HARTZHEIM, JOSEPH VON: Jesuit; b. at Cologne Jan. 11, 1694; d. there Jan. 14, 1762. At the age of eighteen he became a novice of the Society of Jesus, and at the conclusion of his novitiate studied at the College of Luxemburg, and then taught Hebrew at the College of Cologne for a year, after which he traveled in Italy. Returning to his native city, he was first a teacher and then rector (1726 48) at the Gymnasium Tricoronatum. He remained cathedral preacher until his death. His chief work was his continuation and partial editing of the collection of the acts of the German councils begun by the Fulda scholar J. F. Schannat (b.1685; d. 1739), of which he published the first four volumes under the title Concilia Germanise quce . . . Jo. Frid. Schannat magna ex parts collegit, dein P. Jos. Hartzheim, S. J., plurimum auxit, continuavit, notia, digressioni6us criticis, etc., illustravit (Cologne, 1759 63). The fifth volume, extending to 1500, appeared in the year of Hartzheim's death. Hartzheim wrote also: De inztio metropoleos ecclesiastiue Colonies, Claudice Augustm Aggripinensium (3 parts, Cologne, 1731 32); Dissertationes decem historico~icce in Sanctam Scripturam (1736 46); Bibliotheca scriptorum Coloniensium (1747); Historia rei nummarim Coloniensis (1754); and Prodromus historice Universitatis Coloniensis (1759). A number of his writings, such as preliminary studies for a Historic litteraria Germanise, as well as his Vita diplamatica Sancti Annonis and Historia gymnasii tricoronati, exist only in manuscript.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Elopium was prefixed to vol. v. of the Concidia. Consult: L. Ennen, Zeiibilder aus der neuem Geschickte der Stadt K87n, Cologne, 1859; A. and A. de Backer, BiblioWqus des 6crivains de la compagnie de J6aua, ii. 44 57 7 vols., Lidge, 1853 61; dDB, x.77,1 722; KL, v. 1523 26.
HARVARD, JOHN:Congregationalist minister of the Massachusetts colony, after whom Harvard College was named; b. in Southwark, London, Nov., 1607; d. at Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 14, 1638. He was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (B.A., 1631; M.A., 1635), and probably was ordained as a dissenting minister shortly after leaving the university, though there is no record of this fact. He removed to New England in 1637, settled at Charlestown in August of that year, and became a freeman of Massachusetts on Nov. 2 following. For some time he filled the pulpit of the First Church at Charlestown as assistant to the Rev. Z. Symmes. Compared with his fellow colonists, he was a man of wealth; and that he was held in high esteem is shown by the fact that on Apr. 26, 1638, he was placed upon a committee to formulate a body of laws. He died of consumption after a residence of little more than a year in the colony, leaving his library of 320 volumes and about £400, half of his fortune, to the proposed college at New Towne, later Cambridge, for which the General Court had made an appropriation of £400 in Sept., 1636. With the aid of this legacy the building was begun; and in Mar., 1639, in commemoration of the young philanthropist, it was ordered that the new institution should be called Harvard College. Harvard was justly styled by Edward Everett the " ever
183 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hartranft
Ha,se memorable benefactor of learning and religion in
B:BLmoaArar: Important documents are reprinted in the
New England Historical and Genealogical Register, July,
1885, cf. October, 1886. Consult: H. C. Shelley, John
Harvard and His Times, Boston, 1908; W. I. Budington,
History of the First Church of Charlestown, Boston, 1845;
J. Winthrop, Hist. of New England, ii. 105 419, ib. 1853;
Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 2 vole., ib. 1864 67;
F. 0. Vaille and H. A. Clark, Harvard Book, 2 vols., ib.
1875; J. F. Hunnewell, Records of the First Church, ib.
1880; G. G. Bush, Harvard: the first American Univer
sity, ib. 1886; W. R,. Thayer, Harvard University, ib.
1893; C. E. Norton, Four American Universities, New
York, 1895; J. L. Chamberlain, Universities and ,heir
Sons; Harvard University, vol. i., Boston, n.d.; A. Davis,
John Harvard's Life in America; or social and political
Life in New England, 1887 1888, Cambridge, Mass., 1908;
DNB, xxv. 77 78.
