community on the north bank of the Wear. In 649 she became abbess at Hartlepool. In 657 she founded a double monastery at Whitby (then called Streanaeshalch), which became the most famous religious house in northeast England. The Synod of Whitby (q.v.) was held there in 664, after which Hilda accepted the Roman date for Easter. Five of the monks trained under her rule became bishops. The poet Cwdmon (q.v.), perhaps originally a laborer on the monastic lands, was made a brother of the house by Hilda, and received instruction and encouragement from her.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bede, Hist. eccl., iii. 24 25, iv. 23, 24; J. B. Lightfoot, Leaders of the Northern Church, London, 1890; DCB, iii. 77 78; DNB, xxvi. 381 382; W. Bright,
Cha;tern of Early English Church History, Oxford, 1897.
HILDEBERT, Sl"de bar,' OF LAVARDIN: Bishop of Le Mans and archbishop of Tours; b. at Lavardin, near Montoire (24 m. w.n.w. of Blois), department of Loir et Cher, c. 1056; d. at Tours Dec. 18, 1133. After 1085 he was scholasticus in the cathedral of Le Mans, and became archdeacon there in 1091. He was made bishop of Le Mans in 1096. A minority of the clergy and William Rufus of England, at that time feudal lord of Maine, protested against his election as bishop; and until the death of the King Hildebert had to suffer much from the ill will of the English court. After the end of the second campaign against Maine, he was even forced to follow the king to England as prisoner, but in 1100 he was released. Shortly after his return to Le Mans, he undertook a journey to Italy, asking to be relieved from his duties; but Paschal II. would not give his consent. Richly provided with means for the continuation of the building of his cathedral, he returned to Le Mans in 1101. He developed a busy administrative activity, which was interrupted only by his attendance at various French councils, and by a captivity of several months in the castle of Count Rotrou du Perche (1112). About 1116 Henry of Lausanne (q.v.) appeared in Le Mans and preached fearlessly against the conduct of the higher clergy. The people enthusiastically hailed the anticlerical agitation, and when Hildebert returned from a second journey to Italy he was received with maledictions, though be banished Henry from town and diocese. In 1120 Hildebert had the great satisfaction of seeing the cathedral finished. In 1123 he attended the great Lateran Council of Calixtus II. at Rome. Through Louis VI. of France he was chosen archbishop of Tours in 1125, against his will. His new office involved him immediately in new and protracted struggles with Louis about appointments to offices, with the bishop of Dol about jurisdiction over the dioceses of Brittany, etc.
Hildebert achieved fame beyond the boundaries of his diocese chiefly by his literary works, particularly his poems. He had great talents for form. He was the first medieval writer who mastered Latin like a living language, but he was more of a versifier than of a poet. Next to his poems, Hildebert achieved fame by the elegant style of his letters and by his preaching in French and Latin. He was the first prominent representative of the tendency which led later to the Renaissance, but
285 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hilary of Poitiers
Hilduin was temporarily checked by the rise of monasti
cism and the activity of the mendicant orders.
Beaugendre has embodied in his edition of Hil
debert's works (Paris, 1708) all anonymous wri
tings that he could possibly ascribe to his hero.
Bourass6's edition (MPL, clxxi. 1 1486) is not
much better. Of the numerous prose works at
tributed to Hildebert, the only ones surely genu
ine are four sermons, a work entitled Liber de
querimonia et con flictu carnis et spiritus 8eu animm
(c. 1100), and two biographies of saints, Vita S.
Radegundis and Vita Hugonis abbatis Cluniacemis.
The genuineness of the following poetical works is
thus originated her principal work, Scivias [i.e., Sci
viasj Domini, her Liber vito meritorum, Expositiones
evangeliorum, and other books. Although never
canonized, Hildegard's name has found recognition
in the Martyrologium of the Roman Catholic Church;
and she is still highly honored in the districts of the
confluence of the Nahe and the Rhine.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: An extensive list of literature is given in Potthast, Wegvxiaer, pp. 1373 74, and another by F. W. E. Roth, in Quartalblatter des hiatmaschen Vereins fur . . . Hessen, 1886, pp. 221=223, 1887, pp. 78 86. Hildegard's Epiatolm et prophetice are most accessible in MPL, cxcvii.; the Epistolm are in Germ. transl. in 2 vols., Regensburg, 1854; previously inedited works, ed. Davin, are in Le Monde, July 1, 1882; her Nova opera, ed. J. B. Pitra, appeared Paris, 1883, cf. Analecta Bollandiana, i (1882), 597 608. The Life of Hildegard by Theodoric, with prefatorial matter, is in ASS, Sept., v. 667 697, and in MPL, cxcvii. 91 130, and in Fr. tranel., Louvain, 1822. Other pertinent matter is collected in ASB ut sup., pp. 697 701. Consult: L. Clarus Leben der heiligen Hildegard, Regensburg, 18.14; W. ~Preger, Geschichte der deutachen Mystik, i. 13 34, Leipsie, 1874; J. P. Schmelzeis, Leben and Wirken der heiligen Hildegard, Freiburg, 1879; A. Battandier, in Revue des question8 hiatoriquea, xxiii (1883), 395 425; R. A. Vaughan, Hours with the Mystics, i. 146, ii. 219, 8th ed., London, n. d.; KL, v. 2061 74; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 216 220, 225, 462, 586, v. 222, 381.
