161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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mdtleden roan de Maat 3chappij der Nederlandechs Let­terkunde, pp. 237 309, Leyden, 1887 (contains lint of works).
HOGS, MOSES DRURY: Presbyterian; b. at Hampden Sidney, Va., Sept. 17, 1818; d. at Rich­mond, Va., Jan. 9, 1899. He was educated at Hampden Sidney College (B.A., 1839) and at Union Theological Seminary, Va. (then also at Hampden Sidney), from which he was graduated in 1843. He was a tutor in Hampden Sidney College (1839 13), and after being assistant pastor to W. S. Plumer at the First Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Va. (1843 45), founded the Second Presbyterian Church in the same city in 1845, of which he was pastor until his death. He rendered important service as a member of a committee to prepare a hymnal long used in his denomination and to revise its Directory of Worship, and in 1888 was chairman of a com­mittee appointed by his Assembly to confer with a similar committee of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America regarding cooperation. In theology he held to the inerrancy of the Scrip­tures and to strict Calvinism as set forth in the West­minster standards. From 1854 to 1859 he was one of the proprietors and editors of The Central Pre8by­terian (Richmond). A volume of his sermons was edited by his daughter under the title The Perfection of Beauty (Richmond, 1903).

BIBLIOGRAPHY; P. H. Hogs, Moves Drury Hoge: Life and Letters, Richmond, 1899.

HOHENALTHEIM, h6h"en alt'heim, SYNOD OF:

An assembly of Sept. 20, 916, in the Church of St. John spud Altheim in pogo Retia, i.e., the present Hohenaltheim, south of N6rdlingen, in Bavaria. The names of the bishops who were present are not preserved; the Saxon bishops kept aloof, but as those present considered themselves as a generalis synodue, it is probable that the bishops of the three remaining tribes appeared in full number. King Conrad did not take part, but the pope was repre­sented by Bishop Peter von Orte. The purpose of the synod was to a certain extent political since the bishops in the interest of the kindgom united them­selves against the rebellious leaders of the tribes in South Germany. Another aim was to strengthen the episcopate, which was menaced on many sides. Measures were adopted to protect church property, and to safeguard clerics and bishops against accusa­tions of laymen and against unlawful insults by rebellious leaders. A set of resolutions aimed at the reform of the Church. In the political sphere the synod did not attain its purpose, as the attitude of King Conrad was as unfavorable afterward as before, but a great part of its resolutions entered into the collections of canon law. (A. HAUCg.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The acts of the synod are preserved in a manuscript from Freieing now at Munich, and printed in MGH, Leg., ii. 1 (837), 554 661. Consult Refele, Con­aifisagsachichte, iv. 578 587; Hauck KD, iii. 13 eqq.
HOHENLOHE, hbh'en loh"e, ALEXANDER LEO­POLD FRANZ EMMERICH, PRINCE OF: German Catholic; b. at Kupferzell (37 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Wilrttemberg, Aug. 17, 1794; d. at VSslau (19 m. s.s.w. of Vienna) Nov. 17, 1849. His scientific and theological education at Vienna, Bern, and