HASE, hiil'ze, gARLALFRED VON: German Prot
estant; b. at Jena July 12,1842. He was educated
at the university of his native city (Ph.D., 1865),
and also studied at Rome and Geneva. After being
court deacon at Weimar from 1865 to 1870, he was
divisional chaplain in the Franco Prussian War,
and was then divisional pastor at Hanover for five
years (1871 76). From 1876 to 1889 he was chief
military chaplain and consistorial councilor at
K6nigsberg, and from 1889 to 1893 was garrison
chaplain and court preacher at Potsdam. Since
1893 he has been consistorial councilor at Breslau,
and also honorary professor of practical theology at
the university of the same city since 1896. In 1904
he was created a supreme consistorial councilor.
He has published: Lutherbriefe (Leipsic, 1867);
Wormser Lutherbuch (Mainz, 1868); Sebastian
Franck von Word, der Schwarmgeist (Leipsie, 1869);
Die Bedeutung des Geschichtlichen in der Religion
(1874); Herzog Albrecht van Preussen and sein
Hofprediger (1879); Die Hausandaeht (Gotha,i891);
Christi Armut unser Reichtum (a volume of sermons;
Berlin, 1893); Unsre Hauschronik: Geschichte der
Familie Hase in vier Jahrhunderten (Leipsie, 1898);
and Neutestamentliche Parallelen zu buddhistischen
Quellen (Gross Liehterfelde, 1905).
HASE, KARL AUGUST VON:German Lutheran
theologian; b. at Niedersteinbach, near Penig (11
m. n.w. of Chemnitz), Aug. 25, 1800; d. in Jena
Jan. 3, 1890. The son of a country pastor, he
attended the gymnasium at Altenburg, which he
left to enter the University at Leipsic (1818). He
matriculated at first, however, as law student, yet
turned his attention from the start chiefly to phi
losophy and theology, preaching at the close of his
first semester. In 1821 he entered Erlangen, where
he was deeply influenced by Schelling and G. H.
von Schubert (qq.v.). He was obliged to leave the
university the next year, as he was suspected of
complicity in the political plots of the student asso
ciations. In 1823 he qualified as lecturer on theology
and philosophy at Tiibingen. Soon afterward he
was a political prisoner at Hohenasperg for eleven
months (1824 25). In Oct., 1826, he went to
Leipsic, where he became a lecturer in the philo
sophical faculty, but in a few years was called to Jena
as extraordinary professor. Before his removal
thither (July, 1830) he traveled in Italy with his
friend, Hermann Hartel, whose sister, Pauline, he
married on his return. The rest of his life he spent
in Jena, declining many honorable calls to other universities. He became full professor in 1836, and soon ranked as one of the most highly esteemed teachers and became famous as an author. He served five times as vice rector (1838, 1847, 1855, 1863, and 1871). His interests were turned chiefly, but not exclusively, toward church history. He relieved his labors by frequent journeys, especially to Rome, which he visited seventeen times, the last time in 1882. There he acquired the intimate acquaintance with the Roman Catholic religion shown in so many of his works. High honors were given to him at his golden jubilee; he was created doctor of law, presented with the freedom of the city, granted cross of the Saxon Household Order, together with the hereditary nobility, and appointed privy councilor. He delivered his last lecture on July 23, 1883; but retained his mental alertness till his last years, and prepared his lectures on church history for the press.
The most striking thing about Hase's work is the great diversity of the subjects and his ability in using the sources to produce an artistic treatment of a theme. His style was original and alluring; but in his later years was marked by so great an effort for conciseness as even to violate the laws of language. His writings require not only an attentive reader, but one who can read between the lines. He has a breadth of outline, an acuteness of observation, and an art of delineation that give life to the figures of history. In theology he was no pioneer like Schleiermacher, though he shared Schleiermacher'3 vital conception of religion, .nor like Baur, whom, however, he could fully appreciate. He never tried to cultivate unbroken ground, though not shrinking from the drudgery of scientific investigation; therefore he seldom contributed to periodicals, and wrote but few reviews. He belonged to no party nor school, but felt himself to be a theologian, who dared to examine freely, bound by no sacredness of the letter, standing for " the scientific investigation of the Gospel, an enlightened Christianity recognizing itself as truth in the eternal laws of the spirit, as opposed to the popular faith supported by external authority."
