HILTALINGER, JOHANN (John of Basel, Johannes Angelus): Bishop of Lombez (a small town of France, department of Gera, 19 m. s.e. of Auch); b. at Basel c. 1315; d. at Freiburg 1392. He entered the Augustinian order and received the degree of master of theology at Paris in 1371. From 1371 to 1377 he was provincial in the RhenishSwabian province of the order. He again received this dignity in 1379, being general procurator in the mean time. At the outbreak of the Great Schism (see SCHISM), he sided with Clement VII., who made him general prior of the order in Sept., 1379. He .developed a ceaseless activity in the service of Clement, particularly in the Upper Rhine
Hilten THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 288
8lnomar of Reims
country. Even after his elevation to the see of
Lombez in 1389 he remained Clement's confidential
man on the Upper Rhine :nd continued to work
at Freiburg for the curia of Avignon. He wrote,
among other things, Commentaria in libros senten
tiarum. HERMAN HAUPT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. F. A. HShn, Chronologies provincice
Rhano Sueoica' ordinia . . Augustini, pp. 65 sqq.,
Wiirzburg, 1744; H. Haupt, in ZKO, vi (1885), 334 eqq.,
582; idem, in Zeitachrift far die Geschichte des Oberrheins,
new series, v. 291, 296, 318 319, vi. 212, 231; C. Eubel,
in Rtimieche Quartalachrift ftir chrietliche Altertumakunde,
vii (1893), 412, viii (1894), 261.
HILTEN, JOHANN: Franciscan monk of Eisen
ach; b. in the diocese of Fulda before 1425; d. at
Eisenach c. 1500. After he had studied in Erfurt
and preached in Livonia, he entered the Franciscan
monastery in Magdeburg. From 1477 he was kept
a prisoner in the monasteries of Weimar and Eisen
ach. He studied the Bible diligently, as well as
the prophecies of St. Bridget of Sweden and of
his contemporary Johann Lichtenberger. He at
tacked ecclesiastical abuses, and on the basis of his
studies of the Apocalypse predicted great revolu
tions in Church and State. He deplored the sepa
ration between clergy and laity and denied the
claim of the pope to be the vice regent of Christ.
Luther's Briefs, ed. De Wette, iii. 514, 522, vi. 563; CR,
i. 1108, iv. 780, vii. 653, 999, 1006, 1112, xiv. 841, xxiv.
64, 225, xxv. 14, 80, xxvii. 627, and the literature deal
ing with Luther's life, e.g., J. K6stlin, Martin Luther,
ed. G. Kawerau, i. 29, Berlin, 1903. Consult also Ersch
and Gruber, Encyklopddie, section II., viii. 190. Other
literature is given in Hauck Herzog, RE, viii. 78.
HIN. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, HEBREW.
HINCKS, EDWARD: Orientalist; b. at Cork
Aug. 19, 1792; d. at Killyleagh (1fi m. s.s.e. of
Belfast), County Down, Dec. 3, 1866. He was ed
ucated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1811), and
was appointed rector of Killyleagh in 1825. He
resided there constantly till his death. Despite his seclusion and lack of books, he soon established a reputation of the first order as a pioneer in the field of cuneiform decipherment. His earlier work was on the Egyptian hieroglyphics, but later he turned his attention to Babylonian and Persian inscriptions and made many discoveries in this field. He enjoyed the distinction of having discovered simultaneously with Rawlinson the Persian cuneiform vowel system (see INSCRIPTIONS II., § 3). The results of his studies are embodied in articles contributed to the Dublin University Magazine, to the Journal o f Sacred Literature, and to the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. He began an Assyrian grammar in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1866), but left no materials for its completion.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Annual Report of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1867; R. W. Ropers, Hist. of Babylonia and Assyria, vol. i., New York, 1900; H. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, Philadelphia, 1903; DNB, xxvi. 438 439. HINCKS, EDWARD YOUNG: Congregationalist; b. at Bucksport, Me., Aug. 13, 1844. He studied at Yale College (B.A., 186G), Union Theological Seminary (1866 67), and Andover Theological Seminary, being graduated from the latter institution in 1870. He was pastor of the State Street Church, Portland, Me. (1870 81). He then spent a year in Europe (1881 82), and on his return to the United States was appointed Smith professor of Biblical theology in Andover Theological Seminary, a position which he held from 1883 to 1900. Since the latter year he has been professor of systematic theology in the same seminary. Besides having edited the Andover Review, he was a collaborator on the volumes, prepared by the editors of the Andover Review, entitled Progressive Orthodoxy (Boston, 1886) and The Divinity of Christ (1893).
