161 religious encyclopedia harmoa Harmony of the Gospels

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available: H. $tahelin, Gnostische Qudkn Hippolyta, and A. Harnsok. DM Gwynn'achen Fragments, vi. 3, 1891; H. Achelis, Canonea Hippolyts, vi. 4, 1891; G. N. Bon­wetech, Studien zu den Kommentaren HippolvtW. xvi. 2, 1897, xxiii., 1903 idem, Die unter Hippolyts Nanten fiiberlieferte Schrift ' Ueber den Glauben,' Leipsie, 1907, and the numbers named in the text, $ 3; H. Aehelis, Hippolytstudien, xvi. 4, 1897; A. Bauer, Die Chronik des Hippolylos, xxix. 1, 1905. Consult also: Ceillier, Auteurs sacra, i. 607 842; Harnaek, Litteratur, i. 605­646 et pass, ii. 2, pp. 200 256 et passim; A. R& ville, in Revue des deux mondes, Ivii. 892 924; N san­der, Christian Church, i. 681 883; Schaff, Christian Church, ii. 757 774 et passim; Moeller, Christian Church, i. 201­202; Kriiger, History, pp. 321 344; KL, vi. 12 21; DCB, iii. 85 105, cf. i. 508 509.

HIPPOLYTUS, SAINT, BROTHERS Or HOS­PITALERS OF: A Roman Catholic congregation established in the City of Mexico by Bernardino Alvarez in 1585. They were entrusted with the care of a hospital erected in Mexico by Alvarez and dedicated to St. Hippolytus, whence their name ­in its full form " Brothers of Christian Love of St. Hippolytus " (officially, Congregatio f ratrum S. Hippolyti). The members of the congregation formed a monastic body with a constitution drawn up by their founder and approved by Sixtus V. The only vows were those of poverty and Christian love, and each brother might leave the order at will. The superior was termed " Major " and was elected by the twenty oldest brothers. The order increased steadily, but the privilege of resignation led to such disorganization that Clement viii., by a brief of Nov. 1, 1594, bound the brothers to per­petual obedience and hospitality. Even this failed in its object, however, and in 1700 the procurator­general, Juan Cabrera, sought to introduce the rule of St. Augustine. Innocent XII. refused to permit this, but obliged the brothers to take the vow of chastity in addition to those of poverty, obedience, and hospitality. In the early part of the nineteenth century Clement XI. conferred on them the privileges of the mendicant orders. They were absorbed later in the Brothers of Charity, although they retained their distinctive brown

habit. (O. ZbCg1.ERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, Ordres monastiques, iv. 147 eqq.; Heimbueher, Orden and Kongregationen, ii. 253; KL, vii. 1999.

HIRAM (Hebr. Viram, Hirom; cf. Asayr. ,Hi­rummu, Huram; in Phenician inscriptions, ,Hrm): A king of Tyre who was on friendly terms with David and Solomon and of a Tyrian metal worker (I Kings vii.). The name is probably an abbrevia­tion of A,hi ram (" My brother [i.e., God] is sub­lime "). King Hiram of Tyre, the dates of whose reign can not be exactly determined, was one of the most famous kings of Phenicia. Josephus (Ant. VIII., v. 3 and Apion, i. 17 18) gives extracts from Men der and Dina, who used older Phenician sources. Syncellus and Eusebius derived their in­formation from Josephus. Later mythical tales in the writings of the Church Fathers, from Chwtus, Theophilus, and Eupolemus, are of little value. According to Menander and Dina, Hiram the son of Abibal, during his reign of thirty four years (he died at the age of fifty four) enlarged and embel­lished his capital, erecting on the eastern side of the island a new part of the city. He caused the

Tyrian sanctuaries to be covered with a roofing of cedar from the woods of Lebanon and erected a much admired golden column in the sanctuary of the " Olympian Jupiter" (cf. Herodotus, ii. 44), i.e., Baal the god of heaven (cf. Eusebius, Prteparatio evangelica, ix. 34). His foreign policy was emi­nently resourceful and energetic. By a war he forced the inhabitants of Cyprus to resume the pay­ment of the taxes which they had refused and maintained the hegemony of Tyre over Phenicia and the colonies.