Among his writings may be mentioned: Des alten.Pfarrers Testament (Tiibingen, 1824), a treatise on the Johannean love, in the form of a romantic story; Lehrbuch der evangelischen Dogmatik (Stuttgart, 1826); Die Proselyten (Tiibingen, 1827); Gnosis oder protestantisch evangelischen Glaubenslehre (3 vols., Leipsie, 1827 29); Hutterus redivivus (1829), a compendium of Lutheran dogma; Leben Jesu (1829); $irchengesehichte (1834; 12th edition, 1900 ; Eng. transl. from 7th Germ. ed., Hist. of the Christian Church, New York, 1855); Anti Roehr (1837), a polemic against rationalism; Die beiden Embisch6fe (1839); Neue Propheten (1851); Franz von Assisi (1856); Das geistliche Schauspiel (1858; Eng. transl., Miracle Plays and Sacred Dramas, London, 1880); Handbuch der protestantischen Polemik gegen die rbmisch katholische Kirche (1862; 7th edition, 1900; Eng. transl., Handbook to the Controversy with Rome, 2 vols., London, 1906); Caierina von Siena (1864); Ideale and Irrtiimer (1871); Geschichte Jesu (1875; Eng. transl. from 3u and 4th
8asenkampTHE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 1134:
Hasmoneans Germ. eds., Life of Jesus, Boston, 1860); Vaterldndische Reden and Denkschriften (1891); Erinnerungen aus Italien in Briefen an die zukiinftigen Geliebte (1891); Annalen meines Lebens (1891); and Theologische Aehrenlese (1892). A collected edition of his Werke in 12 volumes appeared Leipsic, 1890 93.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Nippold, Karl van Have, Geddchtn11rede,
Berlin, 1890; R. A. Lipsius, Zur Brinnerung an . . . K. A. von Hase, ib. 1890; K. A. Base, Unare Hamchronik: Geschichte der Familie Hose, Leipsie, 1898; R. Bfrkner, Karl von Hass, ib. 1900; and the autobiographic details in vol. xi. of the collected Werke, fit sup.
HASENBAMP: The name of three brothers who energetically opposed the rationalism prevailing in Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century.
1. Johann Gerhard Hasenkamp was born at Wechte bei Lengerich (19 m. n.n.e. of M(lnster), Westphalia, July 12, 1736; d. at Duisburg June 27, 1777. In 1753 he entered the academy of Lingen to study theology. His headlong zeal for the honor of God led him to severe conflicts with the authorities of the Church. Among other things he rejected the vicarious suffering of Christ and the impossibility of a complete sanctification upon earth. Proceedings were begun against him, but in 1763 he was allowed to resume his preaching, and in 1766 he was appointed rector of the gymnasium in Duisburg. He brought new life into the institution and influenced deeply the religious life of his pupils, and of the people in general; by the sermons which he delivered from 1767 to 1771. He published: Vll Quostionm de liberorum educatione (1767 70); XClll Theses contra Arianos, Fanaticos, Soeinianos aliosque hujus indolis nostra Mate (Duisburg, 1770); Predigten nach item Gesehmack der drei ersten Jahrhunderte der Chriatenheit (Frankfort, 1772); Ueber Hinwegrdumung der Hindernisse der christlichen Gottseligkeit (Schaffhausen, 1772); Der deutsche reformierte Theologe (1775); Unterredung fiber Schriftwahrheiten (1776); and Ein christliches Gymnasium (1776).
2. Friedrich Arnold Hasenkamp was born Jan. 11,
1747; d. 1795. He forsook the trade of a weaver
to take up academic studies, and eventually suc
ceeded his brother as rector at Duisburg. He wrote
Ueber die verdunkelnde Au f kldrung (Nuremberg,
1789); Die Israeliten die aufgeklarteste Nation enter
den iltesten V olkerri in der Erkenntnis der Heiligkeit
and Gerechtigkeit Gottes (1790); Briefe fiber Pro_
pheten unit Weissagungen (2parts, 1791 92); Briefs
itber wichtige Wahrheiten der Religion (2 vols., Duis
3. Johann Heinrich Hasenkampwas born Sept. 19, 1750; d. June 17, 1814. He went through the same course of education as his brother Friedrich Arnold, and in 1776 became rector of the Latin school at Emmerich. From 1779 until his death he was pastor at Dahle, near Altona. His nephew, C. H. G. Hasenkamp, edited his Christliche Schraften (2 vols., Munster, 1816 19). (F. ARNOLD.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. C. H. G. Hasenkamp, in Die Wahrheit zur Gouselipkeit, ii. 5 6, Bremen, 1832 34; J. H. Jung8tilling, Sdmmtliche Schriften, vi. 119 aqq., 282 sqq., Idii. 427 437 14 vols., Stuttgart, 1835 38; Brie/weeheel suoischen Lavater and Hasenkamp, ed. K. Ehmann, Basel, 1870; A. Ritechl, Geschkhta des Pietiamus, L 504 sqq..
