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all the orthodox bishops and laity. This date (365)

is the last certain one in his life.

Several of his most important works, as enumer­

ated in the list given by Jerome (De vir. ill., c.),

have already been dealt with in their chronological

connection. Of the others mentioned by him there

are still extant a commentary on part of the Psalms,

a portion of the Liber mysteriorum, and fragments

of the Liber hymnorum and the commentary on

Job. The work on the Psalms is even more exten­

sive than in Jerome's specification, covering Ps.

i., ii., ix., xiii., xiv., li. lxix., cxi., and cxviii.cl.

The Liber mysteriorum was long supposed to be

lost, but in 1887 Gamurrini discovered a manu­

script which, though incomplete, he identified with

this treatise, and found to contain a treatment of

the.mysteries of Old Testament typology. Of the

commentary on Job, which Jerome calls a free ren­

dering of Origen's, two fragments are preserved by

Augustine; its dependence on Origen places it in

the period after Hilary's banishment. There has

been much discussion on the difficult question as

to the existence of remains of what Jerome de­

scribes as Liter adversum Valentem et Ursacium, his­

toriam Ariminensis et Seleuciensis synodi eontinens.

Fifteen " fragments " preserved in the manuscripts

perhaps belong to this work, and scholars have

held very divergent views about the authenticity

of them, together or severally; but until further

evidence is presented the hypothesis which re­

gards them all as genuine and belonging to this

book seems the least open to objection.

(F. LoOFS.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best edition of the works is the Bene­

dictine of Constant, Paris, 1693, reprinted with additions

by Maffei, Verona, 1730, and in MPL, ix. x. Earlier and

less valuable are those by B. Asoensius, Paris, 1510, and

by Erasmus, Basel, 1523. Hilary's principal work on the

Trinity and several other tracts and homilies are in NPNF,

2d ser., vol. ix.

The Vita by Venantius Fortunatus. ed. B. Krusch, is

in MGH, Auct. ant., iv. 2 (1885), 1 11; an early Vita is

in vol. i. of Maffei's ed. and in vol. ix. of MPL. His life

is given also by Jerome in De vir. ill., chap. c. An ex­

cellent and detailed introduction to Hilary's life and wri­

tings and theology is in NPNF, ut sup. Consult: J. H.

Reinkens, Hilarius von Poitiers, Schaffhausen, 1864;

J. B. WirthmOller, Die Lehre des . . . Hilarius von

Poitiers, Regensburg, 1865; K. R. Hagenbacb, Hist. of

Christian Doctrines, i. passim, ii. 82, Edinburgh, 1880;

O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie, Freiburg, 1894; G. Dreves,

in ZHT, xii (1888), 358 361; Baltzer, Die Christologie

des heiligen Hilarius von Poitiers, Rottweil, 1889; F. W.

Farrar, lives o/ the Fathers, i. 426 467, New York 1889;

A. Ebert, Allgemeine Gesehichte der Literatur des Mittel­

alters, i. 143 145, Leipsic, 1889; S. W. Teuffel, Geschichte

der rtimischen Literatur, pp. 1053 1057, ib. 1890; H.

Lindemann, Hilary von Poitiers, liber mysteriorum, Mun­

ster, 1905; Wilmars, in Revue b6nMictine, April and July,

1907; Ceillier, Auteurs sarres, iv. 1 89, 566 576 et

passim, consult index; 1Ceander, Christian Church, ii.

618 622 et passim; Schaff, Christian Church, iii. 589,

664, 959 961; DCB, iii. 54 56.