HILDESHEIM, BISHOPRIC OF: The bishopric for the Eastphalian districts in the northwestern regions of the Harz Mountains. It was probably created early in the reign of Louis the Pious (814840), as the Hildesheim catalogue of the bishops names two bishops before Ebo (q.v.) and the latter received the bishopric shortly before the Synod of Mainz in 847, in which he took part as bishop of Hildesheim. The most prominent among the Hildesheim bishops were Altfrid, founder of the cathedral of Hildesheim, Bernward, and Godehard. The most important monastery in the diocese was Gandersheim, founded 852 at Brunshausen and removed to Gandersheim in 856. (A. HAUCg.)
The bishops acquired great temporal power under the Hohenstaufen emperors, and had been so much distracted by the consequent cares and struggles that there was great need of reform when it was undertaken by Bishop Magnus of SaxonyLauenburg (1424 52) supported by Nicholas of Cusa (see CUBA, NICHOLAS OF) who had been sent to North Germany for this purpose, and by Jan Busch (q.v.) and the Windesheim congregation, as well as by the Benedictine congregation later called of Bursfelde (q.v.), which originated within the diocese about this time. Worldliness, however, made fresh inroads, and under John IV. of Saxony Lauenburg (1504 27) all was ripe for both political and religious innovations. A large part of the diocese became Protestant and the dukes of Brunswick Liineburg and Brunswick Wolfenbiittei took the power. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) confirmed the existing status and prevented any attempts at restoring Roman Catholicism. In 1803 the remaining territory of the diocese was secularized and annexed as a principality to Prussia; but the Concordat of 1824 between Hanover and Rome established new and much larger boundaries for the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, including a Roman Catholic population of 55,000.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. A. Lantzel, Geschirhte der Dabaeee and Stadt Hildesheim, 2 vols., Hildeshelm, 1857 58; A. Bertram, Die Biechbfe von Hildesheim, ib. 1896; idem, Geschichte des Bisthums Hildesheim, ib. 1899; Rettberg, KD, ii. 465; Hauck, KD, ii. 620.
HILDUIN, fl"d(i"an': Abbot of St. Denis; d. Nov. 22, 840. He came of a noble Frankish family, was a pupil of Alcuin, and became a man of great learning, admired by Rabanus Maurus, Walafried
Hilgenfeld THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 988
Strabo, and the famous Hincmar of Reims, his pu
pil. At the end of 814 or beginning of 815 he
became abbot of St. Denis, though he was not yet
a monk. In 819 or 822 he was made archicapel
lanus to Louis the Pious, and his subsequent career
was of more political than ecclesiastical impor
tance. In 827 an embassy from the Eastern em
peror, Michael Balbus, brought the works of Dio
nysius the Areopagite as a present to Louis the
Pious, who placed them in charge of Hilduin as
abbot of St. Denis, having a special devotion to
the saint, whom he regarded as identical with the
Areopagite, and in 835 charged him to write the life
of St. Denis. This biography is of importance as
taking the same view of the identity the view
which, although all his contemporaries did not share
it, prevailed finally and dominated the Middle Ages.
Involved in the struggle of Louis the Pious with his
sons, he lost his position at court and was impris
oned for a time in the abbey of Corvey. He was
soon pardoned by Louis, and some of his abbeys
were restored to him; but he took no further part
in political conflicts, and devoted himself to the
reformation of St. Denis, probably taking the mo
nastic vows in this period. (Fosst.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are to be found in: MPL, cvi.
109 110; MGH, Epist., v (1898 99), 325 sqq.; Ermol
Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1875); Die khn inische Weissagung fiber die Mark Brandenburg (1875); Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentums (1884); Judentum and Judenchristentum (1886); Hermm pastor grcece integer (1887); Libellus de aleatoribus inter Cypriana scripts conservatus (Freiburg, 1889); Acta apostolorum grace et latine (Berlin, 1899); and Ignatii Antiocheni et Polycarpi Smyrncei epistula, et martyria (1902).
