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HILTALINGER, JOHANN (John of Basel, Jo­hannes Angelus): Bishop of Lombez (a small town of France, department of Gera, 19 m. s.e. of Auch); b. at Basel c. 1315; d. at Freiburg 1392. He en­tered the Augustinian order and received the de­gree of master of theology at Paris in 1371. From 1371 to 1377 he was provincial in the Rhenish­Swabian province of the order. He again received this dignity in 1379, being general procurator in the mean time. At the outbreak of the Great Schism (see SCHISM), he sided with Clement VII., who made him general prior of the order in Sept., 1379. He .developed a ceaseless activity in the service of Clement, particularly in the Upper Rhine


8lnomar of Reims

country. Even after his elevation to the see of

Lombez in 1389 he remained Clement's confidential

man on the Upper Rhine :nd continued to work

at Freiburg for the curia of Avignon. He wrote,

among other things, Commentaria in libros senten­


BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. F. A. HShn, Chronologies provincice

Rhano Sueoica' ordinia . . Augustini, pp. 65 sqq.,

Wiirzburg, 1744; H. Haupt, in ZKO, vi (1885), 334 eqq.,

582; idem, in Zeitachrift far die Geschichte des Oberrheins,

new series, v. 291, 296, 318 319, vi. 212, 231; C. Eubel,

in Rtimieche Quartalachrift ftir chrietliche Altertumakunde,

vii (1893), 412, viii (1894), 261.

HILTEN, JOHANN: Franciscan monk of Eisen­

ach; b. in the diocese of Fulda before 1425; d. at

Eisenach c. 1500. After he had studied in Erfurt

and preached in Livonia, he entered the Franciscan

monastery in Magdeburg. From 1477 he was kept

a prisoner in the monasteries of Weimar and Eisen­

ach. He studied the Bible diligently, as well as

the prophecies of St. Bridget of Sweden and of

his contemporary Johann Lichtenberger. He at­

tacked ecclesiastical abuses, and on the basis of his

studies of the Apocalypse predicted great revolu­

tions in Church and State. He deplored the sepa­

ration between clergy and laity and denied the

claim of the pope to be the vice regent of Christ.

According to Myconius he put the decline of the

papal power in the year 1514, according to Me­

lanchthon in 1516. He extended the rule of the

Turks in Europe, according to Myconius, from 600

to 1570; according to Melanchthon, he foretold

that the Turks would rule as Gog and Magog in

Germany and Italy in 1600; then he expected a

reformation of Christianity and an annihilation of

Mohammedanism. The last Holy Roman emperor,

he said, would resign and restore his power to

Christ; after the fall of Rome Antichrist would ap­

pear. He predicted the end of the world for 1651.

Hilten can not be regarded as a " forerunner of

the Reformation," but he belongs to the number

of those who longed for a reform of the Church

and tried to keep alive this desire by prophecies.

He went back to Scripture and deplored the con­

tradiction between the claims of the hierarchy and

the life of the Church and the Bible; but reforma­

tion he expected only by the fulfilment of the

judgments of God predicted in the Apocalypse. He

wrote commentaries on Daniel and the Apocalypse

of which, however, only fragments came to the

knowledge of the Reformers. (P. WOLFr.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The report of a monk and a letter of My­

conius to Luther are in C. A. Heumann, Parerga critics,

I., iii. 1 eqq., G6ttingen, 1736, cf. ZKO, iii (1882), 305

sqq.; Luther's Works, Erlangen ed., xxv. 325, lx. 286;

Luther's Briefs, ed. De Wette, iii. 514, 522, vi. 563; CR,

i. 1108, iv. 780, vii. 653, 999, 1006, 1112, xiv. 841, xxiv.

64, 225, xxv. 14, 80, xxvii. 627, and the literature deal­

ing with Luther's life, e.g., J. K6stlin, Martin Luther,

ed. G. Kawerau, i. 29, Berlin, 1903. Consult also Ersch

and Gruber, Encyklopddie, section II., viii. 190. Other

literature is given in Hauck Herzog, RE, viii. 78.