HILDA (HILD), SAINT: Abbess of Whitby (40

m. n.n.e. of York); b. 614; d. at Whitby Nov. 17,

680. She was baptized by Paulinus (q.v.) at York

with her great uncle Edwin, king of Northumbria,

and his nobles in 627. At the age of thirty three

she started to join her sister, Hereswid, who was

a nun in Gaul, but was recalled from East Anglia

by Aidan and appointed over a small monastic

community on the north bank of the Wear. In 649 she became abbess at Hartlepool. In 657 she founded a double monastery at Whitby (then called Streanaeshalch), which became the most famous religious house in northeast England. The Synod of Whitby (q.v.) was held there in 664, after which Hilda accepted the Roman date for Easter. Five of the monks trained under her rule became bishops. The poet Cwdmon (q.v.), perhaps originally a la­borer on the monastic lands, was made a brother of the house by Hilda, and received instruction and encouragement from her.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Hist. eccl., iii. 24 25, iv. 23, 24; J. B. Lightfoot, Leaders of the Northern Church, London,

1890; DCB, iii. 77 78; DNB, xxvi. 381 382; W. Bright,

Cha;tern of Early English Church History, Oxford, 1897.

HILDEBERT, Sl"de bar,' OF LAVARDIN : Bishop of Le Mans and archbishop of Tours; b. at La­vardin, near Montoire (24 m. w.n.w. of Blois), de­partment of Loir et Cher, c. 1056; d. at Tours Dec. 18, 1133. After 1085 he was scholasticus in the cathedral of Le Mans, and became archdeacon there in 1091. He was made bishop of Le Mans in 1096. A minority of the clergy and William Rufus of England, at that time feudal lord of Maine, pro­tested against his election as bishop; and until the death of the King Hildebert had to suffer much from the ill will of the English court. After the end of the second campaign against Maine, he was even forced to follow the king to England as pris­oner, but in 1100 he was released. Shortly after his return to Le Mans, he undertook a journey to Italy, asking to be relieved from his duties; but Paschal II. would not give his consent. Richly provided with means for the continuation of the building of his cathedral, he returned to Le Mans in 1101. He developed a busy administrative ac­tivity, which was interrupted only by his attend­ance at various French councils, and by a captivity of several months in the castle of Count Rotrou du Perche (1112). About 1116 Henry of Lausanne (q.v.) appeared in Le Mans and preached fearlessly against the conduct of the higher clergy. The peo­ple enthusiastically hailed the anticlerical agita­tion, and when Hildebert returned from a second journey to Italy he was received with maledictions, though be banished Henry from town and diocese. In 1120 Hildebert had the great satisfaction of see­ing the cathedral finished. In 1123 he attended the great Lateran Council of Calixtus II. at Rome. Through Louis VI. of France he was chosen arch­bishop of Tours in 1125, against his will. His new office involved him immediately in new and pro­tracted struggles with Louis about appointments to offices, with the bishop of Dol about jurisdiction over the dioceses of Brittany, etc.

Hildebert achieved fame beyond the boundaries of his diocese chiefly by his literary works, particu­larly his poems. He had great talents for form. He was the first medieval writer who mastered Latin like a living language, but he was more of a versifier than of a poet. Next to his poems, Hil­debert achieved fame by the elegant style of his letters and by his preaching in French and Latin. He was the first prominent representative of the tendency which led later to the Renaissance, but



was temporarily checked by the rise of monasti­

cism and the activity of the mendicant orders.

Beaugendre has embodied in his edition of Hil­

debert's works (Paris, 1708) all anonymous wri­

tings that he could possibly ascribe to his hero.

Bourass6's edition (MPL, clxxi. 1 1486) is not

much better. Of the numerous prose works at­

tributed to Hildebert, the only ones surely genu­

ine are four sermons, a work entitled Liber de

querimonia et con flictu carnis et spiritus 8eu animm

(c. 1100), and two biographies of saints, Vita S.

Radegundis and Vita Hugonis abbatis Cluniacemis.

The genuineness of the following poetical works is

proved: Versus de sacriftcio missw; De operibvs

sex dierum; Inscriptionum christianorum libellus;

Vita Mario Xgyptiacw; some of the Carmina mis­

cellanea and of the Carmina indifferentia. The gen­

uineness of the following poetical works has not

yet been investigated : De ordine mundi; Carmen

in libro8 regum; Versus de S. Vincentio; De inven­

tions S. Crucis; Lamentatio peccatricis animm. It

is possible. that Hildebert is the author of a His­

toria de Mahomete. (H. BOHMER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Criticisms by B. Haur6au of the editions

of Besugendre and Bourassd are in Notices et extraits de

la bibliothbyue nationals, xxviii. 2, pp. 289 448, xxix. 231­

362, xxxi. 2, pp. 126 140, xxxii. 2, pp. 7, 84 166, xxxiii.