570 581, iii. 147 sqq., Bonn, 1880 86; ADB, vol. a.,
and the literature under COLLENBBBCH, BAxvEL.
Mattathias and Judas (¢ 1).
Jonathan and Simon (1 2).
John Hyrcanus, Aristobulus I. (1 3).
Alexander Jannmus, Hyrcanus IL, Aristobulus II. (§ 4). The Downfall of the Family (§ 5).
Hasmoneans (Hebr. .Uashmonim; Aram. Zlashmonay) is the name of a family of distinguished Jewish patriots who headed a revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (175 164 B.c.), and, after strenuous exertions and the shedding of much blood, secured a last brief period of freedom and glory for Israel. Mattathias, the head of the family, according to Josephus (Ant. XII., vi. 1), was the son of John, the son of Simeon, the son of Asamonaios; according to I Mace. ii. 1, the son of John, the son of Simeon. Hashmon was therefore either greatgrandfather of Mattathias, or, in case Simeon is merely a form of Hashmon, the grandfather of Mattathias.
The steady purpose of the Macedonian states in the Orient was to Hellenize the populations. Epiphanes also had this aim, but pursued it
r. Matta with so much obstinacy that he weakthias ened rather than strengthened his
and Judas. cause, and he found the stanchest opponents in the Jews. But even among them influences in his favor existed, and the high priest Jesus, who took the Greek name Jason, favored the Greek party. The progress of Greek ideas stirred up the zeal of those true to the faith of Israel, who formed a party and named themselves the " afflicted," the " poor " (ebhyonim), or the " pious " (.Hasidim, or Chasidim, from which last came the name Hasideans, the designation of a party which arose about this time, and became the later Pharisees). Embittered by the opposition, Antiochus at last began a religious persecution, a result of which was the bold slaughter by Mattathias of an apostate who was going to sacrifice to idols, and of a royal officer, and the revolt of his supporters. Upheld by the Chasidim, a little war was begun, in which the unfaithful in Israel and the Greeks themselves were assailed. Mattathias died 166, when his third son, Judas, was made leader, and for six years carried on the struggle against overwhelming odds and with varying fortunes. On account of his sudden attacks upon the enemy and the frequent blows which he struck he was called Maccabee, " the hammerer " or " the hammer," a name which came to glorify the entire family. The strife at this stage was rather religious than national in intent, since Judas had many enemies among the Jews themselves, particularly at the court at Antioch. It is to the leader's glory that under these circumstances he recovered the temple, which fact is celebrated by the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple. A contributory cause to the success of the Jews was the disharmony in Syrian affairs and the strife for the Syrian throne, of which skilful advantage was taken by the Jews. Demetrius 1. Soter, nephew of the usurper Epiphanes and the rightful heir, seized the kingdom from the son of Epiphanes, still a minor. Judas sought to obtain outside help for the furthering of his plans, which
1e5 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hasmoneans
were not yet carried out, and opened communications with the senate of Rome, a power which had its eyes on the Orient and advanced its purposes by intervening in domestic troubles. The army of Demetrius overran the land and held even the capital, while Judas retired to a place the location of which is unknown, named Alasa or Eaasa,161 B.C., where he fell.