BIHLIOORAPHY: H. Hilgenfeld, Verzeichnie der won Adolf Hilgenfeld verfaeeten Schritten, Leipsic, 1908. HILL, ROWLAND:Popular English preacher; b. at Hawkstone Park (11 m. n.e. of Shrewsbury), Shropshire, Aug. 23, 1744; d. in London Apr. 11, 1833. He was educated at Eton and at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1769), where he came under the influence of the Methodists. For preaching in the open air in and around Cambridge without a license he was opposed by the authorities and frequently assaulted by mobs. Finally, in 1773, after he had been refused ordination by six bishops, he was ordained by the bishop of Bath and Wells to the curacy of Kingston, Somersetshire, but was subsequently denied priest's orders. Having come into an inheritance throughthe deathof his father, Sir Rowland Hill, he built in 1783 Surrey Chapel, London. Here he preached to immense audiences almost up to the time of his death. Attached to the chapel were thirteen Sunday schools, with an enrolment of over 3,000 children. In the summer Hill preached through the country, even visiting Scotland and Ireland, and attracting large crowds wherever he went. He was one of the founders of the Religious Tract Society and an active promoter of the interests of the London Missionary Society and of the British and Foreign Bible Society. He was an early advocate of vaccination, and published a tract on the subject in 1806. His principal work is Village Dialogues (London, 1801; 34th ed., 1839).
BrBwoaRAPHY: W. Jones, Memoir of Rowland Hill, ed. Sherman, London, 1840; E. Sidney, Life of Rev. Rowland Hill, ib. 1845; James Sherman, Memorial of Rowland Hill, ib. 1857; V. J. Charlesworth, Rowland Hill: his Life, Anecdotes and Pudpit Sayings, ib. 1879; E. Broome, Rowland Hill: Preacher and Wit, ib. 1883; DNB, xxvi. 411.
HILLEL: Jewish rabbi in the time of Herod. He was called " the Elder " to distinguish him from other persons of the same name, and was descended from a poor Babylonian family which, as a later Jewish legend relates, traced its pedigree back to David. According to Siphrg on Deut. xxxiv. 7, he was forty years old when he emigrated from his native country to Palestine in order to devote himself in Jerusalem to the study of the law. His poverty compelled him to become a daylaborer. It was said that he used half of his wages to provide the fees for instruction under the most celebrated rabbis of his time. He distinguished himself not only by his zeal for knowledge, but also by his great patience and gentleness both in word and in deed. The " Sayings of the Fathers " and other sources have preserved many a beautiful sentence under the name of Hillel, and many examples of his noble deeds are recorded in the Talmud. But he can not be called a reformer; his
287 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Hilgenfeld
mode of thought was casuistic, and could in no way be compared to that of Jesus. The name of Hillel was little known among Christians until E. Renan in his Vie de Jesus (Paris, 1863) put him almost on a level with Jesus and called him his true teacher. A. Geiger and other rabbis, followed Renan. Delitzsch, however, in his monograph Jesus and Hillel (Erlangen, 1866) has convincingly shown that HilleI was overestimated and the unique importance of Jesus completely ignored by Renan and Jewish writers. The lack of even the most unimportant testimony is against the assumption that Jesus was influenced by Hillel. (H. L. &TRAC%.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: SchWer, GssWchte, ii. 359 383 et passim, Eng. tranal., ll., i. 359 363 et passim; A. Geiger, Dos
Judenthum and seine Gsarhichte, i. 99 107, Brenlau, 1865:
M. Nicolas, Des Doct»nes relipieasea des juifs, part i.,
chap. iii., Paris, 1867; E. Stapler, Les 1d&s relipieuses an
Palestine h l'Evoque de Jbaus Christ, chap. xii.. ib. 1878;
G. Goitein, in Mapasin for die Wissenschaft des Juden
tums, a (1884), 1 16, 49 87; W. Bacher, Die Aqada der
Tannaflan, i. 4 14, Strasburg, 1884; T. Leir, in &vus des
Jtudea fuivea, xx:jd. 202 211; xxziii. 143 144; JE, vi. 897
HELLER: A family of Wilrttemberg poets and theologians.