1, pp. 257 sqq. Certain letters, ed. E. Sackur, are in

MGH, Lib. de lite, ii (1893), 668 673. Sources for a life

are the Vita Hildeberti in the Aeta eguacaporum Cenno­

mannensium reprinted in the introductions to the editions

of Beaugendre and Bourassd; Ordericus Vitalis, Hist.

eccl., ed. A. le Prevost, ii. 250 251, 576, iv. 41 sqq., 103,

374, Paris, 18,18 55; and William of Malmesbury, ed. W.

Stubbs, in Rolls Series, no. 90, pp. 338 340, 402 403,

London, 1887 89. The biographies by V. H6bert Du­

perron (Bajocis, 1858) and P. Ddservilliers (Paris, 1876)

are superseded by A. Dieudonnt;, Hildebert de Lavardin,

. sa vie, ses lettres, Paris, 1898; of. E. A. Freeman,

Reign of William Rufus, ii. 191 245, 274 302, 625 $45,

654 56, Oxford, 1882; F. Barth, Hildebert von Lavardin

and daa kirchliche Stellungbesetzungsrecht, Stuttgart,

1906; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1886), 191, ii (1894), 217;

Julian, Hymnology, PP. 522 523; R. C. Trench, Sacred

Latin Poetry, pp. 106 109, London, 1864.


HILDEGARD, SAINT: Abbess of Disibodenberg

and Rupertsberg, near Bingen; b. at the castle of

Bdckelheim (16 m. by rail a. of Bingen) 1098 or

1099; d. at Rupertsberg 1178. She was educated

at the Disibodenberg abbey by a female recluse,

Jutta of Sponheim, and became abbess herself in

1136. Subsequently she founded and superin­

tended the cloister on the Rupertsberg. She influ­

enced the ecclesiastical and moral conditions of

the time by her speech and example, in the course

of journeys to France, to Swabia, Cologne, and

the Netherlands, and by her manifold writings,

the product of ecstatic visionary conditions, and

the earliest memorials of German mysticism. From

1141 onward, Hildegard had her visions, imparted

through the " inner light," recorded in writing;

thus originated her principal work, Scivias [i.e., Sci

viasj Domini, her Liber vito meritorum, Expositiones

evangeliorum, and other books. Although never

canonized, Hildegard's name has found recognition

in the Martyrologium of the Roman Catholic Church;

and she is still highly honored in the districts of the

confluence of the Nahe and the Rhine.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: An extensive list of literature is given in Potthast, Wegvxiaer, pp. 1373 74, and another by F. W. E. Roth, in Quartalblatter des hiatmaschen Vereins fur . . . Hessen, 1886, pp. 221=223, 1887, pp. 78  86. Hildegard's Epiatolm et prophetice are most accessible in MPL, cxcvii.; the Epistolm are in Germ. transl. in 2 vols., Regensburg, 1854; previously inedited works, ed. Davin, are in Le Monde, July 1, 1882; her Nova opera, ed. J. B. Pitra, appeared Paris, 1883, cf. Analecta Bol­landiana, i (1882), 597 608. The Life of Hildegard by Theodoric, with prefatorial matter, is in ASS, Sept., v. 667 697, and in MPL, cxcvii. 91 130, and in Fr. tranel., Louvain, 1822. Other pertinent matter is collected in ASB ut sup., pp. 697 701. Consult: L. Clarus Leben der heiligen Hildegard, Regensburg, 18.14; W. ~Preger, Geschichte der deutachen Mystik, i. 13 34, Leipsie, 1874; J. P. Schmelzeis, Leben and Wirken der heiligen Hilde­gard, Freiburg, 1879; A. Battandier, in Revue des ques­tion8 hiatoriquea, xxiii (1883), 395 425; R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, i. 146, ii. 219, 8th ed., London, n. d.; KL, v. 2061 74; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 216 220, 225, 462, 586, v. 222, 381.