Hiram put himself on a friendly footing with the new kingdom of Israel under David and Solomon (cf. II Sam. v. 11, I Kings v. 12 with II Chron. ii. 3). This, however, occasions a chronological difficulty. According to I Kings ix. 10, Hiram lived twenty four years after the accession of Solo­mon; therefore, according to Mena,nder, who says that he reigned thirty four years, he can have ruled only during the last years of David's reign. This period would be still further restricted by the state­ment of Josephus that the building of the temple began only in the twelfth year of Hiram's reign (Ant. VIII., iii. 1; Apion, i. 18, 5), according to which Hiram reigned only seven or eight years con­temporaneously with David. That David began the building of his palace only at a late period is contrary to II Sam. vii. 2, according to which the palace was completed before Solomon's birth. Either the account of Menander must be rejected, and 'to King Hiram a longer life and reign be ascribed, or the identity of the friend of David with the friend of Solomon must be denied, in which cams the Biblical account has confused the famous Hiram with a less known king in the time of David, unless, as is possible, all the Tyrian kings bore the same name [or used it as a title].

II Sam. v. 11 12 discloses that the Tyrian king sought David's friendship for political and com­mercial reasons. For the building of the palace in Jerusalem he placed at David's disposal timber and workmen, which David accepted on account of the superiority of Phenician workmanship. For the same reason Solomon was eager to maintain the friendship with Hiram and, above all, to secure his aid in the building of the temple. Hiram, on his part, responded willingly to Solomon's overtures and promised to furnish the necessary persons and materials for the enterprise, in return for which Solomon provided the Tyrian court with grain oil, and wine. Hiram. also sent to Jerusalem a clever metal worker whose name also was Hiram (accord­ing to II Chron. ii. 13, Huram abi), who was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali and of a Tyrian father. To this artist are ascribed the brazen mas­terpieces of the temple. In addition King Hiram furnished a considerable amount of gold, in exchange for which Solomon later assigned (I Kings ix. 10

sqq.) twenty cities in the neighborhood of Naphtali, where dwelt a population principally composed of

heathens. The aid he gave in the voyages to Ophir (q.v.), for which he sent carpenters and seamen (I Kings ix. 26 sqq., x. 11, 22), was the result of careful prevision, since from his use of the harbor of Elath on the Red Sea, which was in the possession of Israel, he gained no little profit,


Later tradition asserts that Solomon married a daughter of Hiram, which is not improbable con­sidering the close relations between the two courts and the presence of Sidonians in the harem of Solo­mom (I Kings xi. 1, 5). Other legends about Hiram are given by F. Movers (Die Ph6nizier, 11, Bonn, 1841, pp. 338 339). His son Balemar succeeded the great king on the throne. Hiram's grave is shown a little to the southeast of the city of Tyre, containing an immense sarcophagus which bears no inscription and offers no assurance of its authenticity.

A second Tyrian king bearing the name of Hiram lived in the time of Cyrus and reigned twenty years (551 532? B.c.) according to Menander (in Jose­phus, Apion, i. 21; cf. Herodotus, vii. 98; Movers, ut sup., ii.,pp. 466 467).

The name Huram was borne also by a Levite,

I Chron. viii. 5. C. VON ORELLI.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the works and sources indicated in

the text and the commentaries on the Scriptural paessgee

and the appropriate sections in the works on the history

of Israel, consult: Gieeebrecht, in ZATW, 1881, pp. 239­

240 (on Xluram abi); R.. Pieteahmann, Oemhichte der

Phanisier, pp. 294 297, Berlin, 1889; L. B. Paton, Early

Hiat. of Syria and Paleatine New York, 1901; DB, ii.

