HODY, HUMPHREY: Anglican Biblical scholar; b. at Odoombe, Somersetahire, Jan. 1, 1659; d. while on a journey to Bath Jan. 20, 1707. He was educated at Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., 1679; M.A., 1682; B.D., 1689; D.D., 1692), where he obtained a fellowship in 1685. In 1690 he became chaplain to Stillingfieet, bishop of Worcester. For his support of the government in a controversy with Henry Dodwell regarding nonjuring bishops he was made domestic chaplain to Tillotson, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1694, and retained the position under Archbishop Tenison. In 1695 he was presented by Tenison to the rectory of Chartham, Kent, which he immediately exchanged for the rectories of St. Michael Royal and St. Martin Vintry, London. In 1698 he became regius professor of Greek at the University of Oxford, in 1701 rector. of Monks' Risborough, Buckinghamshire, and in 1704 archdeacon of Oxford. To the controversy about convocation he contributed Some Thoughts on a Convocation, and the Notion of its Divine Right (London, 1699) and A History of English Councils and Convocations, and of the Clergy's Sitting in parliament (3 parts, 1701). His reputation, however, rests upon his valuable work on the history of the text and translations of the Old Testament, De btbliorum textZus 071P llWua, ver&wn*us Grtects et Latina Vulgates, lt7m: iv (1705). The first book contains his earlier dissertation, Contra historiam Aristew de LXX interprettbua (Oxford, 1684), in which he had shown that the alleged letter of Aristeas concerning the origin of the Septuagint was a forgery. By his will he founded ten scholarships at Wadham College for the study of Greek and Hebrew.
BIBLIOasAPHr: The principal source for a Life is the socount in Latin, chiefly from an autobiography in English, prefixed by 19. Jebb to Hody's posthumous De Gracie illustribus London, 1742. A biography is still lacking. Consult also E R.iehm Einleitunp in do# A. T., pp. 480
eqq., Halls, 1890; H. B. 8wete Introduction to the O. T. in Greek, p. 15, Cambridge, 1900; DNB, xxvii. 77 78. HOE VON HOENEEGG, MATTHIAS:.Court preacher in electoral Saxony in the time of the Thirty Years' War; b. at Vienna Feb. 24, 1580; d. at Dresden Mar. 4, 1645. He was educated at the University of Wittenberg. At the age of twentyone he became licentiate of theology and soon afterward lectured at the university. In 1602 he was
appointed third court preacher in Dresden, but in 1603 was transferred to Plauen as superintendent apparently because he lacked tact in his intercourse with his older colleagues. His activity in Plauen
(1604 11) was successful and beneficent, as he was removed from the court spirit which incited his
307 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA g
ambition. The elector continued to show him favor and allowed him, in 1611, to accept a call to Prague as director of the Evangelical churches and schools, with the condition that he would resign when his services were needed in Saxony. _ In 1613 John George I. called him to Dresden as first court preacher and he remained there until his death. After a five years' struggle he succeeded in ousting his colleague, H#nichen, so that he could assert his influence without restriction. This influence he used over his well meaning but narrow minded ruler for the advantage of church and school. But he was not satisfied with the influence of a preacher and theologian; as a Protestant church ruler he tried to compete with the highest dignitaries of the Roman Catholic Church. He became a politician to whom all parties paid their regards on account of his influence, but by his political activity he injured the interests not only of Saxony, but of the Evangelical cause in general.
The Catholic League as well as the Protestant Union sought the favor of the elector of Saxony. As H6e tried to retain the friendship of both Roman Catholics and Protestants, the elector wavered in his decision, and after the outbreak of the war attempted to mediate between the contending parties. H6e thought he could persuade John George to accept the crown of Bohemia, and his ambition was greatly disappointed when he learned that the Calvinist count palatine had been elected. The fact that Saxony now took the part of the Roman Catholic emperor and combated the Protestants must be attributed largely to Hoe's mortified ambition and intrigues. His course incited the greatest resentment among his contemporaries, and he was accused of being responsible for the approaching disaster. The suspicions, expressed at the time, that Hde had been bribed by money from the imperial and papal party have not yet been silenced. However, his conscience was awakened by the persecution of Protestantism which was tolerated in Bohemia in contravention of all agreements, and he asked the interference of the emperor. No attention was paid to his entreaties, and his injured vanity made it easy for him to accommodate himself to the change of policy on the part of his sovereign, who by the Edict of Restitution and by the unexpected appearance of Gustavus Adolphus on German soil was forced to convene an assembly of Protestant estates in Leipsic in 1631, and to organize the Protestant league of Leipsio.