The leadership was assumed by Jonathan, the youngest of the five brothers, who from beyond the Jordan carried terror among the Syrians and Arabs. With Jerusalem and the entire land in the hands of the enemy, only hope and courage seemed left. The situation was suddenly changed by the entrance of Alexander Balas, an alleged son of Antiochus IV., who sought the kingdom and assailed Demetrius. Both the contestants sought the favor of Jonathan as that of a weighty leader. Demetrius restored the Jewish hostages and withdrew many of the Syrian garrisons, so that Jonathan regained possession of the temple. Alexander made him high priest, and sent him princely robes and rich insignia of office. Thus Jonathan was at once in
possession of priestly and temporal 2. Jonathan power. He was master of Judea and and Simon. an officer in the Syrian army. When
Demetrius 11. (147 B.C.) overthrew Alexander, he chose Jonathan as his friend in spite of the hostility of the latter at the beginning of the struggle of Demetrius with Alexander. A young son of Alexander, Antiochus VI., instigated by Trypho, a general of Alexander, arose against Demetrius, and after varying fortunes was slain by Trypho, who also slew Jonathan (143 B.C.). This left as the only survivor of the sons of Mattathias Simon, already celebrated for wisdom, energy, and statesmanship. He assumed the leadership, and at once declared the independence of his people, taking the titles of high priest, general, and prince (I Mace. xiv. 47). The union of these offices marked a change in the policy of Jewish affairs, in which hitherto the chief interest had been in the priesthood and a pure theocracy. Simon's rule was short, but fortunate, since his own people appreciated his worth. In a popular assembly his honors and position were secured to him as hereditary rights, and the fact made public in tablets of brass affixed to the sanctuary (I Mace. xiv. 27 17). The independence of the country was signified by the issue of a series of coins and by the reckoning of a new era dating from Simon's accession. It seemed as if Simon's end was to be peaceful when his own stepson, Ptolemy, who sought Simon's place, treacherously murdered him, while Antiochus VIL, brother of Demetrius and then on the Syrian throne, attempted to regain possession of Judea.
Simon's son, John Hyrcanus (note the Greek names assumed by the successive members of the
family; it is a sign of the times), who 3. John succeeded his father, was at first comHyrcanus, pelled to become a vassal of Syria,
Aristo surrender Jerusalem, and give hostages.
bulus L When Antiochus fell (128 B.C.), John
took full advantage of the circumstance, began a series of conquests, destroyed the temple on Gerizim, united Samaria with his own
territory, subdued the Idumeans, and Judaized the country. Josephus accredits him with three honors, high priesthood, rulership, and prophecy (Ant. XIII., x. 7). But a question was raised about the legitimacy of his possession of the high priesthood. At the death of John Hyrcanus (105 B.C.) the family fell upon evil days. What external power was retained for his successor, Aristobulus I., was due to the weakness of the Seleucids and the Ptolemies, who became involved in the strife of the Jewish parties on internal matters. Hyrcanus had become alienated from the Pharisees, for the Pharisee Eleazar had advised him to lay aside his highpriesthood and be content with the temporal power. On his death he left the rule to his widow, while Aristobulus was to be high priest. Aristobulus starved his mother to death, threw three of his brothers into prison, and killed the fourth, whom he had made coregent. But he died the next year (104 B.C.). The event of his reign most noteworthy was the conquest of Galilee and the beginning of its Judaizing.
His widow, Alexandra, the most celebrated of that name in this family, released his brothers and made one of them, the third son of her
4. Alex husband, king, with the title of Alexander ander I. Jannaeus. His rule was as
Jannaens, unfortunate as it was long (104 78
Hyrcanus B.C.). His desire was to shine as a con
II., Aristo queror as his father had done, but bolus II. without the same means, since he had to rely upon an army of mercenaries. The Pharisees withdrew more and more from the support of a rule which continually drew its sources of strength from the outside and estranged its own subjects, while the king was made to seem a betrayer of his father's religion. He was grossly insulted at a festival, and took bloody revenge. Civil war arose, which lasted for six years, during which 50,000 Jews were slain. At his death in 78 he left the succession in the hands of his widow, Alexandra, with the injunction to make friends of the Pharisees. She followed his counsel, banished the Sadducees from Jerusalem, put the Scribes into the seats of the Sanhedrin, and ruled with cleverness until her death in 69. During her life her oldest son, Hyrcanus II., had been high priest, while at her death Aristobulus Il. desired the kingdom and assailed his brother. Shortly after this the Syrian kingdom fell into the power of the Romans. Hyrcanus fled, on the advice of Antipater, the father of Herod, to the Arabian prince Aretas, at Petra, by whose help Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem and slain. Meanwhile Pompey's general, Scaurus, and then Pompey himself were besought both by Aristobulus and by his opponents, and by the people against both. Pompey captured Jerusalem, ended the kingdom, and made Hyrcanus high priest and ethnarch (63 B.C.), taking Aristobulus and his children to Rome in triumph.