HINCMAR OF LAON:Bishop of Laon; b. 830; d. 879. Through the influence of his uncle, HinCmar of Reims (q.v.), under whom he had received his education, he was made bishop of Laon in 858. Being of a violent temper, he soon refused obedience to his metropolitan, the more famous Hincmar, and even denied the jurisdiction of the state courts over the bishoprics. His violence is shown by the fact that during a temporary imprisonment at this time he laid an interdict upon his own diocese. After a long controversy he was finally deposed in 871 by the national synod of Douzy. He was then imprisoned by the king and deprived of his eyesight. A year before his death John VIII. allowed him a part of the episcopal revenues of the diocese of Laon and gave him permission to say public mass. His works, all of which had their origin in his controversies with his uncle and Charles the Bald, are printed in MPL, cxxiv. 979 1072.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. de Noorden, Hinkmar . . , von Rheims, pp. 241 248, 267 291, Bonn, 1863; H. Schr6rs, Hinkmar . von Reims, pp. 315 351, 424 425, Freiburg, 1884;
E. Dtimmler, Geschichle des ostfrdakischen Reichs, ii. 323 sqq., Leipsic, 1887; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iv. 380381, 489 508; KL, vi. 6 8; much of the literature under HINCMAR Or REIMS; and Neander, Christian Church,.iii. 364 365.
HINCMAR OF REIMS:Archbishop of Reims; b. about 806; d. at Epernay (115 m. e.n.e. of Paris)
X089 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA g ~onmr of g ,
Dec. 21, 882. At an early age he was sent to the monastery of St. Denis, where he was taught by Abbot Hilduin, whom he accompanied to Aachen, when he was called to the imperial
Life. court in 822. Hincmar's presence
there became of the greatest impor
tance for his future career, as he was here enabled
to study practical politics at the fountain head, and
acquire diplomatic ability and political sagacity.
Owing to political intrigues, Hilduin was exiled to
Corbie, whither Hincmar followed him voluntarily.
By his entreaties he induced the emperor to par
don Hilduin and restore to him the abbey of St.
Denis, where Hinemar acquired a mass of informa
tion for which he would have found no time in
later life. In acknowledgment of the services
rendered to his father, Charles the Bald made him
his councilor and recommended him for the archi
episcopal see of Reims, which had stood vacant
since the deposition of Ebo in 835; and in 845 he
was regularly elected and consecrated.
Thenceforth Hincmar's influence was decisive for almost four decades in Church and State. He was soon involved in the controversy on Controversy predestination, which had been started
with by Gottschalk (see Got rsCHArs, 1.),
GottschalL and threatened to shake the foundations of the GaMcan Church. Rabanus Maurus had summoned Gottschalk before a synod in Mainz in 848, and then delivered him over to Hincmar for punishment. At the Synod of Chiersey in 849 Hincmar condemned him a second time, but influential men from all sides defended the doctrine of Augustine. By scientific treatises and the summoning of various synods the archbishop attempted to subdue his opponent, but no agreement was reached, and both parties were finally worn out by the protracted dimensions. Hinemar was involved also in a controversy on the Trinity with Gottschalk, and again he conquered only with great difficulty the opposition of the adherents of Augustine.
In the mean time there had arisen a still more dangerous struggle. After his deposition in 835, Ebo, his predecessor, had been reinControversy stituted as archbishop in 840 on the
Decretals. ecclesiastics and thus gained a number of adherents in the diocese of Reims. As Hinemar prohibited the performance of their functions, they started an agitation against him. Summoned before the Synod of Soissons in 853, they produced a writ of complaint, in which they tried to prove the legitimacy of Ebo's reinstitution on the basis of the Pseudo Isidorian Decretals (q.v.), which here emerged for the first time as a source of canon law. The synod, however, declared the deposition of Rho valid and the ordination of Hinemar legal. The friends of Ebo appealed to Rome, and Hinemar did likewise for the confirmation of the synodal decree. Benedict III. finally conceded the desire of Hincmar; but the dispute was not yet settled. Bishop Rothad of V. 19
Soissons became the spokesman of the deposed
clerics and defended their pseudo Isidorian princi
ples. Rothad was deposed and condemned to im
prisonment in a monastery, but in his place there
arose a more dangerous opponent in Nicholas I.,
the most powerful pope of that century. The
struggle now assumed the most decisive and far
reaching importance, since it revolved around the
papal sanction of the pseudo Isidorian forgery.
Nicholas summoned Rothad to Rome, where he
arrived in 884, and succeeded in gaining in the pope
the most powerful defender of the pseudo Isidorian
decretals. On the basis of these documents, the
pope reinstituted Rothad in his office, and Hinemar
was defeated in his struggle against the pseudo
Isidorian party. The deposed ecclesiastics of
Reims who knew about this extraordinary forgery
and undoubtedly had lent their hand to its com
pilation were encouraged by the success of Rothad,
and under the leadership of Wulfad they brought
their case before the pope. Nicholas induced Hinc
mar to resume his negotiations regarding their res
toration. At the instigation of Hinemar, a synod
at Soissons in 886 advocated such action, but
Nicholas categorically demanded that Hinemar
either acknowledge the legitimacy of their mstora
tion or prove the legitimacy of their deposition.