HINCKS, EDWARD: Orientalist; b. at Cork

Aug. 19, 1792; d. at Killyleagh (1fi m. s.s.e. of

Belfast), County Down, Dec. 3, 1866. He was ed­

ucated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1811), and

was appointed rector of Killyleagh in 1825. He

resided there constantly till his death. Despite his seclusion and lack of books, he soon established a reputation of the first order as a pioneer in the field of cuneiform decipherment. His earlier work was on the Egyptian hieroglyphics, but later he turned his attention to Babylonian and Persian inscriptions and made many discoveries in this field. He enjoyed the distinction of having dis­covered simultaneously with Rawlinson the Per­sian cuneiform vowel system (see INSCRIPTIONS II., § 3). The results of his studies are embodied in articles contributed to the Dublin University Magazine, to the Journal o f Sacred Literature, and to the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. He began an Assyrian grammar in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1866), but left no materials for its completion.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Annual Report of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1867; R. W. Ropers, Hist. of Babylonia and Assyria, vol. i., New York, 1900; H. V. Hilprecht, Explorations in Bible Lands, Philadelphia, 1903; DNB, xxvi. 438 439.

HINCKS, EDWARD YOUNG: Congregationalist; b. at Bucksport, Me., Aug. 13, 1844. He studied at Yale College (B.A., 186G), Union Theologi­cal Seminary (1866 67), and Andover Theological Seminary, being graduated from the latter institu­tion in 1870. He was pastor of the State Street Church, Portland, Me. (1870 81). He then spent a year in Europe (1881 82), and on his return to the United States was appointed Smith professor of Biblical theology in Andover Theological Sem­inary, a position which he held from 1883 to 1900. Since the latter year he has been professor of sys­tematic theology in the same seminary. Besides having edited the Andover Review, he was a collab­orator on the volumes, prepared by the editors of the Andover Review, entitled Progressive Orthodoxy (Boston, 1886) and The Divinity of Christ (1893).

HINCMAR OF LAON: Bishop of Laon; b. 830; d. 879. Through the influence of his uncle, HinC­mar of Reims (q.v.), under whom he had received his education, he was made bishop of Laon in 858. Being of a violent temper, he soon refused obedience to his metropolitan, the more famous Hincmar, and even denied the jurisdiction of the state courts over the bishoprics. His violence is shown by the fact that during a temporary imprisonment at this time he laid an interdict upon his own diocese. After a long controversy he was finally deposed in 871 by the national synod of Douzy. He was then im­prisoned by the king and deprived of his eyesight. A year before his death John VIII. allowed him a part of the episcopal revenues of the diocese of Laon and gave him permission to say public mass. His works, all of which had their origin in his con­troversies with his uncle and Charles the Bald, are printed in MPL, cxxiv. 979 1072.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. de Noorden, Hinkmar . . , von Rheims, pp. 241 248, 267 291, Bonn, 1863; H. Schr6rs, Hinkmar . von Reims, pp. 315 351, 424 425, Freiburg, 1884;

E. Dtimmler, Geschichle des ostfrdakischen Reichs, ii. 323 sqq., Leipsic, 1887; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iv. 380­381, 489 508; KL, vi. 6 8; much of the literature under HINCMAR Or REIMS; and Neander, Christian Church,.iii. 364 365.

HINCMAR OF REIMS: Archbishop of Reims; b. about 806; d. at Epernay (115 m. e.n.e. of Paris)


Dec. 21, 882. At an early age he was sent to the monastery of St. Denis, where he was taught by Abbot Hilduin, whom he accompanied to Aachen, when he was called to the imperial

Life. court in 822. Hincmar's presence

there became of the greatest impor­

tance for his future career, as he was here enabled

to study practical politics at the fountain head, and

acquire diplomatic ability and political sagacity.

Owing to political intrigues, Hilduin was exiled to

Corbie, whither Hincmar followed him voluntarily.

By his entreaties he induced the emperor to par

don Hilduin and restore to him the abbey of St.

Denis, where Hinemar acquired a mass of informa­

tion for which he would have found no time in

later life. In acknowledgment of the services

rendered to his father, Charles the Bald made him

his councilor and recommended him for the archi­

episcopal see of Reims, which had stood vacant

since the deposition of Ebo in 835; and in 845 he

was regularly elected and consecrated.

