was garrison

chaplain and court  preacher at  Potsdam. Since

1893 he has been consistorial councilor at Breslau,

and also honorary professor of practical theology at

the university of the same city since 1896. In 1904

he was created a supreme consistorial councilor.

He has published: Lutherbriefe (Leipsic, 1867);

Wormser Lutherbuch (Mainz, 1868); Sebastian

Franck von Word, der Schwarmgeist (Leipsie, 1869);

Die Bedeutung des Geschichtlichen in der Religion

(1874); Herzog Albrecht van Preussen and sein

Hofprediger (1879); Die Hausandaeht (Gotha,i891);

Christi Armut unser Reichtum (a volume of sermons;

Berlin, 1893); Unsre Hauschronik: Geschichte der

Familie Hase in vier Jahrhunderten (Leipsie, 1898);

and Neutestamentliche Parallelen zu buddhistischen

Quellen (Gross Liehterfelde, 1905).

HASE, KARL AUGUST VON: German Lutheran

theologian; b. at Niedersteinbach, near Penig (11

m. n.w. of Chemnitz), Aug. 25, 1800; d. in Jena

Jan. 3, 1890. The son of a country pastor, he

attended the gymnasium at Altenburg, which he

left to enter the University at Leipsic (1818). He

matriculated at first, however, as law student, yet

turned his attention from the start chiefly to phi­

losophy and theology, preaching at the close of his

first semester. In 1821 he entered Erlangen, where

he was deeply influenced by Schelling and G. H.

von Schubert (qq.v.). He was obliged to leave the

university the next year, as he was suspected of

complicity in the political plots of the student asso­

ciations. In 1823 he qualified as lecturer on theology

and philosophy at Tiibingen. Soon afterward he

was a political prisoner at Hohenasperg for eleven

months (1824 25). In Oct., 1826, he went to

Leipsic, where he became a lecturer in the philo­

sophical faculty, but in a few years was called to Jena

as extraordinary professor. Before his removal

thither (July, 1830) he traveled in Italy with his

friend, Hermann Hartel, whose sister, Pauline, he

married on his return. The rest of his life he spent

in Jena, declining many honorable calls to other universities. He became full professor in 1836, and soon ranked as one of the most highly esteemed teachers and became famous as an author. He served five times as vice rector (1838, 1847, 1855, 1863, and 1871). His interests were turned chiefly, but not exclusively, toward church history. He re­lieved his labors by frequent journeys, especially to Rome, which he visited seventeen times, the last time in 1882. There he acquired the intimate ac­quaintance with the Roman Catholic religion shown in so many of his works. High honors were given to him at his golden jubilee; he was created doctor of law, presented with the freedom of the city, granted cross of the Saxon Household Order, together with the hereditary nobility, and appointed privy coun­cilor. He delivered his last lecture on July 23, 1883; but retained his mental alertness till his last years, and prepared his lectures on church history for the press.

The most striking thing about Hase's work is the great diversity of the subjects and his ability in using the sources to produce an artistic treatment of a theme. His style was original and alluring; but in his later years was marked by so great an effort for conciseness as even to violate the laws of language. His writings require not only an atten­tive reader, but one who can read between the lines. He has a breadth of outline, an acuteness of observation, and an art of delineation that give life to the figures of history. In theology he was no pio­neer like Schleiermacher, though he shared Schleier­macher'3 vital conception of religion, .nor like Baur, whom, however, he could fully appreciate. He never tried to cultivate unbroken ground, though not shrinking from the drudgery of scientific inves­tigation; therefore he seldom contributed to period­icals, and wrote but few reviews. He belonged to no party nor school, but felt himself to be a theo­logian, who dared to examine freely, bound by no sacredness of the letter, standing for " the scien­tific investigation of the Gospel, an enlightened Christianity recognizing itself as truth in the eternal laws of the spirit, as opposed to the popular faith supported by external authority."