388 390; $B, ii. 2073 74; JR, vi. 4b6 408,

HIRSCH, EMIL GUSTAV: Jewish rabbi; b. at Luxemburg, Germany, May 22, 1852. He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1872), the universities of Berlin (1872 76) and Leipsio (Ph.D., 1876), and the Hochechule filr die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Berlin (1872 76). Returning to the United States, he was rabbi of Har Sinai Congregation, Baltimore, Md. (1877 78), and Adas Israel Congregation, Louisville, Ky. (1878 80), and since 1880 has been rabbi of Sinai Congregation, Chicago. He has been professor of rabbinical literature and philosophy'in the Univer­sity of Chicago since 1892, and in 1902 was Percy Turnbull Lecturer in Johns Hopkins University. He was one of the founders of the Jewish Manual Train­ing School, Chicago, the Associated Jewish Charities, the Civic Federation, and other similar movements. He is well known as an orator, and in theology be­longs to the advanced wing of Reformed Judaism. He has edited Der Zeitgeist (Milwaukee, 1880  83); He­braica (in collaboration with W. R. and R. F. Harper and I. M. Price, Chicago, 1892 95); The Reformer (New York, 1886 92); and The Reform Advocate (Chicago, since 1892); besides being editor of the Biblical department of The Jewish Encyclopedia.

HIRSCHAU (HIRSAU): A Benedictine monas 

tery, once famous, now in ruins, in the Black For­

est district of Wihttemberg, 2 m. n. of Calw. For

its reputed foundation in 645, by a widow Helicena,

there is no evidence prior to a Ger­

Earlier man document of 1534. Opinions are

History. also at variance on the second found­

Abbot ing of the monastery in 830; but it is

William erroneous to deny the existence of a

and his monastery at Hirschau before 1065,

Reform. since the fact is attested by the im­

perial brief of sanction, dated  Oct. 9,

1075, by the papal bull of Urban II., Mar. 8, 1095,

and by the Hireehau Traditianenkodez ; and be­

cause excavations made in 1892. discovered the

foundation walls of a church traceable to the Caro 

lingian era. Of this foundation, however, nothing is known except that Count Erlafrid of Calm, in 830, built a church in honor of St. Peter and the Armenian bishop Aurelius (d. 383), and filled the monastery with monks from Fulda. The new founding of the monastery emanated from a visit of Pope Leo IX., in 1049, to his nephew, Count Adalbert II. of Calw. In 1065 the first monks arrived from Einsiedeln, with Abbot Frederick as superior, who, in 1069 was deposed by Count Adal­bert upon accusations by the monks. He was suc­ceeded by William (1069 91), who'had acquired a scholastic education in the monastery of St. Emme­ram at Regensburg. His foremost aim at Hirschau was to emancipate the monastery from the pat­ronage of Count Adalbert, and change the latter's relation to it into one purely protective. He gained both points in 1075. Thoroughly convinced of the need of a reform of the Benedictine Order in Germany, William devised his Constitution" Hir­saugienses after the pattern of the Cluniac institu­tions. With the new n.anastic customs the monks now wore white robes, and instead of the old upper cloak (the cuculla), they donned the Cluny froce , a woolen garment with wide sleeves, and, under it, a ,second garment, the ancient scapulars. For the severe winters of the Black Forest, William intro­duced the stamineum, a woolen shirt, and the pelli­cium, a sheepskin, worn under the outer garment. The monks also wore baeeches (femoralaa). The broad tonsure, as in vogue at Chilly, distinguished the Hirschau monks from the unreformed Bene­dictines. Strict silence was observed in the clois­ter. William also applied himself to the organiza­tion of lay brothers, who lived under the oversight of a special magiater, and were subject to the clois­tral discipline except that they observed an abridged office. The reform was not restricted to Hirschau. Along with the Swabian monastery of St. Blasien, Hirschau .became a center of monastic reform, and many monasteries were founded as off­shoots from Hirschau, or furnished with monks and abbots or reconstructed by it. Bishop Otto of Bamberg reformed the monasteries of his diooesO with monks of Hirschau. The Conats'tudines Hir= satigwnsm were widely introduced through north­ern Germany. Yet William did not succeed in es­tablishing upon German soil a congregation after the type of Cluny. The sole bond of union that endured permanently was that of the confrater­nities, by means of which persons pledged them­selves to common prayer for living and deceased members of the several monasteries.

