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Cudworth, Henry More, Richard Cumberland, and

Samuel Clarke. Though in bad repute at home,

abroad Hobbes stood higher as a thinker than any

of his contemporaries. His associational psychology

and hedonistic ethics were revived by the English


Hobbes's principal works are De cive (Paris, 1642;

Amsterdam, 1647; Eng. transl., 1651); De corpore

(London, 1655; Eng. transl., 1656); The Elements

of Law, Natural and Politic (ed. F. T6nnies, 1889),

which was originally published in two parts, Human

Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of Policy (1650),

and De corpore politico, or the Elements of Law,

Moral and Politic (1650); Leviathan, or the Matter,

Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical

and Civil (1651; Lat. transl., Amsterdam, 1668;

ed. A. R. Waller, Cambridge, 1904), his most 1m­

portant work; Of Liberty and Necessity (London,

1654); Concerning Liberty, Necessity and Chance

(1656); and Behemoth (1679; ed. F. Tbnnies, 1889),

a history of the Civil War. Hobbes's Opera philo­

8ophica were published at Amsterdam in 1668, and

his Moral and Political Works at London in 1750.

The standard edition is that of Sir W. Molesworth,

English Works (1.1 vols., 1839 45) and Opera. philo­

sophica (5 vols., 1839 45).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lists of literature, covering the contro­

versies which Hobbes caused, are in J. M. Baldwin, Dic­

tionary of Philosophy and Psychology, iii. 1, pp. 264 268.

New York, 1905, and in the British Museum Catalogue

and Supplement. His autobiography, in Latin verse, was

published London, 1679, Eng, transl., ib. 1680. Consult:

G. C. Robertson, Hobbes, in Philosophical Classics, Lon­

don, 1901 (eminently satisfactory); J. G. Buhle, Ge­

achichte der neueren Philoaophie, iii. 223 325, GSttingen,

1802; F. D. Maurice, Modern Philosophy, pp. 235 290,

London, 1862; V. Cousin, Philosophie sensualiste, pp. 212­

310, Paris, 1866; J. Hunt, in Contemporary Review, vii

(1868), 185 207; B. Wille, Der Phanamenalismus yes

Thomas Hobbes, Kiel, 1889; G. Lyon, Philosophic de

Hobbes, Paris, 1893; H. Schwartz, Die Lehre yon den

Sinnesqualitdten bei Descartes and Hobbes, Halle, 1894;

F. TSnnies, Hobbes' Leben and Lehre, Stuttgart, 1896;

J. Aubrey, Letters . . . and Lives of Eminent Men,

ed. A. Clark, i. 321 403, Oxford, 1898; W. Dilthey, in

Archiv Air Geschichte der Philosophic, xiii (1900), 307­

360, 445 482; DNB, xxvii. 37 45; M. W. Calkins,

Metaphysical System of Hobbes, London, 1905; and the

discussions in the standard works on the history of


HOBERG, GOTTFRIED: German Roman Cath­

olic; b. at Heringhausen, Westphalia, Nov. 19, 1857.

He was educated at Munster, Dillingen, and Bonn

(Ph.D., 1885; D.D., Munster, 1886). He was

privat docent at Bonn in 1886 87, after which he

was professor of Old Testament exegesis at Pader­

born until 1890, when he was appointed professor

of New Testament exegesis at Freiburg, being trans­

ferred to his present chair of Old Testament exegesis

in 1893. He is a member of the papal committee

on the Bible, and besides editing the Theologische

Rundschau fiir das katholische Deutschland since

1894, has written 11m dinnii de fexione libellus

(Leipsie, 1885); Die Psalmen der Vulgata (Freiburg,

1892); Akademisches Taschenbuch fur katholische

Theologen (3 vols., Paderborn,1892 95); Die Genesis

nach dem Litteralsinn erkldrt (Freiburg, 1899); Die

alteste lateinische Uebersetzung yes Buches Baruch

(1902) ; and an edition of the Hebrew text of

Genesis, with the Vulgate (1008).