Thenceforth Hincmar's influence was decisive for almost four decades in Church and State. He was soon involved in the controversy on Controversy predestination, which had been started

with by Gottschalk (see Got rsCHArs, 1.),

GottschalL and threatened to shake the founda­tions of the GaMcan Church. Rabanus Maurus had summoned Gottschalk before a synod in Mainz in 848, and then delivered him over to Hincmar for punishment. At the Synod of Chiersey in 849 Hincmar condemned him a second time, but influential men from all sides defended the doctrine of Augustine. By scientific treatises and the summoning of various synods the arch­bishop attempted to subdue his opponent, but no agreement was reached, and both parties were finally worn out by the protracted dimensions. Hinemar was involved also in a controversy on the Trinity with Gottschalk, and again he conquered only with great difficulty the opposition of the ad­herents of Augustine.

In the mean time there had arisen a still more dangerous struggle. After his deposition in 835, Ebo, his predecessor, had been rein­Controversy stituted as archbishop in 840 on the

with Ebo. death of King Louis, and had returned

The to Reims. Though he had to flee

Pseudo  again at the advance of Charles in 841,

Isidorian he found time to consecrate several

Decretals. ecclesiastics and thus gained a num­ber of adherents in the diocese of Reims. As Hinemar prohibited the performance of their functions, they started an agitation against him. Summoned before the Synod of Soissons in 853, they produced a writ of complaint, in which they tried to prove the legitimacy of Ebo's rein­stitution on the basis of the Pseudo Isidorian De­cretals (q.v.), which here emerged for the first time as a source of canon law. The synod, however, de­clared the deposition of Rho valid and the ordina­tion of Hinemar legal. The friends of Ebo ap­pealed to Rome, and Hinemar did likewise for the confirmation of the synodal decree. Benedict III. finally conceded the desire of Hincmar; but the dispute was not yet settled. Bishop Rothad of V. 19

Soissons became the spokesman of the deposed

clerics and defended their pseudo Isidorian princi­

ples. Rothad was deposed and condemned to im­

prisonment in a monastery, but in his place there

arose a more dangerous opponent in Nicholas I.,

the most powerful pope of that century. The

struggle now assumed the most decisive and far­

reaching importance, since it revolved around the

papal sanction of the pseudo Isidorian forgery.

Nicholas summoned Rothad to Rome, where he

arrived in 884, and succeeded in gaining in the pope

the most powerful defender of the pseudo Isidorian

decretals. On the basis of these documents, the

pope reinstituted Rothad in his office, and Hinemar

was defeated in his struggle against the pseudo­

Isidorian party. The deposed ecclesiastics of

Reims who knew about this extraordinary forgery

and undoubtedly had lent their hand to its com­

pilation were encouraged by the success of Rothad,

and under the leadership of Wulfad they brought

their case before the pope. Nicholas induced Hinc­

mar to resume his negotiations regarding their res­

toration. At the instigation of Hinemar, a synod

at Soissons in 886 advocated such action, but

Nicholas categorically demanded that Hinemar

either acknowledge the legitimacy of their mstora­

tion or prove the legitimacy of their deposition.

Hinemar was saved from this difficulty by the cir­

cumstance that the pope became less severe in his

demands, as he needed the services of the arch­

bishop in his struggles with the Eastern Church.

In his conflict with Adrian II. (q.v.) he was success­

ful. A new humiliation was heaped upon him when

John VIII. conferred the dignity of the primacy of

France upon Archbishop Ansegis of Sens, thus ig­

noring Hincmar, who had the first claim upon it.

Hinemar played a prominent part also in the

sphere of politics. He was the most faithful coun­

cilor of the West Frankish kings for more than

three generations, and more than once he saved

the kingdom from threatening down­

Hincmar's fall. He was likewise theacknowledged

Activity leader of the Gallican Church, whose

in national independence he tried in vain

Politics to uphold against the increasing power

and of Rome. He firmly defended the

Writings. principle that the spiritual p  )wer take

precedence over royal authority. In

his theological views he was a child of his time.