Of HSe's literary works may be mentioned his Evangelisches Handbuchlein (Leipsic, 1603; new ed., Dresden, 1871), in which he sought to show from Scripture that the Lutheran faith was truly catholic while the papal doctrine was erroneous and against the clear word of God. He also wrote a commentary on the Galatians (1605) with the special purpose of explaining the doctrine of justification in the Lutheran sense, a commentary on the Apocalypse, the result of thirty years' work, and numerous polemical treatises against the Calvinists, among them Augenscheinliche Probe, wie die Calvinisten in 99 Punkten mit den Arianernund Tiarken flbereinstimmen (1621). He had a part in the Deciaio Soxoniea (1623) which settled the Christologioal controversy betweenthe
Tabingen and Giessen theologians (see CHB18T01r
oGy). (F. W. DIBELIUB.)
BrawOOSAPHT: I. A. Gleieh, Annals@ eceZeaiaetici, Dresden, 1730; G. L. Zeieeler, Geschichte der eadsiaclien Oberhofprediper, Leipeic, 1856; E. Otto, Die Sdu•iften des er.ten kursdchaisdten Oberhofpredipers H8e won Haenew, Dresden, 1898.
attracted much attention. He was one of the found
ers of the Erlanger Zeitschrift ffr Protestantismus
and Kirche, and at the general synod held at Ans
bach from Jan. 28 to Feb. 22, 1849, he represented
the theological faculty of Erlangen, his ideas fur
nishing the basis for the suggestions offered by
that synod concerning the future organization of
the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Bavaria. His
Liturgiaches Urkundenbuch, a fragment of a large
work which he had planned, was edited after his
death by Tbomasius and Harnack (Leipsic, 1854).
(J. J. HEBZ0Gt.)
BtaLIOGRAP87: The " Memorial " was edited by Drs. N9gelbach and Thomasius, Erlangen, 1853.
HOEKSTRA, hfik'stra, SYTSE:Dutch theologian; b. at Wieringerwaard (32 m. n. of Amsterdam) Aug. 20, 1822; d. at Elleoom, province of Gelderland, June 12, 1898. He studied at the Mennonite seminary at Amsterdam, and became a professor there in Feb., 1857, after having spent several years in the Mennonite ministry. He held this professorship till June, 1892. After 1877 he was also professor of theology at the University of Amsterdam. He was one of the most eminent exponents of the modern theological school of Holland. In numerous exegetical and critioo historical treatises on Biblical subjects, in ThT, and in his De benaming " De Zoon des Menwhen " (Amsterdam, 1866) he showed himself a versatile scholar and an incisive investigator, while in several popular works and in his sermons he unfolded for educated laymen the character and the foundation of Christian belief. In Bronnen en Gronslagen van hd godsdLnatig gdoof (1864); De Hoop der Onaterflijkheid (1867); Gedachten over hat Wezen en de Methods der godsdienatleer (ThT, vi.) he did the same for the theologian, in the belief that he was leading. men back to " the faith of man in himself, in the truth of his own being." With this formula he expounded the hypothesis that the oos
Hoekatra THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 308
mical order is such as to guarantee the realization of man's highest personality, seeing that, whereas man is continuously threatened by this order, he has actually emerged from it. Thus he espoused an anthropocentric teleological, or ethical, idealism, under which religion was characterized as a matter of the heart, not positively demonstrable in a logical sense, but still defensible, and quite as indestructible as science in its particular domain. Thanks to this idealism, the path of religious philosophic thought in modern theological Holland, that lay partly circumscribed by the intellectualism of J. H. Scholten (q.v.), partly by the empiricism of C. W. Opzoomer (q.v.), was cleared for more diversified and more fruitful studies.