HOBSON, BENJAMIN LEWIS: Presbyterian; b. at Lexington, Mo., July 31, 1859. He was educated at Central University, Central, Ky. (B.A., 1877), Johns Hopkins University (1881 82), Union Theo­logical Seminary,Va. (1882 83), Princeton Theologi­cal Seminary (1883 86), and the University of Berlin (1888 90). After holding Presbyterian pastorates at Springfield, Mo. (1886  87), and Crescent Hill Church, Louisville, Ky. (1891 93), he was appointed in 1893 to his present position of professor of apolo­getics in McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Ill.

HOCHMANft (hoH'mdn) VON HOHENAU (HOCHENAU), ERNST CHRISTOPH: Pietist; b. at Lauenburg (25 m. s.e. of Hamburg) 1670; d. 1721. He began the study of law at Halle, but was expelled in 1693 on account of his eccentric views. In 1697 he was at Giessen, where he lived in intimate association with Arnold and Dippel; in the following year he was a missionary to the Jews in Frankfort­on the Main, whence he was soon expelled on the occasion of a general persecution of the Pietists. After a short stay at Darmstadt, whence he was also expelled, he found a refuge at Berleburg on the estates of Count Wittgenstein. Here he lived a devotional and ascetic life and won the esteem and friendship of the ruling family of Wittgenstein, but his restless nature did not suffer him to remain very long in this secluded spot. In 1697 his unsteady wanderings through western, northern and south­ern Germany had begun; whenever a field of labor opened itself to him, he was expelled. This labor consisted in the nurture of an inner, living, and per­sonal Christianity under an unchurchly and even antichurchly form. External churchliness and loyalty to a creed he considered not only insufficient, but evil, and he vehemently opposed churchdom and orthodoxy. The five main points of his doctrine are: baptism for adults only; the Lord's Supper only for the chosen disciples of Jesus; the possibility of a perfect sanctification on earth; the reign of the spirit, i.e., Christ alone is the head of the congrega­tion, and no human magistrate may institute preach­ers and teachers; the magistrate belongs to the sphere of nature and is to be obeyed on civil and external matters, but not in things that are contrary to the word of God, to the conscience of the indi­vidual, or to the liberty of Christ. Hochmann found many adherents, especially at Crefeld, Duisburg, Muhlheim, Wesel, Emmerich, and other places in the Rhine region; later on, however, there occurred a split in his party on account of differences in re­gard to the validity of infant baptism.

(F. BossE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Jung Stilling, Theobald, oder der Schwhrmer, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1784 85, Eng. transl., Theo­bald; or the Fanatic, Philadelphia, 1846; M. Gobel, Ge­achichte yes christlichen Lebens in der rheinisch uxstfalischen evangelischen Kirche, ii. 809 855, Coblenz 1852 A. Ritsehl, Geschichte yes Pietismuz, 3 vols., Bonn, 1880 86.


HODGE, ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER: American Presbyterian, son of Charles Hodge; b. at Princeton, N. J., July 18, 1823; d. there Nov. 12, 1886. He studied at Princeton, graduating from both the


college (1841) and the Princeton Theological Sem­inary (1`847), and, after spending three years (1847­1850) in India as a missionary, held pastorates at Lower West Nottingham, Md. (1851 55), Fredericks­burg, Va. (18551), and Wilkesbarre, Pa. (1861­1864). In 1864 he accepted a call to the chair of systematic theology in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa. Here he remained until in 1877 he was called to Princeton to be the associate of his father in the chair of systematic theology, to the full duties of which he succeeded in 1878. This post he retained till his death. At the time of his death Dr. Hodge was in the zenith of his powers. Every element that entered into his eminent repu­tation put on its best expression during the closing years of his life. He was public spirited, and helped every good cause. He was a trustee of the College of New Jersey and a leading man in the Presbyterian Church. He was a man of wide interests and touched the religious world at many points. During the years immediately preceding his death he was writing, preaching, lecturing, making addresses, coming into contact with men, influencing them, and by doing so widening the influence of truth.

Hodge's distinguishing characteristic as a theo­logian was his power as a thinker. He had a mind of singular acuteness, and though never a professed student of metaphysics, he was essentially and by nature a metaphysician. His theology was that of the Reformed confessions. He had no peculiar views and no peculiar method of organizing theological dogmas; and though he taught the same theology that his father had taught before him, he was in­dependent es well as reverent. His first book and that by which he is best known was his Outlines of Theology (New York, 1860; enlarged ed., 1878), which was translated into Welsh, modern Greek, and Hindustani. The Atonement (Philadelphia, 1868) is still one of the best treatises on the subject. This was followed by his commentary on the emfesaion of Faith (1869), a very useful book, full of clear thinking and compact statement. He contributed some important articles to encyclopedia"ohn­son's, McClintock and Strong',, and the Schaff_ Herzog. He was one of the founders of the presby­lerian Review, to the pages of which he was a frequent contributor.