William of Hirechau was also concerned in the conflict between emperor and pope. He belonged to the most loyal adherents of the Gregorian party of Germany. Likely enough, he had

His Part been won over to Gregory's cause on in the the occasion of his visit to Rome in

Contest 1075. In 1077 the opposition king, between Rudolph of Rheinfelden, was at Emperor Hirschau; and in 1081 Gregory VII. and Pope. turned to Bishop Altmann of Passau (q.v.) and William of Hirechau, to promote the election of a king devoted to the Apos­tolic See. The strictly moral and zealously devout


abbot was moved to side with Gregory by interest in church reform and in the battle against licen­tiousness and simony, not because he desired the empire to be subjected to the world rule of the pa­pacy. Accordingly he did not hesitate, in a letter to the opposition king, Hermann of Luxemburg, to reproach in the severest terms the antiimperial bishops of Saxony, who were allied with the pope for political interests, on account of their ecclesi­astical deportment, which was inconsistent with the reformatory requirements.

No sooner was Abbot William dead than the so­clesiastical and political influence of Hirschau be­gan to decline. His successor, Gebhard (1091­1105), completely abandoned the

Decline thought of establishing a congrega­after tion; and Hirschau now ceased to be

William's the opposition's headquarters in the

Death. investiture strife. Gebhard (d. 1107)

received from the hand of the Em­

peror Henry V. the diocese of Speyer, and achieved

a bad repute as bishop.on account of his treatment

of the dead body of the banished emperor, Henry

IV. The period of the monastery's. moral and eco­

nomic degeneracy began after the death of Abbot

Mangold (1157 65). In 1215 Emperor Frederick

II. assumed the patronal administration of the

monastery, which was vested thenceforth in the

reigning emperor.

Not until Abbot Wolfram's day (1428 60) was Hirschau revived by his introduction of the Burs­felde rules (see BuRelrEr.DE, CON(i:RE 

Second GAT1oN oh) in 1457. The monastery

Period of now enjoyed a second season of pros

Prosperity. perity, until in 1534 it was reformed

The Prot along Protestant lines; when, as during

estant the times of Abbot William, it again

Reforms  Bent its reforming colonies to other don. monasteries. Abbot John II. (1524 56) suffered in the Peasants' War, in 1525, when the monastery was stormed and severely damaged. The same abbot had to endure an Evangelical " reading master," sent to Hirschau in 1535, the same as to other monasteries. After proc­lamation of the interim (July 22, 1548) Roman monks again returned; but after the victory by Maurice of Saxony over the emperor, Duke Chris­topher, on June 11, 1552, gave orders to his abbots forbidding the reception of novices, and prohibiting Roman worship  By his monastery deem in 1556, he instituted at Hirechau one of the four higher cloister schools of his territory, for the education of Evangelical clergymen.

In the Thirty Years' War the monastery was oc­cupied, in 1630, by the imperial troops, and the Protestant abbot, Albrecht Bauhof, Later had to yield. From 1630 to 1631 the

History. monastery was occupied by the Ro­

man Catholic abbot, Andreas Geist;

and after the battle near Nardlingen, in 1634, the

Catholics were able to hold the monastery till

1648. The last of the Catholic abbots, Wunibald

Zomher (1637 48), refused to acknowledge the duke

of W ihttemberg as territorial sovereign, and claimed

for his monastery immediate dependency oh the

empire. From the Peace of Westphalia (1648)




Hirschau fulfilled its new and richly favored ap­pointment as Evangelical cloister school till, on Sept. 20, 1692, the French general, Melac, burned the buildings. The cloister school was thereupon, removed to Denkendorf. Only the transept of the monastery, a tower of St. Peter's Church of the eleventh century, and the Lady Chapel built in 1516 are still preserved. G. GR$TZMACHER.