HILDESHEIM, BISHOPRIC OF: The bishopric for the Eastphalian districts in the northwestern regions of the Harz Mountains. It was probably created early in the reign of Louis the Pious (814­840), as the Hildesheim catalogue of the bishops names two bishops before Ebo (q.v.) and the latter received the bishopric shortly before the Synod of Mainz in 847, in which he took part as bishop of Hildesheim. The most prominent among the Hil­desheim bishops were Altfrid, founder of the ca­thedral of Hildesheim, Bernward, and Godehard. The most important monastery in the diocese was Gandersheim, founded 852 at Brunshausen and re­moved to Gandersheim in 856. (A. HAUCg.)

The bishops acquired great temporal power un­der the Hohenstaufen emperors, and had been so much distracted by the consequent cares and strug­gles that there was great need of reform when it was undertaken by Bishop Magnus of Saxony­Lauenburg (1424 52) supported by Nicholas of Cusa (see CUBA, NICHOLAS OF) who had been sent to North Germany for this purpose, and by Jan Busch (q.v.) and the Windesheim congregation, as well as by the Benedictine congregation later called of Bursfelde (q.v.), which originated within the diocese about this time. Worldliness, how­ever, made fresh inroads, and under John IV. of Saxony Lauenburg (1504  27) all was ripe for both political and religious innovations. A large part of the diocese became Protestant and the dukes of Brunswick Liineburg and Brunswick Wolfenbiittei took the power. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) confirmed the existing status and prevented any attempts at restoring Roman Catholicism. In 1803 the remaining territory of the diocese was secularized and annexed as a principality to Prus­sia; but the Concordat of 1824 between Hanover and Rome established new and much larger bound­aries for the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, including a Roman Catholic population of 55,000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. A. Lantzel, Geschirhte der Dabaeee and Stadt Hildesheim, 2 vols., Hildeshelm, 1857 58; A. Bert­ram, Die Biechbfe von Hildesheim, ib. 1896; idem, Ge­schichte des Bisthums Hildesheim, ib. 1899; Rettberg, KD, ii. 465; Hauck, KD, ii. 620.

HILDUIN, fl"d(i"an': Abbot of St. Denis; d. Nov. 22, 840. He came of a noble Frankish family, was a pupil of Alcuin, and became a man of great learning, admired by Rabanus Maurus, Walafried



Strabo, and the famous Hincmar of Reims, his pu­

pil. At the end of 814 or beginning of 815 he

became abbot of St. Denis, though he was not yet

a monk. In 819 or 822 he was made archicapel­

lanus to Louis the Pious, and his subsequent career

was of more political than ecclesiastical impor­

tance. In 827 an embassy from the Eastern em­

peror, Michael Balbus, brought the works of Dio­

nysius the Areopagite as a present to Louis the

Pious, who placed them in charge of Hilduin as

abbot of St. Denis, having a special devotion to

the saint, whom he regarded as identical with the

Areopagite, and in 835 charged him to write the life

of St. Denis. This biography is of importance as

taking the same view of the identity the view

which, although all his contemporaries did not share

it, prevailed finally and dominated the Middle Ages.

Involved in the struggle of Louis the Pious with his

sons, he lost his position at court and was impris­

oned for a time in the abbey of Corvey. He was

soon pardoned by Louis, and some of his abbeys

were restored to him; but he took no further part

in political conflicts, and devoted himself to the

reformation of St. Denis, probably taking the mo­

nastic vows in this period. (Fosst.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are to be found in: MPL, cvi.

109 110; MGH, Epist., v (1898 99), 325 sqq.; Ermol­

due Nigellus, III., v. 270 271, IV., v. 412 in MPL, cv.