Among his writings may be mentioned: Des alten.Pfarrers Testament (Tiibingen, 1824), a treat­ise on the Johannean love, in the form of a romantic story; Lehrbuch der evangelischen Dogmatik (Stutt­gart, 1826); Die Proselyten (Tiibingen, 1827); Gno­sis oder protestantisch evangelischen Glaubenslehre (3 vols., Leipsie, 1827 29); Hutterus redivivus (1829), a compendium of Lutheran dogma; Leben Jesu (1829); $irchengesehichte (1834; 12th edition, 1900 ; Eng. transl. from 7th Germ. ed., Hist. of the Christian Church, New York, 1855); Anti Roehr (1837), a polemic against rationalism; Die beiden Embisch6fe (1839); Neue Propheten (1851); Franz von Assisi (1856); Das geistliche Schauspiel (1858; Eng. transl., Miracle Plays and Sacred Dramas, London, 1880); Handbuch der protestantischen Pole­mik gegen die rbmisch katholische Kirche (1862; 7th edition, 1900; Eng. transl., Handbook to the Con­troversy with Rome, 2 vols., London, 1906); Caierina von Siena (1864); Ideale and Irrtiimer (1871); Ge­schichte Jesu (1875; Eng. transl. from 3u and 4th

8asenkamp THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 1134:


Germ. eds., Life of Jesus, Boston, 1860); Vaterldnd­ische Reden and Denkschriften (1891); Erinnerungen aus Italien in Briefen an die zukiinftigen Geliebte (1891); Annalen meines Lebens (1891); and Theo­logische Aehrenlese (1892). A collected edition of his Werke in 12 volumes appeared Leipsic, 1890 93.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Nippold, Karl van Have, Geddchtn11rede,

Berlin, 1890; R. A. Lipsius, Zur Brinnerung an . . . K. A. von Hase, ib. 1890; K. A. Base, Unare Hamchronik: Geschichte der Familie Hose, Leipsie, 1898; R. Bfrkner, Karl von Hass, ib. 1900; and the autobiographic details in vol. xi. of the collected Werke, fit sup.

HASENBAMP: The name of three brothers who energetically opposed the rationalism prevailing in Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century.

1. Johann Gerhard Hasenkamp was born at Wechte bei Lengerich (19 m. n.n.e. of M(lnster), Westphalia, July 12, 1736; d. at Duisburg June 27, 1777. In 1753 he entered the academy of Lingen to study theology. His headlong zeal for the honor of God led him to severe conflicts with the author­ities of the Church. Among other things he rejected the vicarious suffering of Christ and the impossibil­ity of a complete sanctification upon earth. Pro­ceedings were begun against him, but in 1763 he was allowed to resume his preaching, and in 1766 he was appointed rector of the gymnasium in Duis­burg. He brought new life into the institution and influenced deeply the religious life of his pupils, and of the people in general; by the sermons which he delivered from 1767 to 1771. He published: Vll Quostionm de liberorum educatione (1767 70); XClll Theses contra Arianos, Fanaticos, Soeinianos aliosque hujus indolis nostra Mate (Duisburg, 1770); Predigten nach item Gesehmack der drei ersten Jahr­hunderte der Chriatenheit (Frankfort, 1772); Ueber Hinwegrdumung der Hindernisse der christlichen Gottseligkeit (Schaffhausen, 1772); Der deutsche reformierte Theologe (1775); Unterredung fiber Schriftwahrheiten (1776); and Ein christliches Gym­nasium (1776).

2. Friedrich Arnold Hasenkamp was born Jan. 11,

1747; d. 1795. He forsook the trade of a weaver

to take up academic studies, and eventually suc­

ceeded his brother as rector at Duisburg. He wrote

Ueber die verdunkelnde Au f kldrung (Nuremberg,

1789); Die Israeliten die aufgeklarteste Nation enter

den iltesten V olkerri in der Erkenntnis der Heiligkeit

and Gerechtigkeit Gottes (1790); Briefe fiber Pro_

pheten unit Weissagungen (2parts, 1791 92); Briefs

itber wichtige Wahrheiten der Religion (2 vols., Duis­

burg, 1794).

3. Johann Heinrich Hasenkamp was born Sept. 19, 1750; d. June 17, 1814. He went through the same course of education as his brother Friedrich Arnold, and in 1776 became rector of the Latin school at Emmerich. From 1779 until his death he was pastor at Dahle, near Altona. His nephew, C. H. G. Hasenkamp, edited his Christliche Schraften (2 vols., Munster, 1816 19). (F. ARNOLD.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. C. H. G. Hasenkamp, in Die Wahrheit zur Gouselipkeit, ii. 5 6, Bremen, 1832 34; J. H. Jung­8tilling, Sdmmtliche Schriften, vi. 119 aqq., 282 sqq., Idii. 427 437 14 vols., Stuttgart, 1835 38; Brie/weeheel suoischen Lavater and Hasenkamp, ed. K. Ehmann, Basel, 1870; A. Ritechl, Geschkhta des Pietiamus, L 504 sqq..