In the Pulpit Hodge was a man of marked power. As he was not under the necessity of making fresh preparation every week, he had but few sermons, and he preached them frequently. They were never written; nor were they deliberately planned as great efforts. They grew from small beginnings and, as he went through the process of thinking them over as often as he preached them, they gradually became more elaborate and became possessed of greater literary charm. There are few preachers like him. To hear him when he was at his beat was something never to be forgotten. It is possible to entertain different views of what a professor's funo­tion ought to be. According to one view a professor ship means an opportunity for special investigation and leisurely research, the results of which are com­municated in the lecture rOOm to men who desire knowledge. According to another view the scar demio lecture is intended to stimulate interest in the

department to which it belongs. It is not intended

to be a substitute for independent reading and that

mastery of the subject which only independent

reading can give. According to still another view

the professor's business is to see that a certain

definite body of instruction is safely and surely

transferred from his mind to the minds of those who

hear him. He is not only, or even chiefly, to present

truth that men may receive if they choose; he is to

see that they receive it. Hodge was a teacher of

this type, and one of the greatest that America has

ever produced. FRANCIS L. PATTON.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. L. Patton, in Presbyterian Review, viii

(1887), 125 eq4.

BODGE, CASPAR WISTAR: American Presby­terian, son of Charles Hodge; b. at Princeton, N. J., Feb. 21, 1830; d. there Sept. 27, 1891. During his boyhood he enjoyed the companionship and instruc­tion of Joseph Addison Alexander, who exercised a molding influence upon his life. He was grad­uated with distinction from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) in 1848, and from the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1853. He was ordained to the ministry Nov. 5, 1854, his first pastoral charge being the Ainslie Street Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn. In 1856 he was called to the pastorate of the Presbyterian Church in Oxford, Pa., and in 1860 he was called to the Princeton Theo­logical Seminary as the successor of Dr. Addison Alexander in the chair of New Testament literature. He retained this position till his death.

Only those who came into close relations with Hodge knew how great a man he was. He was singularly modest and retiring. He was free from vanity and self seeking. He gave himself to the work of his chair, and his permanent influence is to be found in the men whom he trained and who found in him inspiration for the work to which they had consecrated their lives. With theological stu­dents was he a great favorite as a preacher, but he was not what is usually called a popular preacher. He had a voice of marvelous richness, but he would never use it for oratorical effect. He preached ap­parently with the consciousness that the gospel message should make its appeal to men in majestic simplicity and that God's word did not need the aid of human art to give it power or beauty. He made no attempt to decorate the earthen vessel that contained the heavenly treasure that the excellency of the power might be of God. His

sermons were really studies in Biblical theology, and while they were beyond the grasp and abounded in distinctions that would escape the notice of an

ordinary audience, they were model discourses for the seminary pulpit. They were university sermons of a high order. They were full of subtle thinking, but always practical. In these sermons the errors ',If, the day were presented to the view of candidates for the ministry, not as though the preacher were a defender of the faith or a professed champion of orthodoxy, but as a Christian friend who would warn his hearers against evil tendencies that might cripple them: work or weaken their faith.

Hodge's at. work, however, was done in the lecture room. He did not scatter his energies; his department 'was the New Testament, and he kept


rigidly to it. It is probable that the students carried

more out of his class room into the actual work of

pulpit preparation than out of any other in the

seminary. He was a reverent believer in the Bible

as the word of God and in the doctrines of the Bible

as they are formulated in the creed of his Church.

He was honest, fair minded, and firm. He knew .the

resources of the enemy and did not underrate them;

but he also knew the argumentative resources of

Christianity. The consequence was that his lec­

tures strengthened faith and deepened conviction;

and men who had no great critical sagacity them­

selves felt that they had been reenforced immensely

by the fact that they had a man of Hodge's scholar­

ship and judgment on the side of the Reformed

theology. Hodge did not write for the press. His

ideals were very high, and probably dissatisfaction

with even his best work had something to do with

his resisting all efforts to induce him to publish


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. L. Patton, Caspar Wietar Hodge, a Me­morial Address, New York, 1892.