The remaining history of the Hasmoneans is a series of tragedies. Alexander, the son of Aristobulus, escaped from imprisonment and assailed the Roman power in Syria. Meanwhile the Roman civil war had broken out, and Caesar released Aristobulus in order to give trouble to his opponents,
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
but the retainers of Pompey killed Aristobulus be
regarded as a foreigner, and therefore hated by the
Jews, on the break up caused by Caesar's death
they rallied to the support of Antigonus. Mean
while Antipater's son, Herod, whose desire was to
have both the form and the fact of the former power
of Hyrcanus, became engaged to Mariamne, the
beautiful daughter. of the pretender Alexander and
the granddaughter through her mother of Hyrcanus.
This was a move inspired as much by politics as by
power of the house, Antigonus, whose Hebrew name, Mattathias, recalled that of his ancestor. The book which reflects the period of the family is the Psalms of Solomon; the New Testament is silent, with the single exception of the reference in Heb. xi. 35 36, which mentions no names.
In the following genealogical table of the Hasmonean family, the numbers in parentheses preceding the name indicate the order of dynastic succession, the numbers in parentheses following the name indicate the years during which office was held, a number preceded by d. indicates date of death; m. signifies married.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are I Mace., II Mam:, and Jose
phus, Ant., books xii. xiv.; Dan. xi. 21 45; cf. also the
commentaries upon the Books of Maccabees and on
Daniel. Consult on the history of the period: Schiirer,
Geschichte, i. 165 387, Eng• tranal. I., i. 186 432 (con
tains full notes and reference to the sources and subsidiary
Hashmon. rfimeon (=Haehmon?). John (JOhanan).
at I t 'as d. 166 B. c.
John d. 161. (3) Si I on (142 d• 135). (1) Judas (165 d. 161).
Judlas d. 135. (4) John I3yrcanus (135 d. 105). Mattalthias. d. 135
(5) ArieSulus I. (105 d. 104).Anti gonue d• 105.
Eleazar d. 162.(2) Jonathan (161 f. 143).
(6) Alexander Janneeus (104• 78).(7) m. Alexandra (78 d. 89).
(9) Hyrus II. (63 d, 30),
Alexandra d. 28.
Ariat Ibulua d. 35•
(8) Ariet Ibulus II.
(89 83) d. 49,
Alexander d. 49. (10) Mattathi Is Antigonua
(40 d. 37),
Alexal der d• 7.
inclination. In the year 40 B.c., after a victorious campaign by the Parthians in hither Asia, Antigonus as king of Jerusalem was drawn into the conflict, and had Hyrcanus mutilated and sent to Babylon, for which he himself suffered at the hand of the lictors a sad end three years later. In the year 37 Herod was made king of Jerusalem, and was placed in possession after the capture of Jerusalem in that year. He became virtually the executioner of the Hasmonean family. Hyrcanus; eighty years of age, was enticed from Babylon, entangled in a fictitious conspiracy, and put to death. Alexander's son, Aristobulus, the brother in law of Herod, came naturally into the high priesthood, but fell a victim to Herod's suspicion. A little later Marianne was executed by Herod's order. Thus a historical review of the course of the Hasmoneans reveals a wide abyss between the glorious achievements of the founder of the house, Mattathias, and the inglorious end of the last representative of the kingly
Maria I ne d. 29
m• Herod the Great.
Ariatobulus d. 7.
literature); J. Dereabourg, Eeaa% our Z'hiatoire et la g&_ graphic de la Palestine, Paris, 1857; L. F. J. Caignart de Saulcy, Hint. des Machab&a ou princes de la dynaetie aamoneerane Chateauroux 1880; W. Fairweather, From the Exile to the Advent, London, 1895; A. W. Streane, The Age of the Maccabees, ib. 1898; A. BfiChler, Die Tobiaden and die Oniaden im 11. Makkablierbuche Vienna, 1899; S. Mathewa, Hiat. of N. T. Times in Palestine, New York, 1899 (a handbook, clear and popular); J. S. Riggs, Hint. of Jewish People, Maccabean and Roman Periods, New York, 1899 (valuable as a first book); B. Niese, Kritik der biden Makkab&erbtscher, nebat Beitrligen zur Geachichte der makkabBiarhen Erhebung, Berlin, 1900; H, F. Henderson, The Age of the Maccabees, London, 1907; W. SehmidtOberlSSOnitz, D%e Makkabher, Leipaic, 1907; DB, iii: 181187; EB iii. 2850 eqq.; the appropriate sections in the various histories of Israel and the Jews, e.g., by Ewald, Hitzig, Grata, Renan, and Wellhauaen.