elsewhere was frequently interrupted. In 1815 he

was ordained subdeacon and became domiciliarus at

Ohniltz. In 1816 he was ordained priest and un­

dertook a journey to Rome which seems to have

decisively influenced him. After his return to

Germany he lived at Munich, and in 1819 went

to Bamberg, preaching and writing and everywhere

finding popular response and esteem. In 1821 he

appeared at Wtirzburg where he made a great sen­

sation as preacher, and it was here that he met

Martin Michel, a Franconian peasant, who performed

miraculous cures by means of prayer. Prince

Alexander himself wrought miracles, but yet he had

so many failures that his whole undertaking had

to be restricted. He retired to Austria and in 1825

was made canon at Grosswardein in Hungary, in

1829 grand provost, and in 1844 bishop of Sardica

in partibua. Driven from Hungary by the revolution

of 1848, he went to Innsbruck, in 1849 to Vienna,

and finally to V6slau. Of his numerous writings

may be mentioned his LichtNicke and Erlebniase

alts der Welt tend dem Priesterleben (Regensburg,


BIBLIOGRAPHY: His life up to 1822 was written by C. G. Scharold, W OrsburL 1824. Consult: G. M. Pachtler, Biopraphieehe Notisen fiber . . . Prinsan Alexander, Augs­burg, 1850; S. Brunner, Aug dam Nachksa des . . . Hoh­enWe, Regensburg, 1851; ADS, xii. 883 884; KL, vi. 163 188.
HOLBACH, hsl"bas', PAUL HENRI THYRY, BARON D': French philosopher; b. at Heidelsheim (13 m. e.n.e. of Carlaruhe), Baden, 1723; d. in Paris June 21, 1789. At an early age he went to Paris, where he Tesided till his death. As he was a man of wealth and a good host, he was able to make his house the meeting place of the most eminent thinkers of the time. Among his friends were Con­dorcet, Diderot, Helvtstius, D'Alembert, and Rous­seau. Holbach was himself one of the cleverest and most influential men of the group of freethinkers that assembled about him. He had much in com­mon with the English deists and translated into French many works of deistic writers. He was one of the Encyclopedists (q.v.), and is known par­ticularly as the champion of naturalism, or Material­ism (q.v.). Adopting the current egoistic and sen­sualistic ethics of the period, he opposed Christianity and all positive religion as an impediment to the pursuit of happiness. Of his numerous antireligious and materialistic works, which were printed in foreign countries and published anonymously, all have now passed into oblivion except one, the famous Syst~me de la nature (2 vols., London [Am­sterdam], 1770; Eng. tranals., Nature and her laws, 2 vols., 1820; The Syatem of Nature, London, 1884), which has been called the Bible of materialism. It should be added that in his personal life Holbach was better than his books. Despite his theories he was a man of the most unselfish benevolence: He was an egoist and materialist in the interest of humanity. See DE16m, II., § 2.

BIBLIoOBAPH7: A Brisf Sketch of as Life and Writings of the Baron d'Holbarh, London, 1834; C. Aveseo  Lavigne. Diderot et la socifi du Baron d'Holbach, Paris, 1875; J. Morley, Baron Holbach's ' System of Nature,' in Portnighay Review, xxvifi (1877), 257 284. The Eng. traneb. named in the text contain memoirs, the second by Charles Brad. laugh.


Holiness of God THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG ale


Etymology of the Hebrew Term ($ 1). Holiness in Objects (§ 2). Holiness in the People (¢ 3). The Primitive Content of " Holiness " (§ 4). Ethical Content of " Holiness " (1 5). Holiness as Transcendence (§ 6). Usage in the New Testament (§ 7). In Theology (¢ 8).

The word used in the Hebrew of the Old Testa­ment for " holiness " is kadhesh, while " holy " is expressed by kadhosh, both connected

i. Etymol  with the denominative verb kadhash.

ogy of the The efforts to trace the origin of the

Hebrew idea from the etymology have not been

Term. satisfactory. It has been connected

(by Fleischer, Delitzsch, and Baudis­

sin) with a root ,kadhadh, " to cut off, to separate,"

and so appears to have a purely negative connota­

tion. But the word itself does not tell from what or

for what the separation takes place, leaving more

exact definition to be made by the limiting ex­

pressions. Another derivation proposed (especially

by Dilhnann, on Isa. vi. 3 and in his Alttestament­

liche Theologie) is from a root found in Arabic and

Ethiopic, kada, " to be pure, clear " (Assyrian

,kuddushu, " brilliant "; of. Hebr. hadhash, " new,

shining "). This derivation has the advantage over

the other that etymologically it gives a positive as

against a negative sense which applies easily to deity

and to divine things. Yet it is to be remembered

that holiness in the Old Testament is not necessarily

conjoined with the idea of brilliance. In the his­

torical usage of the Old Testament kadhosh has

always a religious sense, and a better knowledge

will be gained from examination of the historical

usage than from investigation of etymological possi­

bilities. Such an examination involves the double

question, what holiness means as applied to things

and persons and as applied to God.