Consult: A. Ebert, Allgemeine Geachichte der literatur des

Mittelaltera, ii. 147, 248, 348, Leipeic, 1880; H. Fose,

Ueber den Abt Hilduin, Berlin, 1888; Histoire litt&aire de

la France, iv. 607 613; KL, v. 2089 90.


TOPH CHRISTIAN): German Protestant; b. at

Stappenbeck (near Salzwedel, 54 m. n.n.w. of Mag­

deburg) June 2, 1823; d. at Jena Jan. 12, 1907.

He studied at Berlin and Halls 1841 45, and in

1847 became privat docent at Jena. In 1850 he

was appointed associate professor in the same uni­

versity, and in 1869 was made honorary full pro­

fessor, while from 1890 to his death he was full

professor of New Testament exegesis. In theology

he belonged to the liberal school of F. C. Baur. Be­

sides his work as editor of the Zeitschrift fur wis­

senschaftliche Theologie after 1858, he wrote Die

clementinischen Rekognitionzn and Homilien (Jena,

1848); Das Evangelium and die Briefe Johannis

mach ihremLehrbegriff (Halls, 1849); Kritische Un­

tersuchungen fiber die Evangelien Justins, der cle­

mentinischen Homilien and Marcions (1850); Die

Glossolalie in der alters Kirche (Leipsic, 1850); Das

Markus Evangelium (1850); DerGalaterbrief (1852);

Die apostolischen Vkter (Halls, 1853); Die Evan­

gelien nach ihrer Entstehung and geschichtlichen Be­

deutung (Leipsic, 1854); Das Urchristentum in

den Hauptwendepunkten seines Entwicklungsganges

(Jena, 1855); Die jitdische Apokalyptik (1857);

Der Paschastreit der alters Kirche (Halls, 1860); Der

Kanon and die Kritik des Neuen Testaments in ihrer

geschichtlichen Ausbildung (1863); Die Propheten

Esra and Daniel and ihre neueste Bearbeitungen

(1863); Novum Testamentum extra canonem recep­

tum (4 parts, Leipsic, 1874); Messias Judmorum,

libris eorum paulo ante et paulo post Christum natum

conscriptis illustratus (1869); Historisch kritische

Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1875); Die khn 

inische Weissagung fiber die Mark Brandenburg (1875); Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums (1884); Judentum and Judenchristentum (1886); Hermm pastor grcece integer (1887); Libellus de alea­toribus inter Cypriana scripts conservatus (Frei­burg, 1889); Acta apostolorum grace et latine (Ber­lin, 1899); and Ignatii Antiocheni et Polycarpi Smyrncei epistula, et martyria (1902).
BIHLIOORAPHY: H. Hilgenfeld, Verzeichnie der won Adolf Hilgenfeld verfaeeten Schritten, Leipsic, 1908.
HILL, ROWLAND: Popular English preacher; b. at Hawkstone Park (11 m. n.e. of Shrewsbury), Shropshire, Aug. 23, 1744; d. in London Apr. 11, 1833. He was educated at Eton and at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1769), where he came under the influence of the Methodists. For preach­ing in the open air in and around Cambridge with­out a license he was opposed by the authorities and frequently assaulted by mobs. Finally, in 1773, after he had been refused ordination by six bishops, he was ordained by the bishop of Bath and Wells to the curacy of Kingston, Somersetshire, but was subsequently denied priest's orders. Having come into an inheritance throughthe deathof his father, Sir Rowland Hill, he built in 1783 Surrey Chapel, London. Here he preached to immense audiences almost up to the time of his death. Attached to the chapel were thirteen Sunday schools, with an enrolment of over 3,000 children. In the summer Hill preached through the country, even visiting Scotland and Ireland, and attracting large crowds wherever he went. He was one of the founders of the Religious Tract Society and an active promoter of the interests of the London Missionary Society and of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He was an early advocate of vaccination, and published a tract on the subject in 1806. His principal work is Village Dialogues (London, 1801; 34th ed., 1839).
BrBwoaRAPHY: W. Jones, Memoir of Rowland Hill, ed. Sherman, London, 1840; E. Sidney, Life of Rev. Row­land Hill, ib. 1845; James Sherman, Memorial of Row­land Hill, ib. 1857; V. J. Charlesworth, Rowland Hill: his Life, Anecdotes and Pudpit Sayings, ib. 1879; E. Broome, Rowland Hill: Preacher and Wit, ib. 1883; DNB, xxvi. 411.
HILLEL: Jewish rabbi in the time of Herod. He was called " the Elder " to distinguish him from other persons of the same name, and was de­scended from a poor Babylonian family which, as a later Jewish legend relates, traced its pedigree back to David. According to Siphrg on Deut. xxxiv. 7, he was forty years old when he emigrated from his native country to Palestine in order to devote himself in Jerusalem to the study of the law. His poverty compelled him to become a day­laborer. It was said that he used half of his wages to provide the fees for instruction under the most celebrated rabbis of his time. He distinguished himself not only by his zeal for knowledge, but also by his great patience and gentleness both in word and in deed. The " Sayings of the Fathers " and other sources have preserved many a beautiful sentence under the name of Hillel, and many ex­amples of his noble deeds are recorded in the Tal­mud. But he can not be called a reformer; his