BrHLjoa$ABHY: Sources are: Haymo, Vita of the Abbot Wilhelm of Hirechau, ed. W. Wattenbach, in MGH. Script., :rii (18M), 209 225; Mist, monasterii Hirxiupisnsis, ed. G. Waits, in MGH. Supt.. my (1883), 264 286; Con­stitutiones et constuetudines monachorum Hirsaupiensium, (n Hergott, Vatus disciplina monaetioa, pp. 37 132, Paris, 1728; J. Trithemius, Chronicon insigne Hirsaupiense, Basel, 1659; Annales Hirsaupienses, 2 vole., 8t. Gall, 1890. Consult: M. Berker, WOW= der Selipe, AN su Hirachau, TObingen, 1883; C. D. Christmann, Geschichte des %loaters Hirsdu,u, ib. 1782; B. Albers, Hirsdiau and seine GrUndunpen, Freiburg, 1837; F. 8teek, Dos %loster Hirsduou, Calw, 1844; A. Helmed6rfer, Forschungen sur Geed"" des . . . WAsbma con Hirschau, G6ttingen, 1874; P. Giseke, Ausbreitunp der Hiraduau Repel, Halls, 1877; idem, Die Hirechauer wdhrend des inroeatituratrsan. Gotha, 1883; P. F. Stalin, GeschieIVA Wrirtumberpa, i. 1­2, Goths, 1882 87; B. Maiber. Kloster Hirsrhau, TO­bingen, 1888; M. Witten, Der *digs Wiuwm At son, Hirsdou, Bonn, 1890; D. Hafner, in Studien and mitw­In aus den Benediktiner  and Ciatersienserordsn, .xfi. 244 eqq., riii. 84 eqq., gv. 74 sqq., xv. 82 sqq., xv. 54 M.l Hauck, %D, ii. 599, 801, iii. 380. 813, 888 eqq.

HIRSCHE, GEORG KARL: German Lutheran divine; b. at Bruxlswick April 19, 1816; d. at Ham­burg July 23, 1892. He was educated at the Col­legmm Carolinum in Brunswick, then at Gottingen (1833 36). He studied under Locke at Gottingen and was greatly influenced by him; he also heard Erdmann lecture on philosophy at Berlin (1836). In Nov., 1836, he took his first examination in the­ology at Wolfenb(ittel, and his second in Aug., 1840. Hirsche taught in the public school at Holrr minden (1841 46), and in Oct., 1846, he was chosen minister of the Marienldrche at osnabrtick. The choice was not approved by the government but, after tedious negotiations, it was confirmed in 1848. In 1858 he was appointed an ecclesiastical councilor to the duke of Brunswick, which office he held until 186.3, when he again entered the ministry at Ham­burg, being chosen pastor of the St. Nicholas Church there. He held this position until $ few months before his death.

During his pastorate at Hamburg he devoted himself to a study of Thomas A Bempis and his book De imitdione Christi. These labors have made him known both to Protestants and Roman Catholics. His purpose was a double one: to re­store the"Imitation of Christ" to its original form and secondly to prove that Thomas is xempis was the author of the book. He succeeded in both these aims. He discovered from a manuscript in the library at Brussels that the original form of the book must have been in meter and rime. He then hunted through the other works of Thomas and the related literature in order to discover the thoughts which were peculiar to Thomas. This led him to a thoroughgoing investigation of the Brethren of the Common Life (q v.), the results of which he published in the Herzog RE (2d ed., ii.

678 760). He drew from these investigations the conclusion that the Brethren of the Common Life


Hittites, The

can not be regarded as forerunners of the Reforma­

tion. His studies on Thomas he gave to the world

in his Prolegomena zu einer neuen Ausgabe der Imir

tatio Christi (3 vols., Berlin, 1873 94), and in his

edition of the De imitatione Christi (1874).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: ADB. 1. 364 365.


man Catholic; b. at Altergarten, near Ravensburg

(22 m. e.n.e. of Constance), Upper Swabia, Jan. 20,

1788; d. at Freiburg Sept. 4, 1865. He studied at

Freiburg, and from 1812 to 1817 officiated as tutor

at Ellwangen and Rottweil. In the latter year he

was appointed professor of moral and pastoral

theology at the University of Tiibingen, and in

1834 he was called to Freiburg to fill a similar

office, which he held until 1863. In 1839 he was

elected a member of the cathedral chapter of

the archdiocese of Freiburg. His works include:

Christlich: Moral als Lehre von der Verwirklichung

des gottlichen Reichs in der Menschheit (Tiibingen,

1835); Die Geschichte Jesu (1839); Beitrdge zur

Homiletik and Katechetik (1852); Das Leben Marid

(Freiburg, 1854); and Die HauptstAcke des christ­

liehen Glaubens (Tiibingen, 1857). Prior to and

during the revolution of 1848 he was a member of

the House of Representatives of Baden. His wri­

tings favored the introduction of certain changes,

such as the admission of lay members to diocesan

synods. His Erorterungen fiber die grossen re­

ligi6sen Fragen der Gegenwart (3 vols., Freiburg,

1846 55) and Die kirchlichen Zustdnde der Gegen­

wart (Tiibingen, 1849), are the most important of

his writings of this period. (C. WEIZSecsERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: TQB, 1866, pp. 298 sqq.; F. von Weech.

Badische Biogrtphieen, 2 vols., Darmstadt, 1875.



rian; b. at East Machias, Me., Aug. 15, 1817; d.

at Fall River, Mass., June 16, 1887. He was ed­

ucated at Amherst (B.A., 1836), and after teaching

for two years (1836 38) and studying in Andover

Theological Seminary for a year (1838 39), was a

tutor in Amherst College from 1839 to 1842. In

1844 45 he was in charge of a church at Water­

ville, Me., and from the latter year until 1852 was

pastor of the First Congregational Church at Exe­

ter, N. H., studying theology at Halle and Berlin

in 1847 48. He was then professor of natural and

revealed religion in Bowdoin College from 1852 to

1855, when he was appointed professor of church

history in Union Theological Seminary. This po­

sition he held after 1880 after his election to the

presidency of the same institution. In addition to

editing The American Theological Review from 1863

to 1870; Hymns and Songs o f Praise (in collabora­

tion with Z. Eddy and P. Schaff, New York, 1874);

The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (in collabora­

tion with F. Brown, 1884); and Carmina Sanc­

torum (in collaboration with Z. Eddy and L. W.

Mudge, 1885), he wrote Life of Edward Robinson

(New York, 1863); Complete Analysis o f the Holy

Bible (1869 which supersedes West's work on

the subject) ; Socialism (1879) ; and the pos 

thumous Eternal Atonement (a collection of ser­mons, 1888).


Egyptian Accounts (§ 1). Assyrian Notices (§ 2). Biblical Mention (§ 3). Hittite Monuments (§ 4). Attempted Decipherment of Inscriptions (§ 5). The People (§ 6). Their " Empire " ; Influence on Culture (§ 7).

The Hittites (Hebr. Ha $itti, ,Hittim, Septuagint Chettaioi, Egyptian ,Rata, Assyr. ,Hatti, Vate) were a people of disputed ethnological affiliations whose traces have been found over the territory lying between the western boundary of Assyria and the tEgean coast of Asia Minor, and between the Black Sea and the Egyptian border. Present interest centers in two points, historic and apologetic. The decipherment of Egyptian and Assyrian inscrip­tions and documents and the discovery of a con­siderable number of monuments and inscriptions, no doubt correctly attributed to this people, have led to the knowledge of an " empire " or an aggre­gation of kingdoms to which the name Hittite is assigned. The apologetic interest is due to the fact that at one time a few critics were disposed rashly to question the existence of such a people as was indicated in the Biblical texts.