On special topics consult: J. Wellhausen Pharjeae,. and Sadduc&er, Greifewald, 1874• F. W. Madden, Coins of the Jews, London, 1881• C. R. Condet, Judas Maccabeua and flee Jewish War London, 1894• I3. Weiss , Judas Makkab4.ue Freiburg, 1897• I• euteeh Die Regierunpa
ze%t der jud&iachen Kdnxgin Salome Alexandra Magdeburg,
1901; G. F• Handel, Judas Maccabeus, London, 1901.
167 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hasmoneans
HASSE, FRIEDRICH RUDOLF: Germantheolo
gian; b. atDresden June 29,1808; d. at BonnOct.14,
1862. He was educated at Leipsic and Berlin, and in
1834 was appointed lecturer in church history at the
university of the latter city. In 1836 he was called
to Greifswald as assistant professor of church his
tory, and in 1841 he was appointed to a similar
office at the University of Bonn. There he com
pleted the first volume of his Anselm van Canter
bury (2 vols., Leipsic, 1843 52; Eng. transl. of vol.
i. The Life of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury,
London, 1850), containing the biography of the
great English primate; the second part reproduced
Anselm's theological system. (W. $~rf.)
BIHwoa8APHP: W. Krsfft, F. R. Haew, tine Lebensskizze,
HASTINGS, JAMES:United Free Church; b. at
Huntly (33 m. n. w. of Aberdeen), Scotland, about
1860; educated at Aberdeen, became pastor of
St. Cyrus, Montrose, Kincardineshire, 1901. He
edited the Dictionary of the Bible, 5 voLs., Edin
burgh and New York, 1898 1904; Dictionary of
Christ and the Gospels, 2 vols., 1906 07; Dictionary
of the Bible, 1 vol., 1908; and Dictionary of Re
ligion and Ethics, 1908 aqq. He is the editor of
The Expository Times.
HASTINGS, THOMAS: Composer of sacred music;
b. in Washington, Conn., Oct. 15, 1784; d. in New
York City May 15, 1872. In early youth he taught
himself music, and began his career as a teacher in
singing schools in 1806, and as an editor in 1816:
With Prof. Seth Norton, of Hamilton College, he
published two pamphlets (1816), afterward en
larged, and united with the Springfield Collection
in a volume entitled Musica Sacra. From 1823 to
1832 he was the editor of The Western Recorder, a
religious paper published at Utica. In 1832, at the
call of twelve churches, he removed to the city of
New York. Before leaving Utica he had begun to
write hymns, impelled by the lack of variety, espe
cially in meter, in those then current, and by the
sorrow. The popularity of these first attempts led
him to continue and cultivate the habit thus early
begun. About two hundred of his hymns are in
current use, and he left in manuscript about four
hundred more. His music, with that of Lowell
Mason, did important service in the Church, and
marks in America the transition period between the
crude and the more cultured periods of psalmody.
His cardinal principle was that in church music the
artistic must be strictly subordinated to the devo
tional. In 1858 the University of the City of New
York conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of
The following is a list of his publications: Musiea
Sacra (Utica, 1816 22); The Musical Reader (1819);
A Dissertation on Musical Taste (Albany, 1822; re
vised and republished, New York, 1853); Spiritual
Songs (Lowell Mason coeditor, Utica, 1832 36);
Prayer (1831); The Christian Psalmist (William Patton coeditor, New York, 1836); Anthems, Motets, and Sentences (1836); Musical Magazine (24 numbers, 1837 38); The Manhattan Collection (1837); Elements of Vocal Music (1839); Nursery Songs, The Mother's Hymn book, The Sacred Lyre (1840); Juvenile Songs (1842); The Crystal Fount (1847); The Sunday school Lyre (1848). With William B. Bradbury as joint editor from 1844 to 1851: The Psalmodist (1844); The Choralist (1847); The Mendelssohn Collection (1849); The Psalmists (1851); Devotional Hymns and Poems (1850); The History of Forty Choirs (1854); Sacred Praise, The Selah (1856); Church Melodies (1858); Hastings' Church Music (1860); Introits, or Short Anthems (1865). He also edited, for the American Tract Society, Sacred Songs (1855) and Songs of Zion (1856), and for the Presbyterian Church, The Presbyterian Paalmodist (1852) and The Juvenile Psalmodist.