1. Matth1us Hiller, Orientalist, was born at Stuttgart Feb. 15, 1646; d. at K6nigsbronn (45 m. e. of Stuttgart) Feb. 3, 1725. In 1677 he became assistant preacher in Herrenberg, 1686 preceptor in Bebenhausen, 1692 professor of Hebrew, 1698 of theology in TObingen, 1716 abbot in Konigsbronn. He wrote a Hebrew Latin dictionary, also De arcano kdhib et keri (Tiibingen, 1692), Onomastieum sacrum (1706), and Hierophyticon (Utrecht, 1725).
2. Friedrich Konrad Hiller, councilor of the chancery and hymn writer, was born at Unter6wisheim, near Brilchaal (12 m. n.e. of Carlsruhe), 1662; d. there 1726. He wrote 172 hymns which he edited under the title Denkmnl der Erkenntnis, Liebe and Lob Gottes in neven geistliche» Liedem (Stuttgart, 1711).
3. Philipp Friedrich Hiller, hymn writer, was born at MOMhausen on the Enz (near Vaihingen, 15 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) Jan. 6, 1699; d. at Steinheimon the Albuch (near Heidenheim, 22 m. n.n.e. of Ulm) Apr. 24, 1769. He was educated at Maulbronn and Tiibingen, was private tutor in Nuremberg from 1729 to 1731, became pastor of NeckarGr6ningen in 1732, of Miihihausen on the Enz in 1'736, and of Steinheim in 1748. In 1751 he almost completely lost his voice; and, being thus excluded from the pulpit, he devoted himself to hymn writing. He put all the prayers of Johann Arndt's Paradiesgdrtlein into the form of songs under the title Johann Arndts Paradiesgartlein von neuem angelegt (4 parts, Nuremberg, 1729 31). Besides this work, he wrote more than a thousand hymns and religious songs which he published under the title Geistliches Liederkdstlein (2 parts, Stuttgart, 17621767). He also composed a life of Jesus in Alexandrine verses (2 parts, Heilbronn and Tiibingen, 1752); Kurze and erbduliche Andachten bet der Beicht and dem heiligen Abendmahl (Tiibingen and Stuttgart, 1752); Morgen and Abendandaehten nach dem Gebet des Hewn (Stuttgart, 1785); finally a work in prose, Neues System aller Vorbilder Jesu Christi dureh das gdnze Alte Testament in zwei Teiien
(Stuttgart, 175"8). Hiller has become the favorite spiritual poet of Evangelical Wiirttemberg.
BiBrdoaBAP87: On 1. S. Pfuster, in Hisrophytiuon, Utrecht, 1725. On 2: Denkmal der Erkenntuia, preface, Stuttgart, 1711; E. E. Koch, Gteehidde des Kirchenlieds, v. 59 eqq., Stuttgart, 1889. On 3: O. F. Hamer, Nachrirhten von Liedardichiern des Auosburger Geeanpbucha, pp. 119129, Schwabaoh, 1779; A. Knapp, Atiembergische Chmaktere, pp. 78 142, Stuttgart, 1870; E. E. Koch, ut sup., v. 107 eqq.; ADB, xu. 425 eqq.; Julian, $ymnolocy, pp. 524 525.
Since 1881 he has been professor of systematic the
ology in Hartwiek Seminary. During the Civil
War he was a delegate of the U. S. Christian Com
mission, and in the spring of 1865 organized the
Army Church in the. cavalry department at Nash
ville, Tenn. Theologically he adheres to " the
doctrinal basis of the General Synod of the Evan
gelical Lutheran Church in the United States."
HILLIS, NEWELL DWIGHT: Congregationalist; b. at Magnolia, Ia., Sept. 2, 1858. He was graduated at Lake Forest University (B.A., 1884) and McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago (1887). He then entered the Presbyterian ministry and held pastorates at Peoria, Ill. (1887 90), Evanston, Ill. (1890 94), and Central Church, Chicago, an independent church (1894 99). Since 1899 he has been pastor of Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn. He has written A Mart's Value to Society (New York, 1896); Foretokens of Immortality (1897); Investment of Influence: Study of Social Sympathy and Service (1898); William Bwdrt Gladstone: Scholar, Statesman, Christian (1898); Great Books as Life Teachers: Studies of Character, Reel and Ideal (1899); Right Living as a Fine Art
Study of Channing's Symphony (1899); Influence of Christ in Modern Life (1900); Across the Continent o f the Years (1901); David the Poet and King (1901); Faith and Character (1902); Master of the Science of Right Living (1902); The Quest of Happiness (1902) ; School in the Home: Debt Parents Owe their Children (1902); Building a Working Faith (1903); Success through Self Help (1903); The Quest of John Chapman (1904); and Fortune of the Republic (1906).