HODGE, CHARLES: American theologian; b.

at Philadelphia Dec. 18,1797; d. at Princeton, N. J.,

June 19, 1878. He matriculated at the

Life. College of New Jersey in 1812, and

after graduation entered in 1816 the

theological seminary in Princeton, having among

his classmates his two lifelong friends, John Johns,

afterward bishop of Virginia, and Charles P. Me­

Evaine, afterward bishop of Ohio. In 1822 he was

appointed by the General Assembly professor of

Biblical and Oriental literature. In 1822 he married

Sarah Bache, great granddaughter of Benjamin

Franklin. Soon after he went abroad (1826 28) to

prosecute special studies, and in Paris, Halle, and

Berlin attended the lectures of De Sacy, Tholuck,

Hengstenberg, and Neander. In 1825 he founded

the Biblical Repository and Prineeton Review, and

during forty years was its editor and the principal

contributor to its pages. In 1840 he was transferred

to the chair of didactic theology, retaining, however,

the department of New Testament exegesis, the

duties of which he continued to discharge until his

death. He was moderator of the General Assembly

in 1846. Fifty years of his professorate were com­

pleted in 1872, and the event was most impressively

celebrated on Apr. 23. A large concourse, includ­

ing 400 of his own pupils, assembled to do him

honor. Representatives from various theological

institutes, at home and abroad, mingled their con­

gratulations with those of his colleagues; and letters

expressing deepest sympathy with the occasion

came from distinguished men from all quarters of

the land and from across the sea. Dr. Hodge en­

joyed what President Woolsey, at the jubilee just

referred to, hoped he might enjoy, " a sweet old

age." He lived in the midst of his children and

grandchildren; and, when the last moment came,

they gathered round him. " Dearest," he said to a

beloved daughter, " don't weep. To be absent from

the body is to be present with the Lord. To be

with the Lord is to see him. To see the Lord is

to be like him." Of the children who survived him,

three were ministers of the Gospel; and two of these

succeeded him in the faculty of Princeton Theo 

V. 20

logical Seminary, Dr. C. W. Hodge, in the depart­ment of exegetical theology, and Dr. A. A. Hodge, in that of dogmatics.

Dr. Hodge was a voluminous writer, and from the beginning to the end of his theological career his pen

was never idle. In 1835 he published

Literary his Commentary on the Epistle to the and Romans, his greatest exegetical work,

Teaching and one of the most masterly eommen 

Activities. taries on this epistle that has ever been

written. Other works followed at in­tervals of longer or shorter duration Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States (1840); Way of Life (1841, republished in England, translated into other languages, and circulated to the extent of 35,000 copies in America); Com­mentary on Ephesians (1856); on First Corinthi­ans (1857); on Second Corinthians (1859). His magnum opus is the Systematic Theology (1871 1873), of 3 vols. 8vo. and extending to 2,2&0 pages. His last book, What is Darwinism ? appeared in 1874. In addition to all this it must be remembered that he contributed upward of 130 articles to the Princeton Review, many of which, besides exert­ing a powerful influence at the time of their pub­lication, have since been gathered into volumes, and as Selection of Essays and Reviews from the Princeton Review (1857) and Discussions in Church Polity (ed. W. Durant, 1878) have taken a per­manent place in theological literature. This rec­ord of Dr. Hodge's literary life is suggestive of the great influence that he exerted. But properly to estimate that influence, it must be remembered that 3,000 ministers of the Gospel passed under his instruction, and that to him was accorded the rare privilege, during the course of a long life, of achieving distinction as a teacher, exegete, preacher, controversialist, ecclesiastic, and system­atic theologian. As a teacher he had few equals; and if he did not display popular gifts in the pulpit, he revealed homiletical powers of a high order in the " conferences " on Sabbath afternoons, where he spoke with his accustomed clearness and logical pre­cision, but with great spontaneity and amazing ten­derness and unction. Dr. Hodge's literary powers were seen at their best in his contributions to the Princeton Review, many of which are acknowledged masterpieces of controversial writing. They cover a wide range of topics, from apologetic questions that concern common Christianity to questions of eccle­siastical administration, in which only Presbyterians have been supposed to take interest. But the ques­tions in debate among American theologians during the period covered by Dr. Hodge's life belonged, for the most part, to the departments of anthropology and soteriology; and it was upon these, accordingly, that his polemic powers were mainly applied.