570 581, iii. 147 sqq., Bonn, 1880 86; ADB, vol. a.,

and the literature under COLLENBBBCH, BAxvEL.


Mattathias and Judas (¢ 1).

Jonathan and Simon (1 2).

John Hyrcanus, Aristobulus I. (1 3).

Alexander Jannmus, Hyrcanus IL, Aristobulus II. (§ 4). The Downfall of the Family (§ 5).

Hasmoneans (Hebr. .Uashmonim; Aram. Zlash­monay) is the name of a family of distinguished Jewish patriots who headed a revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (175 164 B.c.), and, after strenuous exertions and the shedding of much blood, secured a last brief period of freedom and glory for Israel. Mattathias, the head of the family, accord­ing to Josephus (Ant. XII., vi. 1), was the son of John, the son of Simeon, the son of Asamonaios; according to I Mace. ii. 1, the son of John, the son of Simeon. Hashmon was therefore either great­grandfather of Mattathias, or, in case Simeon is merely a form of Hashmon, the grandfather of Mattathias.

The steady purpose of the Macedonian states in the Orient was to Hellenize the populations. Epiph­anes also had this aim, but pursued it

r. Matta  with so much obstinacy that he weak­thias ened rather than strengthened his

and Judas. cause, and he found the stanchest opponents in the Jews. But even among them influences in his favor existed, and the high priest Jesus, who took the Greek name Jason, favored the Greek party. The progress of Greek ideas stirred up the zeal of those true to the faith of Israel, who formed a party and named themselves the " afflicted," the " poor " (ebhyonim), or the " pious " (.Hasidim, or Chasidim, from which last came the name Hasideans, the designation of a party which arose about this time, and became the later Pharisees). Embittered by the opposition, Antiochus at last began a religious persecution, a result of which was the bold slaughter by Mattathias of an apostate who was going to sacrifice to idols, and of a royal officer, and the revolt of his supporters. Upheld by the Chasidim, a little war was begun, in which the unfaithful in Israel and the Greeks them­selves were assailed. Mattathias died 166, when his third son, Judas, was made leader, and for six years carried on the struggle against overwhelming odds and with varying fortunes. On account of his sudden attacks upon the enemy and the frequent blows which he struck he was called Maccabee, " the hammerer " or " the hammer," a name which came to glorify the entire family. The strife at this stage was rather religious than national in intent, since Judas had many enemies among the Jews themselves, particularly at the court at Antioch. It is to the leader's glory that under these circumstances he recovered the temple, which fact is celebrated by the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple. A contributory cause to the success of the Jews was the disharmony in Syrian affairs and the strife for the Syrian throne, of which skilful advantage was taken by the Jews. Demetrius 1. Soter, nephew of the usurper Epiphanes and the rightful heir, seized the kingdom from the son of Epiphanes, still a minor. Judas sought to obtain outside help for the furthering of his plans, which



were not yet carried out, and opened communica­tions with the senate of Rome, a power which had its eyes on the Orient and advanced its purposes by intervening in domestic troubles. The army of Demetrius overran the land and held even the capital, while Judas retired to a place the location of which is unknown, named Alasa or Eaasa,161 B.C., where he fell.

The leadership was assumed by Jonathan, the youngest of the five brothers, who from beyond the Jordan carried terror among the Syrians and Arabs. With Jerusalem and the entire land in the hands of the enemy, only hope and courage seemed left. The situation was suddenly changed by the entrance of Alexander Balas, an alleged son of Antiochus IV., who sought the kingdom and assailed Demetrius. Both the contestants sought the favor of Jonathan as that of a weighty leader. Demetrius restored the Jewish hostages and withdrew many of the Syrian garrisons, so that Jonathan regained possession of the temple. Alexander made him high priest, and sent him princely robes and rich insignia of office. Thus Jonathan was at once in

possession of priestly and temporal 2. Jonathan power. He was master of Judea and and Simon. an officer in the Syrian army. When