mode of thought was casuistic, and could in no way be compared to that of Jesus. The name of Hillel was little known among Christians until E. Renan in his Vie de Jesus (Paris, 1863) put him almost on a level with Jesus and called him his true teacher. A. Geiger and other rabbis, followed Renan. De­litzsch, however, in his monograph Jesus and Hillel (Erlangen, 1866) has convincingly shown that HilleI was overestimated and the unique im­portance of Jesus completely ignored by Renan and Jewish writers. The lack of even the most unim­portant testimony is against the assumption that Jesus was influenced by Hillel. (H. L. &TRAC%.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: SchWer, GssWchte, ii. 359 383 et passim, Eng. tranal., ll., i. 359 363 et passim; A. Geiger, Dos

Judenthum and seine Gsarhichte, i. 99 107, Brenlau, 1865:

M. Nicolas, Des Doct»nes relipieasea des juifs, part i.,

chap. iii., Paris, 1867; E. Stapler, Les 1d&s relipieuses an

Palestine h l'Evoque de Jbaus Christ, chap. xii.. ib. 1878;

G. Goitein, in Mapasin for die Wissenschaft des Juden 

tums, a (1884), 1 16, 49 87; W. Bacher, Die Aqada der

Tannaflan, i. 4 14, Strasburg, 1884; T. Leir, in &vus des

Jtudea fuivea, xx:jd. 202 211; xxziii. 143 144; JE, vi. 897 


HELLER: A family of Wilrttemberg poets and theologians.

1. Matth1us Hiller, Orientalist, was born at Stuttgart Feb. 15, 1646; d. at K6nigsbronn (45 m. e. of Stuttgart) Feb. 3, 1725. In 1677 he became assistant preacher in Herrenberg, 1686 preceptor in Bebenhausen, 1692 professor of Hebrew, 1698 of theology in TObingen, 1716 abbot in Konigsbronn. He wrote a Hebrew Latin dictionary, also De arcano kdhib et keri (Tiibingen, 1692), Onomastieum sacrum (1706), and Hierophyticon (Utrecht, 1725).

2. Friedrich Konrad Hiller, councilor of the chancery and hymn writer, was born at Unter­6wisheim, near Brilchaal (12 m. n.e. of Carlsruhe), 1662; d. there 1726. He wrote 172 hymns which he edited under the title Denkmnl der Erkenntnis, Liebe and Lob Gottes in neven geistliche» Liedem (Stuttgart, 1711).