Though always honorable in debate, one would not gain a correct idea of his character through

judging him only by the polemic re 

Character lations in which his writings reveal him. and Controversy does not emphasize the Significance. amiable side of a man's nature. Dr.

Hodge was a man of warm affection, of generous impulses, and of John like piety. Devo­tion to Christ was the salient characteristic of his


experience, and it was the test by which he judged the experience of others. Hence, though a Presby­terian and a Calvinist, his sympathies went far beyond the boundaries of sect. He refused to enter­tain the narrow views of church polity which some of his brethren advocated. He repudiated the un­historical position of those who denied the validity of Roman Catholic baptism. He gave his sympathy to all good agencies. He was conservative by na­ture, and his life was spent in defending the Re­formed theology as set forth in the Westminster symbols. He was fond of saying that Princeton had never originated a new idea; but this meant no more than that Princeton was the advocate of historical Calvinism in opposition to the modified and provincial Calvinism of a later day. And it is true that Dr. Hodge must be classed among the great defenders of the faith, rather than among the great constructive minds of the Church. He had no ambition to be epoch making by marking the era of a new departure. But he earned a higher title to fame in that he was the champion of his Church's faith during a long and active life, her trusted leader in time of trial, and for more than half a century the most conspicuous teacher of her ministry. The garnered wisdom of his life is given in his Systematic Theology, the greatest system of dogmatics in our language.


BIHLIOGBAPH7: His life was written by his eon, A. A. Hodge, New York, 1880, and by F. L. Patton, Boston, 1888. Articles upon his life and work are by E. Bond, in Bib­liotheca Sacra, xxx. 371 eqq.; T. Dwight, in New Eng­lander, A. 222 ®qq.; J. W. Chadwick, in The Nation, xxxi. 381; cf. London Quarterly, ii. 56 eqq.

HODGE, RICHARD MORSE: Presbyterian: b. at Mauch Chunk, Pa., May 25, 1864. He was grad­uated from Princeton (B.A., 1886) and Princeton Theological Seminary (1889). He then spent an additional year in study at Princeton University, after which he held pastorates at Westminster Pres­byterian Church, Milwaukee (1890 92), and Calvary Church, Riverton, N. J. (1893 95). From 1895 to 1898 he was dean of the Missionary Training School for Women, Fredericksburg, Va., and was then superintendent of the Bible Institute, Nashville, Tenn., for three years (1898 1901). Since 1901 he has been director of extension courses for lay stu­dents in Union Theological Seminary, and has also been lecturer in Biblical literature in Teachers' College, New York City, since 1902. He has pre­pared Historical Atlas of the Life of Jesus Christ (Wytheville, Pa., 1898) and Historical Maps for Bible Study (New York, 1906 07).

HODGSON , JAMES MUsc17TT: Scotch Congre­gationalist; b. at Cockermouth (23 m. s.w. of Carlisle), Cumberland, England, Aug. 18, 1841. He was educated at Glasgow University (M.A., 1862), Lancashire Independent College, Manchester (1862­1865), and Edinburgh University (D.Sc., 1882). After being pastor of the Congregational Church at Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, from 1866 to 1875, he was appointed professor of apologetics and the science and philosophy of religion in Lancashire Independ­ent College, where he remained until 1894, since when he has been principal and Baxter professor of

systematic theology in the Theological Hall of the Congregational Churches of Scotland, Edinburgh. In theology he is a liberal Evangelical. In addition to editing T. M. Herbert's Realistic Assumptions of Modern Science Examined (London, 1879), he has written Philosophy and Faith: A Plea for Agnostic Belief (Manchester, 1885); Philosophy and Revela­tion: A Plea for Scientific Theology (1888); Facts and Ideas in Theology (Edinburgh, 1894); and Theologies Pectoris: Outlines of Religious Faith and Doctrine Founded on Intuition and Experience (1897).

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