Demetrius 11. (147 B.C.) overthrew Alexander, he chose Jonathan as his friend in spite of the hostility of the latter at the beginning of the struggle of Demetrius with Alexander. A young son of Alexander, Antiochus VI., instigated by Trypho, a general of Alexander, arose against De­metrius, and after varying fortunes was slain by Trypho, who also slew Jonathan (143 B.C.). This left as the only survivor of the sons of Mattathias Simon, already celebrated for wisdom, energy, and statesmanship. He assumed the leadership, and at once declared the independence of his people, taking the titles of high priest, general, and prince (I Mace. xiv. 47). The union of these offices marked a change in the policy of Jewish affairs, in which hitherto the chief interest had been in the priesthood and a pure theocracy. Simon's rule was short, but fortunate, since his own people appre­ciated his worth. In a popular assembly his honors and position were secured to him as hereditary rights, and the fact made public in tablets of brass affixed to the sanctuary (I Mace. xiv. 27 17). The independence of the country was signified by the issue of a series of coins and by the reckoning of a new era dating from Simon's accession. It seemed as if Simon's end was to be peaceful when his own stepson, Ptolemy, who sought Simon's place, treach­erously murdered him, while Antiochus VIL, brother of Demetrius and then on the Syrian throne, attempted to regain possession of Judea.

Simon's son, John Hyrcanus (note the Greek names assumed by the successive members of the

family; it is a sign of the times), who 3. John succeeded his father, was at first com­Hyrcanus, pelled to become a vassal of Syria,

Aristo  surrender Jerusalem, and give hostages.

bulus L When Antiochus fell (128 B.C.), John

took full advantage of the circum­stance, began a series of conquests, destroyed the temple on Gerizim, united Samaria with his own

territory, subdued the Idumeans, and Judaized the country. Josephus accredits him with three honors, high priesthood, rulership, and prophecy (Ant. XIII., x. 7). But a question was raised about the legitimacy of his possession of the high priesthood. At the death of John Hyrcanus (105 B.C.) the family fell upon evil days. What external power was retained for his successor, Aristobulus I., was due to the weakness of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, who became involved in the strife of the Jewish parties on internal matters. Hyrcanus had become alienated from the Pharisees, for the Pharisee Eleazar had advised him to lay aside his high­priesthood and be content with the temporal power. On his death he left the rule to his widow, while Aristobulus was to be high priest. Aristobulus starved his mother to death, threw three of his brothers into prison, and killed the fourth, whom he had made coregent. But he died the next year (104 B.C.). The event of his reign most noteworthy was the conquest of Galilee and the beginning of its Judaizing.

His widow, Alexandra, the most celebrated of that name in this family, released his brothers and made one of them, the third son of her

4. Alex  husband, king, with the title of Alex­ander ander I. Jannaeus. His rule was as

Jannaens, unfortunate as it was long (104 78

Hyrcanus B.C.). His desire was to shine as a con 

II., Aristo  queror as his father had done, but bolus II. without the same means, since he had to rely upon an army of mercenaries. The Pharisees withdrew more and more from the support of a rule which continually drew its sources of strength from the outside and estranged its own subjects, while the king was made to seem a betrayer of his father's religion. He was grossly insulted at a festival, and took bloody revenge. Civil war arose, which lasted for six years, during which 50,000 Jews were slain. At his death in 78 he left the succession in the hands of his widow, Alexandra, with the injunction to make friends of the Phar­isees. She followed his counsel, banished the Sadducees from Jerusalem, put the Scribes into the seats of the Sanhedrin, and ruled with cleverness until her death in 69. During her life her oldest son, Hyrcanus II., had been high priest, while at her death Aristobulus Il. desired the kingdom and assailed his brother. Shortly after this the Syrian kingdom fell into the power of the Romans. Hyr­canus fled, on the advice of Antipater, the father of Herod, to the Arabian prince Aretas, at Petra, by whose help Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem and slain. Meanwhile Pompey's general, Scaurus, and then Pompey himself were besought both by Aristobulus and by his opponents, and by the people against both. Pompey captured Jerusalem, ended the kingdom, and made Hyrcanus high priest and ethnarch (63 B.C.), taking Aristobulus and his children to Rome in triumph.

The remaining history of the Hasmoneans is a series of tragedies. Alexander, the son of Aristo­bulus, escaped from imprisonment and assailed the Roman power in Syria. Meanwhile the Roman civil war had broken out, and Caesar released Aris­tobulus in order to give trouble to his opponents,

Hasmoneans Hatch


but the retainers of Pompey killed Aristobulus be­

fore he could leave Rome, and soon after the same

fate met Alexander. He left behind

5. The two children, the offspring of Alexan­

Downfall dra, the daughter of Hyrcanus, of

of the great beauty but not very intellectual,

Family. and a brother, Antigonus. When Caesar

gained the mastery in the East, the

control of Palestine inclined in fact, though not in

name to the Idumean Antipater ; but since he was

regarded as a foreigner, and therefore hated by the

Jews, on the break up caused by Caesar's death

they rallied to the support of Antigonus. Mean­

while Antipater's son, Herod, whose desire was to

have both the form and the fact of the former power

of Hyrcanus, became engaged to Mariamne, the

beautiful daughter. of the pretender Alexander and

the granddaughter through her mother of Hyrcanus.