3. Philipp Friedrich Hiller, hymn writer, was born at MOMhausen on the Enz (near Vaihingen, 15 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) Jan. 6, 1699; d. at Steinheim­on the Albuch (near Heidenheim, 22 m. n.n.e. of Ulm) Apr. 24, 1769. He was educated at Maul­bronn and Tiibingen, was private tutor in Nurem­berg from 1729 to 1731, became pastor of Neckar­Gr6ningen in 1732, of Miihihausen on the Enz in 1'736, and of Steinheim in 1748. In 1751 he almost completely lost his voice; and, being thus excluded from the pulpit, he devoted himself to hymn wri­ting. He put all the prayers of Johann Arndt's Paradiesgdrtlein into the form of songs under the title Johann Arndts Paradiesgartlein von neuem an­gelegt (4 parts, Nuremberg, 1729 31). Besides this work, he wrote more than a thousand hymns and religious songs which he published under the title Geistliches Liederkdstlein (2 parts, Stuttgart, 1762­1767). He also composed a life of Jesus in Alexan­drine verses (2 parts, Heilbronn and Tiibingen, 1752); Kurze and erbduliche Andachten bet der Beicht and dem heiligen Abendmahl (Tiibingen and Stuttgart, 1752); Morgen  and Abendandaehten nach dem Gebet des Hewn (Stuttgart, 1785); finally a work in prose, Neues System aller Vorbilder Jesu Christi dureh das gdnze Alte Testament in zwei Teiien

(Stuttgart, 175"8). Hiller has become the fa­vorite spiritual poet of Evangelical Wiirttemberg.

(H. MO$APP.)

BiBrdoaBAP87: On 1. S. Pfuster, in Hisrophytiuon, Utrecht, 1725. On 2: Denkmal der Erkenntuia, preface, Stutt­gart, 1711; E. E. Koch, Gteehidde des Kirchenlieds, v. 59 eqq., Stuttgart, 1889. On 3: O. F. Hamer, Nachrirhten von Liedardichiern des Auosburger Geeanpbucha, pp. 119­129, Schwabaoh, 1779; A. Knapp, Atiembergische Chmaktere, pp. 78 142, Stuttgart, 1870; E. E. Koch, ut sup., v. 107 eqq.; ADB, xu. 425 eqq.; Julian, $ymnol­ocy, pp. 524 525.

H17 LER, ALFRED: Lutheran; b. at Sharon

Center, N. Y., Apr. 22, 1831. He was educated at

Hartwick Seminary, N. Y., from which he was

graduated in 1857. He then held successive pas­

torates in his denomination at Fayette, N. Y.

(1857 58), and at German Valley, N. J. (1858 81).

Since 1881 he has been professor of systematic the­

ology in Hartwiek Seminary. During the Civil

War he was a delegate of the U. S. Christian Com­

mission, and in the spring of 1865 organized the

Army Church in the. cavalry department at Nash­

ville, Tenn. Theologically he adheres to " the

doctrinal basis of the General Synod of the Evan­

gelical Lutheran Church in the United States."

HILLIS, NEWELL DWIGHT: Congregationalist; b. at Magnolia, Ia., Sept. 2, 1858. He was grad­uated at Lake Forest University (B.A., 1884) and McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago (1887). He then entered the Presbyterian ministry and held pastorates at Peoria, Ill. (1887 90), Evans­ton, Ill. (1890 94), and Central Church, Chicago, an independent church (1894 99). Since 1899 he has been pastor of Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn. He has written A Mart's Value to So­ciety (New York, 1896); Foretokens of Immortality (1897); Investment of Influence: Study of Social Sympathy and Service (1898); William Bwdrt Gladstone: Scholar, Statesman, Christian (1898); Great Books as Life Teachers: Studies of Character, Reel and Ideal (1899); Right Living as a Fine Art

Study of Channing's Symphony (1899); Influence of Christ in Modern Life (1900); Across the Conti­nent o f the Years (1901); David the Poet and King (1901); Faith and Character (1902); Master of the Science of Right Living (1902); The Quest of Happi­ness (1902) ; School in the Home: Debt Parents Owe their Children (1902); Building a Working Faith (1903); Success through Self Help (1903); The Quest of John Chapman (1904); and Fortune of the Republic (1906).

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