Objects, times, and the like are called holy when they belong to God, are devoted or dedicated to him, are then no longer " profane or

z. Holiness common," and so are excluded from

in Objects. ordinary use. Examples of such things

are the temple, the tabernacle, and their

belongings, the Sabbath and festivals, and heaven

as God's dwelling place (Lev. vi. 9 sqq., xix.; Ise.

lviii. 13, Ivij. 15). In such cases the idea of separa­

tion is consequent upon the holiness of the things;

holiness is primary, separation is secondary. The

relation of the notion to persons is well exemplified

in Num. xvi. 5, 7. Priests and priestly persons are

holy doubtless because they belong to God; but

in this passage a weightier circumstance enters than

mere external relationship there is involved per­

sonal quality. Whoever belongs to God must have

the essential character which accompanies such rela­

tionship. This is brought out in relation to the

Nazirite in Num. vi. 5 sqq., and with especial

clearness in I Sam. xxi. 6 in connection with the

gift of the shewbread to David. So, according to

Lev. xxi. 5 sqq., it is expected of the Levite that his

relation to deity and the consequent holiness will

affect and govern his external relations he will not

make himself impure by contact with a corpse, by

shaving his head, or by taking other than a virgin as

his wife. Another kind of holiness is stated in Isa. iv. 3, where those remaining in Jerusalem are holy, but because the "filth" of the women is washed away and Zion's blood guiltiness is done away. The underlying fact here, too, is not mere relationship to deity, but ethical quality is implied (cf. Isa. j. 26).

The same idea comes out in relation to the people as a whole in Num. xvi. 3, in that they are holy just

as the priests are holy (verse 5). They 3. Holiness belong to God, who dwells among

in the them; they are in a connection of

People. special nearness to him, are his pos 

session, and have the right of approach to him (cf. Ex. xix. 4 sqq.), and consequently are under certain obligations to exhibit ethical or religious qualities. Holiness here, therefore, implies a condition and a demand; it involves both cultic and ethical requirements (Lev. xix. 2, " Ye shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy "). This is the point of view of the entire Holiness Code in Lev. m. sqq., especially xi. 44 45, which gives ex­pressly both external ritual and ethical duties. Thus the double conception of holiness comes to light. On the one side Israel, as exemplifying the holiness of God, is not to touch or deal with certain impure things, and is to keep certain observances; on the other, Israel is to honor father and mother, to do righteousness, to practise charity and eschew evil. So in Ex. xix. 5 6 it appears that if Israel keeps the commands of God it will be God's posses­sion and a kingdom of priests and a holy people, showing the underlying conception of character as belonging essentially to the idea. And this is rooted in the thought of the possession by God of the people which is to be holy. The conception of separation is, therefore, throughout only secondary.

The term kadhosh in its application to God, how­ever, implies throughout, both etymologically and

historically, a negative sense. If things 4. The and persons are not in themselves holy,

Primitive but are so because they belong to God,

Content of holiness as applied to him must involve " Holiness." what is essential to his attributes as

deity and what is worthy of him. But just what this involves is not stated in the Old Testament in any simple formula which is good for all steps in the development which the idea certainly underwent. In early times in the mind of the people the holiness of God implied something fearful and unapproachable; in the height of the prophetic age, the content was strongly ethical; in the law and whatever was connected with it the transcendence of God came out as the motive of the ritual and service. The earlier and popular notion comes out in such passages as Lev. x. 2 3; I Sam. vi. 20, where the idea of God is that of a power who by destruction punishes those who by coming near to him invade his holiness. To such a being access can be had only through painstaking preparation and care. The inclusion of this idea in the late Priest Code proves only how tenacious the idea was.