Hinemar was saved from this difficulty by the cir
cumstance that the pope became less severe in his
demands, as he needed the services of the arch
bishop in his struggles with the Eastern Church.
In his conflict with Adrian II. (q.v.) he was success
called Puranas, which are of comparatively recent date, the latest being composed perhaps as late as 1500 A.D. Unlike the epic, which is non sectarian, the Puranas are avowedly written in honor of the deities who form the eponymous gods of the two great Hindu sects which characterized that period and have survived as active forces to the present day. The mythology of these minor epics still awaits thorough investigation and study, for in the poems lie a mass of legends of the gods which represent popular Brahmanism at a later period than the Mahabharata. Yet the great epic of India can not be dismissed without an allusion to what is, for Occidentals, its most famous episode, the Bhagavadgita, the " Divine Song " of Vishnuite Brahmanism. Before the great battle of Kurukshetra, which marks the culmination of the epic, the god Vishnu, acting as the charioteer of Arjuna, addresses the hero in a hymn proclaiming himself as the sole godhead. It is the Upanishad of Hinduism, but it differs from the early Brahmanic Upanishads in its teaching of salvation by " loving faith " (bhakti). Herein is sounded the key note of Vishnuitic sectarianism which is to day the most potent religious factor in India.
With the deity Vishnu is incorporated the human Krishna, and with reverence for the divine is combined love for the human to a degree known to no other religion excepting Christianity. Originally an earthly hero, Krishna becomes an incarnation of the Supreme God, the way being paved for this apotheosis by the avatars, or " descents," of the deity in the form of the fish, the tortoise, the boar, the man lion, the dwarf, " Rama with the ax," " the moonlike Rama " (the hero of the Ramayana), and Krishna. This list is also extended to
include Buddha, thus changing the 2. Krishna. opponent of Brahmanism to its friend,
and Kalki, the messiah of Hinduism. According to later texts, the avatars are innumerable, and modern Vishnuites even include Christ in the series. The great incarnation, however, is that of Krishna, and about him have been woven countless legends. Some of these show so great a similarity to traditions concerning Christ, especially in the apocryphal New Testament, that many older scholars sought to trace the influence of the legends about Krishna in early Christianity; but it is now generally conceded that this view is erroneous. The dark side of Krishnaitie Vishnuism is its erotic tendency, which is fostered in the popular mind by the adventures of Krishna with the gopis, or milkmaids.
Side by side with Vishnuism was developed the rival sect of the Sivaites. Sivaism is preeminently the sect which encourages cruelest self torture, though, on the other hand, it is marked, in the so
called " left handed worship," by wild 3. Sivaism. orgies and all manner of sexual ex
cesses. The phallic aspect of the cult seems to be non Aryan. It is, of course, a survival of the worship of the principle of fertility, personified usually by a nude woman who represents the Sakti, or female counterpart, of the male principle as it appears in the god.
17. Modern Hinduism and the Unitarian Movements: The tendency toward monotheism, or
Hinachius rather toward unitarianism, which is traceable in the latter portions of the Rig Veda and, increasing steadily through the Upanishads and Vishnuite sectarianism, finds its culmination in the modern unitarianism of India. It is not impossible that this movement was aided by Mohammedanism. In a historical novel of the seventh century Bana portrayed King Harsha as presiding over a sort of
religious conference attended by Brah:. Origin. mans, Buddhists, Jains, and other sec
tarians, and in the sixteenth century the Emperor Akbar proposed a religious composite made out of Hinduism, Mohammedanism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity. It was not until the early part of the nineteenth century, however, that a religion of such diverse elements, though with a distinctly Hindu basis, was able to sustain a permanent existence. In the year 1830 Rammohun Roy (q.v.) founded at Calcutta the BrahmoSomaj (see INDIA, III.,1), in which selections were read and expounded from the sacred books of all the great religions. He was followed by Devendranath Tagore (see TAGORE, DEVENDRANATH) and by Keshub Chunder Sen (see SEN, KESHAV CHANDRA), who developed the principles laid down by Rammohun Roy and advocated still more radical reforms. The Brahmo Somaj is now one of the most important religious agencies of India among the cultured classes.
Side by side with orthodox Hinduism and with such heretical sects as the Jains (q.v.) and the Sikhs (q.v.), there exists the religion of the people,
both Aryan and non Aryan. Here is s. The found in richest profusion the worship