Thothmes III. (c. 1500 B.C.?) mentions the Hit­tites in his annals inscribed at Karnak as paying tribute to him, or at least as sending him presents on his great campaigns which took him as far as Mitanni (see AssyRiA VI., 2, § 1), and as sending him tribute seven years later. In the I. Egyptian Amarna Tablets (q.v.) they appear Accounts. making their way aggressively down through Syria and Palestine. Thoth­mes IV., and Amenophis III. and IV. were frequently in conflict with them. Seti I. claimed to have de­feated them under their leader Mutal, son of Mulsar and grandson of Saphl, though they had established themselves at Carchemish and at Kadesh on the Orontes. Rameses II. was in serious danger from them while besieging Kadesh, and his exploits in extricating himself there gave rise to the celebrated poem of Pentaur. He made a treaty of alliance with their king Rata sar (a name which suggests, ungrammatically, "Rittite king " in Assyrian), son of Mutal, married Hata sar's daughter, and Kadesh became the Hittite frontier. It is probable that the extension of Hittite power to the south was checked at this time not more by the Egyptians than by the people known later as the Philistines (q.v.). The impression given by the Egyptian inscriptions is that of a unified power, in contradistinction to the separate states which appear in Assyrian an­nals a century later, though this may be due to the uncertain knowledge possessed by the Egyptians and to their assuming ethnic affinity for all the in­habitants of the region in which the Hittites were their chief opponents.

The records of the Assyrians indicate that that power came into contact with the Hittites about 1400 B.c., if, as some suppose, Mitanni was a Hittite state. But long prior to this there appears the phrase " land of the Hittites " in Babylonian as 


trological inscriptions believed to belong about 2000 B.C. Mention of them by name occurs in the

annals of Tiglath Pileser I. (c. 1100 2. Assyrian B.C.), at which time there appears to Notices. have been a number of Hittite states

in northern Ararmea and Syria, Kum­mu4 (see ABSYRTA, VI., 2, § 1; 3, § 3) being the limit westward of which information is given in this source and this being under Hittite control. In the ninth century the conquests of Asahurnasirpalsub­jected Hittite kingdoms in the region named, as did those of Shalmaneser II. Sargon finally overthrew the Hittites and ended their career in the east by capturing Carchemish, the great center of their power in that region. The sum of the notices in Egyptian and Assyrian monuments would lead then to two conclusions. The first is that the Hittites were widely scattered north and northwest of the Syrian desert, their southern boundary being in Palestine at least as far south as Kadesh, their eastern frontier coin­cident with the western limits of Assyria, and their western limits at least as far west as Kummuh. The second is that they were an element of the pre­Hebraic population of northern Palestine.

With these conclusions the scattered notices in the Old Testament fully agree, except that they carry the Hittites still farther south to Hebron.

Gen. x. 15 (J) connects them with the 3. Biblical Canaanites as of Cushite stock. This

Mention. is also the view of E (Ex. xxiii. 28,

xxxiii. 2), with which P (Gen. xxiii. 3, 5, etc., xxv. 9, xxvi. 34 35, xxvii. 46, xlix. 29) and the writers closest to him (Ezra ix. 1 2; Ezek. xvi. 3) fully coincide, and also R and D in the Hex­ateuch (Josh. ix. 1, xi. 3). The passages in Samuel and Kings and their parallels in Chronicles reflect the Hittites either as an absorbed element of the population (I Sam. xxvi. 6; II Sam. xi., xii. 9 10) or as a power to be reckoned with outside Palestine

(I Kings x. 29, xi. 1; II Kings vii. 6).

The history of the modern discovery of Hittite monuments begins with 1736, when Otter found at Irviz in Asia Minor some peculiar hieroglyphic in­scriptions. In 1812 Burckhardt found others at Hamath in Syria; in 1834 Texier discovered still more at Boghazkeui in northern Asia. Minor, and in 1851 Layard found some Hittite seals at Nineveh. These and other isolated inscriptions were not con­nected until 1872, when W. Wright secured the Hamath inscriptions for the Imperial Museum at Constantinople. From that time these monu­ments have been found in considerable numbers

from near the tEgean coast of Asia 4. Hittite Minor along the old reads leading to Monuments. Cappadocia and to Syria, and as far

east as Carehemish and to the south as far as Babylon (in the latter place being of course spoils of war, among which is a splendid dolorite relief of the Hittite war god wielding ham­mer and lightning bolts). They are collected partly in Perrot and Chipiez and more fully in Messerschmidt. The most recent researches have been conducted by P'Of. Hugo Winekler at Bo­ghazkeui in Asia Minor, in 1906 Og, one result of which has been the recovery of a large number of documents, a second is the identification of Bo 

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