But this is only one side of the thought. As soon as God came to be conceived as an ethical being, kadhosh came to have an ethical content, not be­cause in itself it meant " pure," but because it was applied to deity to whom that quality was at 


tributed. So Amos (ii. 6 7) speaks of the unethical dealings of Israel as acts which profane the holy name of Yahweh. The " holy " name

5. Ethical of Yahweh is his name and his being as

Content of God of Israel and of the world, "Holiness." and since this being is regarded as ethical in essence, the conception of holiness is that of ethical purity. When, then, in Amos iv. 2 God swears by his holiness, it does not mean by his majesty; and when, in vi. 8, he swears by himself he must swear at least by his ethical majesty and sublimity. Similarly, in Hos. xi. 9 God is represented as asserting the difference between himself and man as the ground why he will not utterly destroy Ephraim. This ethical content must exist also in the passage Isa. vi. 3 sqq., where the prophet as a sinful man fears lest he be consumed by the holy God, because as a sinful man he has come near to the ethically pure and sublime Being. The idea of the unapproachability of God remains, but it is epiritualized and totally changed. So in the speech of the seraphim a difference is expressed in the words " holy " and " glory " (kabhodh); the first expresses the essence of God's being, the second the external manifestation of His holiness. Similarly the prophet speaks of the " Holy One of Israel " when he wishes to express the inner essence of God as related to Israel, while, as suggested by Ps. xviii., the ex­pression " glory of Israel " is available to convey the idea of his external manifestations. Yet the two ideas of holiness and glorification are brought together in Lev. x. 3, in which God is sanctified to the priests and glorified to the people. The people see the glory of Yahweh, the priests have closer access and know more of his essential character.

When Israel began to express the idea of God in an emphatic exposition of his ethical and spiritual character, the growth of the notion of

6. Holiness holiness in this sense became more ex 

as Tran  tended. .This took form in the idea of

scendence. transcendence and sublimity, and is

found especially in Ezekiel and the

Priest Code expressing itself not merely in the

ethical, but also in the cultic and ceremonial purity

of mankind. It is this thought which dominates

the legal provisions, that Israel is to exemplify the

holiness of God. And the sense of the sin of man

enhanced the emphasis upon the transcendence and

supermundane essence of deity and the recession of

deity to a distance from man. So it is at this point

that the idea of separateness reenters. And the

separateness of Israel from the Gentiles butmirrors

that of God from the world, viewed in this aspect

(Lev. xx. 26). But the ethical remains dominant.

Dishonoring of parents is forbidden, not because

to do it is heathen, but because it is unethical. The

same point of view comes out in Ezekiel, though not

with the same emphasis. Thus in xxxvi. 25 sqq. the

purification from all defilement and the renewing of

the heart through the spirit of God is the essence

of the sanctifying activity of God.

A review of the entire case as presented in the Old Testament makes evident that it is not a proper conclusion to assert that the idea of the holiness of God is but one side of his essential being; rather it is the comprehensive designation for the total

content of the divine Being in his relation to the

external world. So that the "holiness" of .God

expresses all that is implied in the word kabhodh,

" glory "; while the latter expresses in particular

the divine majesty. The development of the thought

therefore shows first an extension from the popular

idea of unapproachableness to that of sublimated

ethical purity which sinks again to a partial ex­

pression of externalized or transcendental separa­

tion. (R. KITTEL.)

Several words are used to convey the idea of holi­

ness in the New Testament hagios, hagnos, and

derivatives from these. Hagiazein signifies to cause

to share in God's holiness, whether the act is re­

ferred to God or to men. Hagiasmos designates

either the process of making holy

7. Usage in (I Thess. iv. 3; I Pet. i. 2) or the re 

Ihe flew silt of this process (Rome v. 22, vi. 19;