In learning he excelled his contemporaries, but he

was without originality of thought. Driven away

from Reims by the Normans a short time before

his death, he found a refuge in Epernay. Of his

literary works may be mentioned two treatises on

predestination, which reveal his Semi Pelagian

views. These were occasioned by his controversy

with Gottschalk. A treatise, De una et non tria

deitate, was the outcome of his controversy on the

Trinity with the same monk. His best literary

performance, however, is his Annales, 881 888,

continued byFlodoard (MGH, Script., i„ 1826, 45?r

515, and Script. rer. Germ., 1883, 55 x54; MPL,

exxv. 1203 1302). In his Opuaculum lv. capitu­

lorum he defines his attitude toward the pseudo­

Isidorian decretals. He considered the Dionysio­

Hadrianian codex as the exclusive source of canon

Hinduism_THE_NEW_SCHAFF_HERZOG_290__Hinschius'>Hinduism THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 290


law and felt more or less the fictitious make up of

the pseudo Isidorian laws, although he was unable

to prove it. (ALBERT FREYSTEDT.)

BxBwoaneray: The works of Hinemar were edited by Sir­

mond. Paris, 1645, and again in MPL, cxxv. cxxvi.

Consult W. F. Gess, Merkwfirdigkeiten aus dem Leben and

den Schriften Hinkmare, GSttingen, 1806; J. C. Prieh­

ard, The Life and Times of Hincmar, Littlemore, 1849;

Weisekeker, in Historische Zeitschrlft, i (1858), 327 430,

iii (1860), 42 96; C. Dies, De vita et inpenio Rincmari,

Sens, 1859; C. von Noorden, Hinkmar Erzbiechof von

Rheims, Bonn, 1863; Loupot, Hincmar, . . as vie, sea

muvrea, son influence, Reims, 1869; T. FSrster, Drei

Erzbfach6fe vor 1000 Jahren, Giitereloh, 1874; A. Vidieu,

Hincmar de Reims, Paris, 1875; M. Sdralek, Hincmars

van Rheims canoniatiachea Gutachten caber die Ehesaheidung

des %6nigs Lothar 11., Freiburg, 1881; H. Schr6rs, Hink­

mar, Embischo/ von Reims, Freiburg, 1884; Hiatoire lit­

t6raire de la Prance, v. 544 sqq.; Ceillier, Auteurs eacrla,

xii. 654 691; AID , Latin Christianity, iii. 51, 64, 72,

77, 80, iv. 184; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 354 368,

478 482, 489 494; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 276 277,

528, 534 535, 552, 750 761; Moeller, Christian Church,

ii. 162, 165, 198, 204 205, 221.


1. The Brahmanistic Counterreformation and the Rise of

the Hindu Sects.

The Mahabharata and Puranas (§ 1).

Krishna ($ 2).

Sivaism (§ 3).

11. Modern Hinduism and the Unitarian Movements.

Origin ($ 1).

The Popular Religion ($ 2).

The name applied to the post Buddhistic develop­

ment of native religion in India.

I. The Brahmanistic Counterreformation and the

Rise of the Hindu Sects: The elasticity of Brahman­

ism, which enabled it to survive the attacks of the

pantheism of the Upanishads, carried it through

the more open assaults of the great heretical lead­

ers Buddha and Mahavira (see BRAHMANISM;

BUDDHISM; JAINISM). The waning power of the

older gods and the rise of a host of new divinities

were not due to any influence of Buddha or Ma­

havira, but were apparently the result of contact

with non Aryan aboriginal tribes. Early Hinduism

finds its chief literary monument in the great epic

of India, the Mahabharata. This poem, the com­

position of which probably lasted from the fourth

or fifth century B.e. to 500 A.D., shows

I. The a new force. as the key note of India's

Mahabha  religion. This is found in asceticism,

rata and or self immolation, which sways all

Puranas. powers of heaven and of earth. Out

of this has arisen the distinctively

Indian class of fakirs, professional religious mendi­

cants, who represent the grotesque and outrt; sides

of asceticism, and number perhaps two millions at

the present. The only element of asceticism which

is absolutely requisite to gain distinction as a fakir

is the ability to endure terrific self torture. The

gods, to protect themselves, frequently sent celes­

tial nymphs to seduce such ascetics as threatened

the divinities by the power acquired through self­

castigation, and the temptation was by no means

always unsuccessful. Yet true religion might con­

stantly be found both among the Brahmans and

among the ascetics and hermits dwelling in the

forest depths.