Hoekstra's important advances in his critical and Christological views, together with his constant veneration of Christianity as the most perfect form of the religious consciousness, may distinctly be seen from a comparison of his earlier writings De Weg der Wetenschap op godgeleerd en wijageerig gebied (1857) and De Zonddoosheid twn Jezus (1862), with his later Wijsgeerige godadienstleer (2 vols., 1894) and Christelijke geloopleer (2 vols., 1898).
Hoekstra likewise wrote a work on doctrinal ethics (3 vols., 1894) and a history of ethics (2 vols., 1896). If in De Ontwikkeli" van de Zedelijke idee (1862) he conceded an independent origin of morality, it nevertheless appears from his treatises on the relation between religion and morality, utilitarian morality (cf. ThT, ii. 117 sqq., and 390 sqq.), and his exposition of the consciousness of duty in Gronslag van het besef van onvoorwaardelijken plieht (1873), as also from his vindication of indeterminism in Vrijheid in verband met zelfbewusthead, zedelijkheid en Zonde (1858), that his main object was to maintain that the moral consciousness, on its potential side, has likewise its roots in a metaphysical principle, in the ideal nature of spiritual personality, in which case it can but serve to confirm the belief in the reality of a supersensuous cosmic order.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Busken Huet, in Gida, 1858, pp. 622 aqq.; A. Pierson. in Gids, 1858, pp. 493 aqq.; J. H. Scholten, De vrije wil, Leyden, 1859; A. M. Cramer, Beginselen en leer der oude Doopagesinden in Godgeleerde Bijdragen, 1864; L. W. E. Rauwenhoff, in ThT, ii. 257; idem in Wijsbegeerte van den Godadienst, vol. i., chap. 2b and § 1, Leyden, 1887; L.H. Slotemaker, in ThT, xv. 265 eqq.; T. Molenaar, Man^ nen en Vrouewn van beteekenis, 1897, part 8; S. Cramer, in ThT, xxxii. 448 eqq.; idem, in Doopagerinde BOdragen, 1898, pp. 150 aqq. HOELEMANNN, hu"le man, HERMANN GUSTAV:
Professor at Leipsic; b. at Baude (near Grossenhain, 19 m. n.n.w. of Dresden), Saxony, Aug. 8,1809; d. at Leipsic Sept. 28, 1886. He studied at the Royal School at Neissen and, from 1829, at Leipsic, where, in 1832, he became privat docent in the philosophic faculty. Before long, however, he turned wholly to theology, and in the winter of 1834 35 he delivered his lectures on the Epistle to the Philippians, later printed as a commentary (Leipsic, 1839). After teaching for ten years in the gymnasium at Zwickau, he returned to Leipsic, where, from 1861, he ranked as honorary ordinary professor. His lectures, generally delivered in Latin, treated various writings of the Old and New Testa
ment. He also directed a Hebrew society, which he
subsequently affiliated with the Societas exegetica
no. 46; SBcheiachee Kirchen and Schulblatt, 1886, no. 46.
HOENNNICE:E, hon'ni'ke, GUSTAV:German Protestant; b. at Heiligenstadt (48 m. n.w. of Erfurt) Sept. 11, 1871. He was educated at the universities of Tubingen, Halle (Ph.D., 1$97), and Berlin (lic. theol., 1900), and since 1901 has been privat docent for New Testament exegesis at the latter university. Theologically he is a pupil of Bernhard Weiss. He has written Studien ztcr altprotestantischen Ethik (Berlin, 1902) and Chronologie des Lebens des Apostela Paulus (Leipsie, 1903). HOFACKER, LUDWIG and WILHELM:Two brothers, both popular and influential preachers o€ Wurttemberg. The elder, Ludwig, was born at Wildbad (29 m. w. of Stuttgart) Apr. 15, 1798; d. at Rielingshausen, near Marbach (12 m. n.n.e. of Stuttgart), Nov. 18, 1828. He studied at the seminaries of Sch6ntbal and Maulbronn, and in 1816 at the seminary in Tiibingen. Here, in his eighteenth year, he experienced a sudden conversion. He became vicar in Plieningen and Stuttgart, and in 1826 preacher at Rielingshausen.