Testament. Heb. xii. 14). Hagiosune stands for the holy character which corresponds to the gospel (II Cor. vii. 1; I Thess. iii. 13), also for the inner spirit of Jesus (Rome i. 4). Hagiotes describes either the holy character of man (II Cor. i. 12) or of God (Heb. xii. 10). Hagnos, from the same root as hagios, in the New Testament as in classical Greek refers to chastity (Tit. ii. 5; I Pet. iii. 2), to sincerity (II Cor. xi. 2 3) or freedom from defilement (Phil. iv. 8; I Tim. v. 22; Jas. iii. 17). Hagios like hagiazean has reference either to God or to some aspect of his creation, especially men, as objects of God's electing and redeeming grace. In general holiness is applied (1) to God. It repre­sents his ethical purity and perfection manifested in reaction against sin, but also in cleansing and finally redeeming those whom he elects (Luke i. 49; John xvii. 11; I Pet. i. 15 16). (2) Since holi­ness is the essential characteristic of God, the same is true of the Spirit of God. He is holy, as the principle of the divine self communication (I Cor. ii. 10; Mark xi. 13), the permanent principle of the new life (Mark i. 8; Rom. xv. 16; Tit. iii. 5), and of special divine gifts (Luke i. 15, 35, 67). (3) Jesus as holy occupies a unique relation to God (Mark i. 24; Luke iv. 34; John vi. 69; Acts iv. 30), and in virtue of an act of self dedication (John xvii. 19) he stands in a peculiar relation to men, partly with reference to his name or mystic union with him, and partly as the cause of their sanctification (I Cor. vi. 11, i. 2; Eph. v. 26; Heb. ii. 11). (4) Holiness is also applied to men who are called to share the holiness of God (John xvii. 17; I Cor. i. 2; II Cor. vii. 1; Eph. i. 4); or they are designated simply as holy or saints (Mark vi. 20; Luke i. 70; Eph. i. 1, iii. 5; Rev. xiii. 10), or there is here the char­acteristic term for Christians in general (Acts ix. 13, xx. 32; I Cor. xvi. 1). It is also the descrip­tion of those who are set apart for the service of God (cf. John x. 36). (5) The term has further to do with persons and things set apart as already belonging to God (" the name," Luke xi. 2; " blood of the covenant," Heb. x. 29; " Christ as Lord," I Pet. iii. 15), or as associated with God for an ethical end (" every creature," I Tim. iv. 5; " ves­sels unto honor," II Tim. ii. 21). (6) Finally it concerns objects which derive their character from their relation to God, as a given place (Matt. xxiv.


15; Acts xxi. 28), city (Rev. xxi, 2), law (Rom. vii. 21), the Scriptures (Rom. i. 2), calling (II Tim. i. 9), covenant (Luke i. 72), and nation (I Pet. ii. 9). From the foregoing, it is evident that while the idea of holiness in the New Testament follows lines already clearly marked in the Old Testament, it is characterized by a distinctive difference. It is, e.g., finally emancipated from all ceremonial as­sociations. As applied to God, it is no longer as in contemporary Judaism connected with tran­scendence in the sense of exaltation and aloofness from the world and men. Its sole reference is as in Hos. xi. 9 to the inner essence of the nature of God, whether God is thought of as a personal being or in relation to men. It is true that holiness as the designation of God is far less frequent in the New than in the Old Testament and the term holiness is giving place to that of love, but this does not justify the contention of Ritschl that its meaning in the New Testament is lacking in clearness and that it is not valid fqr Christianity (Juatif catian and Reconcilia­tion, iii. 255, Edinburgh, 1900). No tension is af­firmed as between holiness and love; holiness is rather the essential quality of love viewed in rela­tion to the inner side of God's character as perfect consistency with the ethical ideal of personality. As applied to men, holiness is also freed from all ceremonial content and refers only to their God or Christlike character and deeds.

In theology, the holiness of God has several ref­erences an immanent predicate of his nature, a transitive attribute of activity, which, moreover, sustains a particular relation to love in the doctrine of the atonement. As an immanent predicate of the divine Being, it designates the inmost and

fundamental essence of God in which

8. In all other properties are embraced and Theology. from which all activities originate.

Something of its etymological signifi­cance has always clung to it; God is supramundane, exalted, incorruptible, absolutely unique. In com­parison with the defects and impurity of the world, he is the perfectly pure and spotless One. Holi­ness in God is the " infinite beauty and excellence of his nature " (Jonathan Edwards, Essay on the Trinity, ed. G. P. Fisher, p. 97, New York, 1903), " the perfect agreement of the divine willing with the divine being " (G. Thomasius, Christi Person and Werk, i. 137, Erlangen, 1856), " Conformity to his own perfect nature " (W. G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, i. 362, New York, 1888). On account of this inner essential excellence, God is the abso­lutely good Being; from this fact springs his eth­ical sovereignty; here too is found the principle which determines his redemptive activity. Holi­ness is also a transitive attribute of God. In this sense it was defined by Baier as the " rectitude of the divine will in virtue of which he wills all that is just and good in accordance with his eternal law." Quenstedt held that it is the " supreme, faultless purity in God which demands from his creatures a corresponding purity." According to Schleiermacher it is the " legislative divine causal­ity in human life." Holiness is that attribute in God by which in all his relations to moral beings he maintains and realizes his ethical perfection.