This was a move inspired as much by politics as by

power of the house, Antigonus, whose Hebrew name, Mattathias, recalled that of his ancestor. The book which reflects the period of the family is the Psalms of Solomon; the New Testament is silent, with the single exception of the reference in Heb. xi. 35 36, which mentions no names.

(J. HAu88LErTER.)

In the following genealogical table of the Has­monean family, the numbers in parentheses pre­ceding the name indicate the order of dynastic succession, the numbers in parentheses following the name indicate the years during which office was held, a number preceded by d. indicates date of death; m. signifies married.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are I Mace., II Mam:, and Jose­

phus, Ant., books xii. xiv.; Dan. xi. 21 45; cf. also the

commentaries upon the Books of Maccabees and on

Daniel. Consult on the history of the period: Schiirer,

Geschichte, i. 165 387, Eng• tranal. I., i. 186 432 (con­

tains full notes and reference to the sources and subsidiary

Hashmon. rfimeon (=Haehmon?). John (JOhanan).

MMat I

at I t 'as d. 166 B. c.

John d. 161. (3) Si I on (142 d• 135). (1) Judas (165 d. 161).

Judlas d. 135. (4) John I3yrcanus (135 d. 105). Mattalthias. d. 135

(5) ArieSulus I. (105 d. 104).Anti gonue d• 105.

Eleazar d. 162.(2) Jonathan (161 f. 143).

(6) Alexander Janneeus (104• 78).(7) m. Alexandra (78 d. 89).

(9) Hyrus II. (63 d, 30),


Alexandra d. 28.

Ariat Ibulua d. 35•

(8) Ariet Ibulus II.

(89 83) d. 49,

Alexander d. 49. (10) Mattathi Is Antigonua

(40 d. 37),

Alexal der d• 7.

inclination. In the year 40 B.c., after a victorious campaign by the Parthians in hither Asia, Antigonus as king of Jerusalem was drawn into the conflict, and had Hyrcanus mutilated and sent to Babylon, for which he himself suffered at the hand of the lictors a sad end three years later. In the year 37 Herod was made king of Jerusalem, and was placed in possession after the capture of Jerusalem in that year. He became virtually the executioner of the Hasmonean family. Hyrcanus; eighty years of age, was enticed from Babylon, entangled in a fictitious conspiracy, and put to death. Alexander's son, Aristobulus, the brother in law of Herod, came naturally into the high priesthood, but fell a victim to Herod's suspicion. A little later Marianne was executed by Herod's order. Thus a historical re­view of the course of the Hasmoneans reveals a wide abyss between the glorious achievements of the founder of the house, Mattathias, and the in­glorious end of the last representative of the kingly

Maria I ne d. 29

m• Herod the Great.

Ariatobulus d. 7.

literature); J. Dereabourg, Eeaa% our Z'hiatoire et la g&_ graphic de la Palestine, Paris, 1857; L. F. J. Caignart de Saulcy, Hint. des Machab&a ou princes de la dynaetie aa­moneerane Chateauroux 1880; W. Fairweather, From the Exile to the Advent, London, 1895; A. W. Streane, The Age of the Maccabees, ib. 1898; A. BfiChler, Die Tobiaden and die Oniaden im 11. Makkablierbuche Vienna, 1899; S. Mathewa, Hiat. of N. T. Times in Palestine, New York, 1899 (a handbook, clear and popular); J. S. Riggs, Hint. of Jewish People, Maccabean and Roman Periods, New York, 1899 (valuable as a first book); B. Niese, Kritik der biden Makkab&erbtscher, nebat Beitrligen zur Geachichte der makkabBiarhen Erhebung, Berlin, 1900; H, F. Hender­son, The Age of the Maccabees, London, 1907; W. Sehmidt­OberlSSOnitz, D%e Makkabher, Leipaic, 1907; DB, iii: 181­187; EB iii. 2850 eqq.; the appropriate sections in the various histories of Israel and the Jews, e.g., by Ewald, Hitzig, Grata, Renan, and Wellhauaen.