His younger brother, Wilhelm, was born at Gart_ ringen (21 m. s.w. of Stuttgart) Feb. 16, 1805; d. in Stuttgart Aug. 10, 1848. He was educated at Stuttgart and (1823 28) the University of Tiibingen. He was more versatile than his brother, and his open mind enabled him to appreciate various theological tendencies. After his examination he became for eight months the substitute of his brother, who had fallen ill, and after his death was regular pastor for the same length of time. In 1830 he became repetent at Tiibingen, in 1833 dean at Waiblingen, and in 1835 dean at St. Leonard's in Stuttgart, where he developed a far reaching activity in church and school affairs. He was broader than his brother, but less powerful. Ludwig's sermons bear the stamp of his personal experiences and convictions. They are powerful and original, but the range of thought is narrow. Everything centers in sin and grace. His strength is in depicting the corruption of sin and preaching repentance. He does not argue or reason, but addresses himself immediately to the conscience and feeling; he is intent upon immediate conversion. His sermons lack all exegesis; whenever the text fits into his one and only theme of sin and grace he uses it, but otherwise it is for him only a means to an end. Wilhelm Hofacker's sermons are also based upon the experience of grace, but they show the repose and harmony of a more steady Christian development, united with a more rounded education. But Wilhelm, no less than his brother, emphasizes the doctrine of atonement. The grace of the Savior of sinners is his one and allabsorbing theme; he is also intent upon awakening and converting, but conversion is for him a gradual process. He does not penetrate the innermost heart
309 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hoeketra
HOfI$lann of the sinner with the same force as Ludwig, but
he knows how to depict the condition of the heart
with greater psychological skill in its more del
icate nuances. Ludwig Hofaeker's sermons were ex
ceedingly popular and have been sold in hundreds
of thousands of copies (42d ed., Stuttgart, 1892;
Ausgewdhlte Predigten, ed. F. Bernmann, Leipsie,
1892). Wilhelm's sermons, ed. Kapff, appeared in
the 3d ed. at Stuttgart, 1880.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Knapp, Ludwig Hofackers Leben, Calw,
1895; there is a sketch of Wilhelm Hofaeker's life in
Kapff's edition of his sermons, ut sup.; Wilhelm Hofackers
Leben, by his son Ludwig, appeared Stuttgart, 1872.
HOFFBAUER, CLEMENS MARIA.See LIGUORI,
ALFONSO MARIA DE.
HOFFMAN, EUGENE AUGUSTUS: Protestant
Episcopalian; b. in New York City Mar. 21, 1829;
d. there June 17, 1902. He was educated at Rutgers
College (B.A., 1847), Harvard (1847 48), and the
General Theological Seminary, from which he was
graduated in 1851. He was missionary at Eliz
abethport, N. J. (1851 53), rector of Christ Church,
Elizabeth, N. J. (1853 63), St. Mary's, Burlington,
N. J. (1863 64), Grace, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1864 69),
though his main strength lay in Hebrew and Syriac.
His Grammatica Syriaca (Halle, 1827; Eng. transl.
by B. H. Cowper, The Principles of Syriac Gram
mar, London, 1858) was based on that of Michaelis.
Other important works are Entwurf der hebrd
ischert Alterthiimer (Weimar, 1832); Das Buch
Henoch (2 parts, Jena, 1833 38), translated from
the English and Ethiopic; Ctmtmentareus philo
logico criticus in Mosis benedictio nem, Deut.