Thus " he is the one unconditioned Law of the good, the Power which both must and does react against the evil" (F. A. B. Nitzsch, Dogmatik, p. 415, Freiburg, 1902). It is therefore directed not merely to the conquest and eradication of sin, but to the creation and perfection of the highest good and the kingdom of God. So far as holiness involves the consistency of God's holy action with reference to men, it is designated as Righteousness (q.v.). Since the Reformation, holiness has been conceived with special regard to love: holiness the funda­mental attribute of God, love conditioned and limited by it. Thus, it has been affirmed that God may be merciful but he must be just. Mercy may exist under conditions which preclude its expres­sion; holiness, never, since the very existence of holiness is dependent on its being exercised. Mercy is therefore optional, but justice is necessitated. The significance of this conception of the relation of holiness to love appears in the doctrine of the atonement, where the application of mercy once justice is satisfied is limited to those whom God has chosen (Calvin, Institutes, III., xxiii. 11; J. Owen, Works, " Dissertation on the Divine Jus­tice," x. 48324; W. G. T. Shedd, op. cit., i. 218­219, 319 390; A. H. Strong, Systematic Theology, i. 296, Philadelphia, 1907). Holiness and love have also been related to each other as distinct attri­butes of God, but yet not as implying conflict or requiring reconciliation. God's action in redemp­tion thus equally expresses both qualities, and each of these is as fundamental as the other. The dis­tinction between holiness and love, however, ex­cept so far as love is regarded as primarily emo­tional in content, is hard to maintain and in the discusion tends to fade out (W. N. Clarks, Christian Theology, pp. 83 93, New York, 1898). The rea­son for this is not far to seek. If love is regarded se the supreme designation of God in the New Tes­tament (I John iv. 16), we shall find in the history of the idea of God the explanation of what would otherwise not be clear. Holiness, God's elevation above the world, his ethical absoluteness, his per­sistent reaction against sin, and as such the moral ideal of his people's life, was the earlier form of the idea of God (Lev. xx. 2). Later, both experi­ence and reason yielded up that wider interpreta­tion of the character of God in relation to men which is registered in the term " righteousness." In Jesus' consciousness, however, appears the full disclosure of the divine nature and will; the Fa­therhood of God lays bare the hidden depths of God's being. The association of the terms " holy " and " righteous " in Jesus' prayer in the upper room as descriptive of " Father " is in the highest degree significant (John xvii. 11, 2b). Instead, therefore, of being left behind in Christianity (cf.

A. Ritsehl, Justification and Reconciliation, iii. 255),

or regarding it as antagonistic to love, " holiness " and " righteousness " are the earlier ,yet integral forms through which God was leading his people to the perfect knowledge of himself as love. It is an anachronism in the doctrine of the atonement to set holiness over against love, as having to be satis­fied ere love can come to expression. On the other hand, to express the divine purpose of love to set



men free from sin, the term " holy love " states the

essential truth (cf. T. Haering, Der Chriatliche

Glaube, pp. 217 219, Calw, 1906).

C. A. BncswITH.

BIHLIOUSAPHr: Achelie, in TBK, xzi (1847), 187 eqq.; J.