Beside the Mahabharata stand the Ramayana, an

essentially Vishnuite poem, and the eighteen poems

called Puranas, which are of comparatively recent date, the latest being composed perhaps as late as 1500 A.D. Unlike the epic, which is non sectarian, the Puranas are avowedly written in honor of the deities who form the eponymous gods of the two great Hindu sects which characterized that period and have survived as active forces to the present day. The mythology of these minor epics still awaits thorough investigation and study, for in the poems lie a mass of legends of the gods which rep­resent popular Brahmanism at a later period than the Mahabharata. Yet the great epic of India can not be dismissed without an allusion to what is, for Occidentals, its most famous episode, the Bhagavadgita, the " Divine Song " of Vishnuite Brahmanism. Before the great battle of Kuruk­shetra, which marks the culmination of the epic, the god Vishnu, acting as the charioteer of Arjuna, addresses the hero in a hymn proclaiming himself as the sole godhead. It is the Upanishad of Hin­duism, but it differs from the early Brahmanic Upanishads in its teaching of salvation by " loving faith " (bhakti). Herein is sounded the key note of Vishnuitic sectarianism which is to day the most potent religious factor in India.

With the deity Vishnu is incorporated the human Krishna, and with reverence for the divine is com­bined love for the human to a degree known to no other religion excepting Christianity. Originally an earthly hero, Krishna becomes an incarnation of the Supreme God, the way being paved for this apotheosis by the avatars, or " descents," of the deity in the form of the fish, the tortoise, the boar, the man lion, the dwarf, " Rama with the ax," " the moonlike Rama " (the hero of the Rama­yana), and Krishna. This list is also extended to

include Buddha, thus changing the 2. Krishna. opponent of Brahmanism to its friend,

and Kalki, the messiah of Hinduism. According to later texts, the avatars are innumer­able, and modern Vishnuites even include Christ in the series. The great incarnation, however, is that of Krishna, and about him have been woven count­less legends. Some of these show so great a simi­larity to traditions concerning Christ, especially in the apocryphal New Testament, that many older scholars sought to trace the influence of the legends about Krishna in early Christianity; but it is now generally conceded that this view is erroneous. The dark side of Krishnaitie Vishnuism is its erotic tend­ency, which is fostered in the popular mind by the ad­ventures of Krishna with the gopis, or milkmaids.

Side by side with Vishnuism was developed the rival sect of the Sivaites. Sivaism is preeminently the sect which encourages cruelest self torture, though, on the other hand, it is marked, in the so 

called " left handed worship," by wild 3. Sivaism. orgies and all manner of sexual ex 

cesses. The phallic aspect of the cult seems to be non Aryan. It is, of course, a survival of the worship of the principle of fertility, personi­fied usually by a nude woman who represents the Sakti, or female counterpart, of the male principle as it appears in the god.

17. Modern Hinduism and the Unitarian Move­ments: The tendency toward monotheism, or




rather toward unitarianism, which is traceable in the latter portions of the Rig Veda and, increasing steadily through the Upanishads and Vishnuite sectarianism, finds its culmination in the modern unitarianism of India. It is not impossible that this movement was aided by Mohammedanism. In a historical novel of the seventh century Bana portrayed King Harsha as presiding over a sort of

religious conference attended by Brah­:. Origin. mans, Buddhists, Jains, and other sec 

tarians, and in the sixteenth century the Emperor Akbar proposed a religious composite made out of Hinduism, Mohammedanism, Zoroas­trianism, Judaism, and Christianity. It was not until the early part of the nineteenth century, how­ever, that a religion of such diverse elements, though with a distinctly Hindu basis, was able to sustain a permanent existence. In the year 1830 Rammo­hun Roy (q.v.) founded at Calcutta the Brahmo­Somaj (see INDIA, III.,1), in which selections were read and expounded from the sacred books of all the great religions. He was followed by Deven­dranath Tagore (see TAGORE, DEVENDRANATH) and by Keshub Chunder Sen (see SEN, KESHAV CHAN­DRA), who developed the principles laid down by Rammohun Roy and advocated still more radical reforms. The Brahmo Somaj is now one of the most important religious agencies of India among the cultured classes.

Side by side with orthodox Hinduism and with such heretical sects as the Jains (q.v.) and the Sikhs (q.v.), there exists the religion of the people,

both Aryan and non Aryan. Here is s. The found in richest profusion the worship

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