On special topics consult: J. Wellhausen Pharjeae,. and Sadduc&er, Greifewald, 1874• F. W. Madden, Coins of the Jews, London, 1881• C. R. Condet, Judas Macca­beua and flee Jewish War London, 1894• I3. Weiss , Judas Makkab4.ue Freiburg, 1897• I• euteeh Die Regierunpa 

ze%t der jud&iachen Kdnxgin Salome Alexandra Magdeburg,

1901; G. F• Handel, Judas Maccabeus, London, 1901.




gian; b. atDresden June 29,1808; d. at BonnOct.14,

1862. He was educated at Leipsic and Berlin, and in

1834 was appointed lecturer in church history at the

university of the latter city. In 1836 he was called

to Greifswald as assistant professor of church his­

tory, and in 1841 he was appointed to a similar

office at the University of Bonn. There he com­

pleted the first volume of his Anselm van Canter­

bury (2 vols., Leipsic, 1843 52; Eng. transl. of vol.

i. The Life of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury,

London, 1850), containing the biography of the

great English primate; the second part reproduced

Anselm's theological system. (W. $~rf.)

BIHwoa8APHP: W. Krsfft, F. R. Haew, tine Lebensskizze,

Bonn, 1865.

HASTINGS, JAMES: United Free Church; b. at

Huntly (33 m. n. w. of Aberdeen), Scotland, about

1860; educated at Aberdeen, became pastor of

St. Cyrus, Montrose, Kincardineshire, 1901. He

edited the Dictionary of the Bible, 5 voLs., Edin­

burgh and New York, 1898 1904; Dictionary of

Christ and the Gospels, 2 vols., 1906 07; Dictionary

of the Bible, 1 vol., 1908; and Dictionary of Re­

ligion and Ethics, 1908 aqq. He is the editor of

The Expository Times.

HASTINGS, THOMAS: Composer of sacred music;

b. in Washington, Conn., Oct. 15, 1784; d. in New

York City May 15, 1872. In early youth he taught

himself music, and began his career as a teacher in

singing schools in 1806, and as an editor in 1816:

With Prof. Seth Norton, of Hamilton College, he

published two pamphlets (1816), afterward en­

larged, and united with the Springfield Collection

in a volume entitled Musica Sacra. From 1823 to

1832 he was the editor of The Western Recorder, a

religious paper published at Utica. In 1832, at the

call of twelve churches, he removed to the city of

New York. Before leaving Utica he had begun to

write hymns, impelled by the lack of variety, espe­

cially in meter, in those then current, and by the

need of adapting suitable words to the music he

arranged. In the Spiritual Songs (1832) there are

more than thirty of his hymns published anony­

mously. Among these are some of the best that he

wrote; such as, How calm and beautiful the morn l ;

Gently, Lord, oh gently lead us; Child of sin and

sorrow. The popularity of these first attempts led

him to continue and cultivate the habit thus early

begun. About two hundred of his hymns are in

current use, and he left in manuscript about four

hundred more. His music, with that of Lowell

Mason, did important service in the Church, and

marks in America the transition period between the

crude and the more cultured periods of psalmody.

His cardinal principle was that in church music the

artistic must be strictly subordinated to the devo­

tional. In 1858 the University of the City of New

York conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of


The following is a list of his publications: Musiea

Sacra (Utica, 1816 22); The Musical Reader (1819);

A Dissertation on Musical Taste (Albany, 1822; re­

vised and republished, New York, 1853); Spiritual

Songs (Lowell Mason coeditor, Utica, 1832 36);

Prayer (1831); The Christian Psalmist (William Pat­ton coeditor, New York, 1836); Anthems, Motets, and Sentences (1836); Musical Magazine (24 num­bers, 1837 38); The Manhattan Collection (1837); Elements of Vocal Music (1839); Nursery Songs, The Mother's Hymn book, The Sacred Lyre (1840); Juvenile Songs (1842); The Crystal Fount (1847); The Sunday school Lyre (1848). With William B. Bradbury as joint editor from 1844 to 1851: The Psalmodist (1844); The Choralist (1847); The Mendelssohn Collection (1849); The Psalmists (1851); Devotional Hymns and Poems (1850); The History of Forty Choirs (1854); Sacred Praise, The Selah (1856); Church Melodies (1858); Hastings' Church Music (1860); Introits, or Short Anthems (1865). He also edited, for the American Tract Society, Sacred Songs (1855) and Songs of Zion (1856), and for the Presbyterian Church, The Presbyterian Paalmodist (1852) and The Juvenile Psalmodist.


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