M. Rupprecht, in TBK, xxiii (1849), 684 eqq.; J. C. K.

von Hofmann, Bchriftbewess, i. 81 eqq., Nbrdfngen, 1857;

K. C. W. F. Bghr, 3ymbolik des mosdisclun Kuttua, i. 48

eqq., 430 eqq., ii. 20 eqq., 173 eqq., Heidelberg, 1874,

1839; H. Ewald, Die Lehre der Bibel von Goff, iL 237

sqq., Leipsie, 1874; B. Duhm, Theologis der Prophslen,

pp. 189 eqq., Bonn, 1875; W. von Baudissin, Studien cur

semitisden Relipionspeachichta, ii. 1 eqq., Leipsie, .1878;

A. Ritschl, Die duidliche Lahre von der Rechwertipunp and

Verabhnunp, 189 sqq, Bonn, 1889; Smith, Prophets, pp

224 sqq., 422; idem, Rel. of Son., pp. 91, 140 sqq.; the

works on O. T. Theology by P. Scholz, Regensburg, 1881;

H. Schultz, C78ttingen, 1895, Eng. trans]., London, 1892;

A. Dillmann, Leipsic, 1895; R. Emend, Freiburg, 1899;

and A. Kayser. ed. K. Marti, Strasburg, 1903; and the

commentaries on the books containing the passages cited

in the text.

ROLL, KARL: German Protestant; b. at Ti1­

bingen May 15, 1866. He studied at the university

of his native city (Ph.D., 18$9), and, after being

an assistant in the preparation of the edition of the

Church Fathers by the Berlin Academy of Sciences

for two years, became privat docent at the Univer­

sity of Berlin in 1896. In 1898 he was made titular

professor at. the same university, but resigned in

1900 to accept the position of associate professor

of church history at Tilbingen, returning to Berlin

in 1907 as full professor in the same subject. He

bas written Die Sacra Parallels des Johannes Damae­

zenus (Leipsic, 1896); Enthusiaamus and Bumgewadt

beim griechischen Mfchtum (1898); Fragmente

vornicdniecher Kirchenvdter aus den Sacra Parallela

(1899); Amphilochus von Ikonium in deinem Ver­

hdltnis zu den gromen Kappadoztern (Tiibingen,

1904); and Moderni8mua (1908).


I. Protestant Churches. 1. The Reformed Church. 2. The Christian Reformed Church. 3. The Lutheran Church.

4. Baptists.

b. Remonetrsnts.

II. The Roman Catholic Church.

III. The Janeaniet Church.

IV. The Jews.

The kingdom of Holland (or the Netherlands), on the western border of Continental Europe, has an area of 12,650 square miles and a population (1905) of 5,591,701, of whom about three fifths are Protes­tants. The conversion of the Netherlands was begun under Dagobert I. (628 838), continued by Willibrord (q.v.), and completed by Charlemagne toward the end of the eighth century. The inhab­itants now enjoy full religious liberty. The adher­ents of the several sects have equal civil and re­ligious rights and privileges, and enjoy complete freedom of administration in everything refitting to their religion and its exercise. The several re­ligious bodies, save the Christian Reformed Church, and a new body called "The Reformed Churches" (1892), which refuse such aid, are subsidized by the state. In the northeastern parts of the country Protestantism prevails, in the southern parts Roman Catholicism, while in the central parts both these forma are fairly well represented. During the last century there has been a slow but steady increase of Protestants and Jews, and a correspond­ing decrease of Roman Catholics.

I. Protestant Churches. 1. The Reformed Church (DTederlanwh Hervormde Herkgenoot­~ohap): This body took its rise at the beginning of the Reformation. Its doctrines and polity began to be formulated as early as 1566, and after passing through successive revisions took a form at the Synod of Dort (1619), which lasted with unimpor­tant changes for a couple of centuries. It was not, however, until the Pesos of Westphalia (1648) that the Reformed religion became the recognized re­ligion of the country. Its adherents constituted the national church. In the interval between 1795 and 1818 the national church suffered greatly from lack of support. All income from the state was cut off, and the clergy were reduced to the greatest straits. When William I. became king in 1818 he called a general synod (the first since the Synod of Dort is 1819) and offered to support the Church if it would accept a constitution modified to suit his views. The Church yielded, and the older strictly Presbyterian form of government was greatly mod­ified and made bureaucratic. General synods have been held yearly since 1816, but they consist of less than twenty members; and in all the higher church assemblies administrative boards direct all ecclesiastical affairs. This change in the govern­ment then met with no opposition except from the classic of Amsterdam, the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth volumes of whose minutes (1790­1818) are filled with memorials, protests, and peti­tions relating to the changes then occurring in the government of the Church. The constitution, finally accepted in 1816, is still the basis of the existing church order, since it gave shape to " The General Regulations of the Reformed Church " made in 1852. But, while these latter gave to that body greater independence than was possessed by the articles of 1816, it was still hampered by many conditions. These conditions were annulled in 1870. In 1857, under the influence of the Liberals and the Romanista, the government banished religious in­struction from the schools; and in 1876 it changed the theological faculties in the universities into faculties of comparative religion; but funds were granted to the National Synod for special theo­logical instruction. But, when rationalists secured these professorships, the orthodox party estab­lished a Free Reformed University at Amsterdam in 1880. The same party has secured free schools all over Holland in which Evangelical religion is taught.