XXXIII. (Halle, 1823). Besides his original
works, he edited and translated much, and
wrote numerous articles for periodicals and en
cyclopedias. (G. FRANxt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Frank, in Protestantisehe Kirchenwitunp, 1864, no. 13, repeated in part in Allgemeine akademiache Zeitung, 1864, no. 12; ADS, xii. 571.
HOFFMANN, CHRISTOPH. See FRIENDS OF THE TEMPLE.
HOFFMANN, DANIEL: German Lutheran theologian; b. at Halle 1540; d. at WolfenbUttel, Brunswick, 1611. About 1558 he studied at Jena. He was called by Duke Julius of Brunswick in 1576 to Helmstedt at the opening of the university as professor of ethics and dialectics, and in 1578 was transferred to the theological faculty. He became the most influential adviser of Duke Julius in the affairs of the churches and the university; he opposed the rise of the Philippists (q.v.) and humanists in Helmstedt, but at the same time assumed a peculiar position toward foreign Lutheran theologians, especially since he rejected the doctrine of ubiquity, and thus helped to separate the Lutheran State Church of the duchy of Brunswick from those Lutherans who accepted the Formula of Concord. In 1589 Duke Julius died, and the new duke, Henry Julius, immediately appointed the humanist J. Caselius and several of his friends as professors, who soon won such an influence that Hoffmann could assert his theological predominance only with great difficulty. He was especially incited against Caselius and his followers in 1597 by a ducal reacript in their favor, forbidding the public teaching of Ramus' philosophy as contradicting the statutes of the university. Adherence to Ramus meant likewise rejection of the study of Aristotle as pagan and dangerous to faith. Hoffmann and his adherents saw in the ducal prohibition of Ramism an attack on Christianity, and Hoffmann answered in a treatise consisting of 101 theses. Several colleagues of Hoffmann, especially Caseliua himself, saw in the theses of Hoffmann a criticism of their academic labors. Again and again conferences were arranged to settle the dispute, even the sovereign was appealed to, but all attempts at reconciliation failed because of Hoffmann's violence and obstinacy. The petty university quarrel of Hoffmann is of theoretical and historical importance, because it is on the one side an echo of the medieval conflict between nominalism and realism, and, on the other side, a prelude of the later conflict between rationalism and supranaturalism. Because of the controversy Hoffmann was deposed and expelled from Helmstedt in 1601, but he was rehabilitated in 1603.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Malleus impietatis Hofmmanniano:, Frank
fort, 1604; G. Thomasius, De controversies Hoff'manniana, Erlangen, 1844; G. Frank, Geschichte der protestantiachen Theologie, i. 259, Leipsic, 1862; E. Schlee, Der Streit des Daniel Hofmann, Marburg, 1862; ADS, xii. 628 629.
HOFFMANN, HEINRICH: German Protestant; b. at Magdeburg Mar. 24, 1821; d. at Halle May 20, 1899. He studied theology at Berlin and Halle. For several years he was prevented by ill health from taking up pastoral work, but in 1852 he accepted a call to Berlin as assistant at the Church of St. Matthew. In 1854 he was called to the Neumarkt parish, Halle, where he labored till his retirement in 1895. He was particularly successful
THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG
in meeting the difficulties due to the strong following of the Friends of Light (see FREH CONGREGATIONS IN GERMANY, § 1), and later to the rapid increase in the population of his parish. He reapportioned the parish, increased the number of clergy, and erected the splendid new Church of St. Stephen. His theology was Christocentrie on a Lutheran basis. He excelled as a pulpit orator and, besides many single sermons, published several collections that have been frequently reprinted. To be mentioned are: ZwBV Festpredigten (Halle,. 1862); Der Heilaweg (1864); Sande urud Erlfung (1873); Unterm Kreuz (1884); Kreuz and Krone (1891); Die Bergpredigt (1893); Eins iat Not (1895); and Die letzte Nock and der Todealag den Herrn Jeeu (1898).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The principal work is M. BBhler and H. Hering, Heinrich Hoffmann, . Lobe., Wirksn and
Predigt, Halls, 1900. His Letters were edited by M.
Hart, ib. 1902 and biographical material is found also in