The Reformed Church embraces a large portion of the Reformed elements in the country, inclu­ding the Walloons, the English Presbyterians, and the Scotch congregations. The congregations are divided into forty four classes (or presbyteries), and these are subdivided into 148 smaller groups, called rings, or circuits, for convenient confer­ences. There are ten provincial synods, and s Walloon Commission. There is one general synod, which consists of only nineteen members, thirteen of whom are ministers, and six are elders. The choice of these is made by the provincial synods, the members of the latter being elected by the classes. The classical assemblies are the character­istic feature of the organism of the Church. They


meet yearly for the election of officers and the con­sideration of such topics as are presented to them by the synod. While in the other assemblies the ministers are twice as many as the elders, the classes are composed of all the ministers within the bounds and an elder from each congregation. The local congregations are governed by their consistories, consisting of an equal number of elders and deacons. Since 1867 the members of the consistory have been chosen by a college of representatives, the latter being chosen by the whole body of adult members, except those supported by the poor funds. It is this participation of the members in the elections which has brought the Church back to orthodoxy. In 1898 the Church had 1,348 churches and 1,606 ministers. The Walloons or French congregations are mostly composed of the descendants of the refugees driven by persecution from France and Flanders; but as these gradually blended with the Netherlanders their numbers decreased. While in 1815 they had thirty five churches and forty seven ministers, in 1898 they had only sixteen churches and twenty four ministers. There have been in all between thirty and forty British Presbyterian churches in Holland and Belgium, not to speak of English Con­gregational and Episcopal churches and Quaker meetings. Of the Presbyterian churches only those of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Middelburg remain; and these, as well as the Walloon churches, are now included in the Reformed Church. The management of church property was directed for a time by de­crees of William I., issued in 1819 and 1833, but these decrees were annulled in 1869. Since that time most of the congregations have placed them­selves under a " Committee of Control," while the others are independent.

From the beginning of the independence of Hol­land the ministers were generally trained at the state universities, where theological faculties were constituted for that purpose; yet a course in the universities was not obligatory. The law of 1877 released the faculty from the duty of teaching the theology of the confessions, while in each uni­versity two professors, nominated by the synod of the Reformed Church, are charged with the duty of lecturing on dogmatic and practical theology. During the entire period of the Dutch Republic the classic of Amsterdam was the great agency of Hol­land, and largely of all Continental Europe, for carrying on mission work among twenty colonies as well as among the heathen. Her deputati ad res externs, as exhibited by their minutes and corre­spondence, show an amount of work in this line almost appalling. But neither foreign nor domestic missions are now carried on by the Church or its officers, as such; yet the subject of missions has grown in interest during recent years. Besides the Moravian Society, which has long labored in the West Indies, there was for many years only the Netherlands Missionary Society, founded in 1797. But in 1881 no less than ten missionary societies existed for sending missionaries to non Christian countries. There is also one society laboring es­pecially among the Jews. The number of the church members in the Dutch missions is about 100,000. They have 200 schools attended by about 14,000

scholars. The public schools of Holland are now confessionless, but there are hundreds of private parochial schools supported by Protestants or Ro­man Catholics. Two considerable associations have been formed, one in 1860 and another in 1877, to support and extend such schools. Evangelistic work is carried on by several associations of believers. Activity in this direction, as well as other philan­thropic work, for example, work for homeless children, for fallen women, for the blind, etc., is ever on the increase; but the desirable cooperation of all the religious bodies is yet wanting.

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